Brain metastasis from breast cancer poses a major clinical challenge. Integrins play a role in regulating adhesion, growth, motility, and survival, and have been shown to be critical for metastatic growth in the brain in preclinical models. Cilengitide, an αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor, has previously been studied as an anti-cancer drug in various tumor types. Previous studies have shown additive effects of cilengitide and radiation in lung cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. The ability of cilengitide to enhance the effects of radiation was examined preclinically in the setting of breast cancer to assess its possible efficacy in the setting of brain metastasis from breast cancer.
Our panel of breast cells was composed of four cell lines: T-47D (ER/PR+, Her2-, luminal A), MCF-7 (ER/PR+, Her2-, luminal A), MDA-MB-231 (TNBC, basal B), MDA-MB-468 (TNBC, basal A). The presence of cilengitide targets, β3 and β5 integrin, was first determined. Cell detachment was determined by cell counting, cell proliferation was determined by MTS proliferation assay, and apoptosis was measured by Annexin V staining and flow cytometry. The efficacy of cilengitide treatment alone was analyzed, followed by assessment of combined cilengitide and radiation treatment. Integrin β3 knockdown was performed, followed by cilengitide and radiation treatment to test for incomplete target inhibition by cilengitide, in high β3 expressing cells.
We observed that all cell lines examined expressed both β3 and β5 integrin and that cilengitide was able to induce cell detachment and reduced proliferation in our panel. Annexin V assays revealed that a portion of these effects was due to cilengitide-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with cilengitide and radiation served to further reduce proliferation compared to either treatment alone. Following β3 integrin knockdown, radiosensitization in combination with cilengitide was observed in a previously non-responsive cell line (MDA-MB-231). Clonogenic assays suggested little radiosensitization effects of cilengitide.
Cilengitide appears to enhance radiation response in preclinical models of breast cancer. These data suggest that the combination of radiation therapy and cilengitide may prove to be effective where radiation is utilized for the treatment of gross disease in breast cancer, such as in the setting of brain metastasis.
Cilengitide; Breast cancer; Brain metastasis; Radiation
Composite tissue allografts (CTAs) including partial face transplantation have been achieved clinically. However, risks of complications including tissue ischemia, rejection, and transplant failure are significant. Safe and effective techniques to assess perfusion are needed to decrease complications in composite tissue flaps. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been previously shown to provide a real-time, intraoperative evaluation of perfusion. This study investigates the use of NIR imaging in partial face CTA harvest.
Materials and Methods
Hemifacial CTAs (N = 8) were created using an established porcine model. This included ear cartilage, nerve, lymphoid tissue, muscle, and skin with perfusion by the carotid artery and external jugular vein. Animals were injected systemically with indocyanine green (ICG), and NIR fluorescence images were obtained simultaneously with color video. In addition, the elevated hemifacial flaps were assessed using standard of care, i.e. clinical examination and Doppler.
Flap design was facilitated by NIR imaging with localization of perforators to the hemifacial CTA flap. In particular, an arterial and venous phase could be clearly identified. Perfusion of the flap was assessed by NIR fluorescence intensity following injection of ICG. Sequential clamping of the artery and vein confirmed correlation of perfusion deficits with NIR imaging as well as with clinical examination and Doppler.
Evaluation and assessment of perfusion is important in facial transplantation. The results from our pilot study indicate that NIR imaging has the capability to assess perfusion of partial facial CTAs. This emergent technology shows promise in assessing tissue perfusion in a composite flap.
Near-infrared imaging; face transplantation; composite tissue allotransplantation; microsurgery; free flap
The incidence of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is on the rise, but what is causing that trend has remained a mystery. Mycotoxins are almost entirely ignored health problems, and sometimes actually naively belittled in advanced medical care. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food contaminating mycotoxins worldwide that is carcinogenic, but no studies have evaluated its levels in HCC patients. Therefore, this study was designed to monitor the presence of OTA in the serum of HCC patients and to quantify the strength of the association between OTA and HCC.
We conducted a case control-based study on 61 participants. Thirty-nine were HCC cases identified between 2010 and 2012 and individually matched by age, sex, residence and date of recruitment to 22 healthy controls. Serum OTA and alpha-fetoprotein levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
HPLC analysis of 61 serum samples indicated that the highest incidence of elevated OTA was found in the HCC group and was 5-fold higher than in the control group. The concentration of OTA in the HCC group ranged between 0.129 and 10.93 ng/mL with a mean value±SD of 1.1±0.3 ng/mL, while in the normal group it ranged between 0.005 and 0.50 ng/mL with a mean value±SD of 0.201±0.02 ng/mL. The odds ratio for HCC patients presenting OTA levels above the cut-off of 0.207 (calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve) was 9.78 (95% confidence interval = 2.9095–32.9816, P = 0.0002) with respect to normal controls, suggesting that HCC is 9.8 times as frequent in the exposed group to OTA.
Our results reveal a strong association between the presence of OTA and HCC, which may offer a coherent explanation for much of the descriptive epidemiology of HCC and suggest new avenues for analytical research.
This study was aimed to evaluate protective and therapeutic effects of a specific mixture, containing vitamin C, lysine, proline, epigallocatechin gallate and zinc, as well as alpha-1-antitrypsin protein on lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a) pyrene [B(a)P] in mice.
Materials and Methods:
Swiss albino mice were divided into two main experiments, experiment (1) the mice were injected with 100 mg/kg B(a)P and lasted for 28 weeks, while experiment (2) the mice were injected with 8 doses each of 50 mg/kg B(a)P and lasted for 16 weeks. Each experiment (1 and 2) divided into five groups, group (I) received vehicle, group (II) received the protector mixture, group (III) received the carcinogen B(a)P, group (IV) received the protector together with the carcinogen (simultaneously) and group (V) received the carcinogen then the protector (consecutively).
Total sialic acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, vascular epithelial growth factor, hydroxyproline levels, as well as elastase and gelatinase activities showed significant elevation in group (III) in the two experiments comparing to control group (P < 0.001). These biochemical alterations were associated with histopathological changes. Administration of the protector in group IV and group V causes significant decrease in such parameters with improvement in histopathological alterations with improvement in histopathological alterations when compared with group III in the two experiments (P < 0.001).
The present protector mixture has the ability to suppress neoplastic alteration and restore the biochemical and histopathological parameters towards normal on lung carcinogenesis induced by benzo(a) pyrene in mice. Furthermore, the present mixture have more protective rather than therapeutic action.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin; benzo(a) pyrene; epigallocatechin gallate; lung tumorigenesis; lysine; proline; protector; vitamin C; zinc
In diabetic retinopathy (DR), abnormalities in vascular and neuronal function are closely related to the local production of inflammatory mediators whose potential source is microglia. Adenosine and its receptors have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties that have only recently been studied in DR. Here, we review recent studies that determined the roles of adenosine and its associated proteins, including equilibrative nucleoside transporters, adenosine receptors, and underlying signaling pathways in retinal complications associated with diabetes.
Diabetic retinopathy; Adenosine; Microglia; Cannabinoids; Adenosine receptors
Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.
Iodine deficiency disorders; Salt legislations; Universal Salt Iodization; Sudan
The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate.
A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups.
Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender.
The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Iodine nutrition; Saudi Arabia; Jazan; USI
During diabetes, retinal microglial cells are activated to release inflammatory cytokines that initiate neuronal loss and blood–retinal barrier breakdown seen in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The mechanism by which diabetes activates microglia to release those inflammatory mediators is unclear and was therefore elucidated.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Microglia activation was characterized in streptozocin-injected rats and in isolated microglial cells using immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses.
In 8-week diabetic retina, phospho-extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases were localized in microglia, but not in Mueller cells or astrocytes. At the same time, Amadori-glycated albumin (AGA)-like epitopes were featured in the regions of microglia distribution, implicating a pathogenic effect on microglial activation. To test this, diabetic rats were treated intravitreally with A717, a specific AGA-neutralizing antibody, or murine IgG. Relative to nondiabetic rats, diabetic rats (IgG-treated) manifested 3.9- and 7.9-fold increases in Iba-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNAs, respectively. Treatment of diabetic rats with A717 significantly attenuated overexpression of these mRNAs. Intravitreal injection of AGA per se in normal rats resulted in increases of Iba-1 expression and TNF-α release. Guided by these results, a cultured retinal microglia model was developed to study microglial response after AGA treatment and the mechanistic basis behind this response. The results showed that formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of ERK and P38, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase, are molecular events underpinning retinal microglial TNF-α release during AGA treatment.
These results provide new insights in understanding the pathogenesis of early DR, showing that the accumulated AGA within the diabetic retina elicits the microglial activation and secretion of TNF-α. Thus, intervention trials with agents that neutralize AGA effects may emerge as a new therapeutic approach to modulate early pathologic pathways long before the occurrence of vision loss among patients with diabetes.
Background. Urethral stricture is a frequent cause of lower urinary tract obstruction worldwide. The aim of this study is to present our experience with one-stage urethroplasty. Methods. All males that underwent one-stage urethroplasty between January 2001 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Details of their biodata, clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations, operative treatment, postoperative complications, and other outcome of surgery were extracted and analyzed. Results. Ninety-one patients aged 8–76 years, (mean; 45.6 ± 19.7) with urethral stricture were studied. Postinfective strictures accounted for 58.2% and postprostatectomy strictures for 3.3%. Twenty-six (27.9%) of the strictures were in the posterior urethra of which 18 (59.2%) were posttraumatic. Fifty-seven strictures (61.3%) were in the anterior urethra of which 51 (54.8%) were postinfective. Thirty-nine (42.9%) patients had end to end anastomosis, 29 (31.9%) flap augmentation and 17 (18.7%) tabularized flap substitution, and 6 (6.6%) dorsal onlay grafts (5 with buccal mucosa and 1 with penile skin). There were 18 (19.8%) cases of wound infection, 12 (13.2%) of restricture and 6 (6.6%) cases of urethrocutaneous fistula. Satisfactory urinary stream was found in 77 (84.6%) patients. There was no mortality. Conclusion. Infection is the commonest cause of urethral stricture followed by trauma, and one-stage urethroplasty give excellent results.
Urethral Stricture; Male; Nigeria; Developing Countries
To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.
A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.
The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%).
The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.
cervical; cancer; screening; VIA; Pap smear; colposcopy; sensitivity; specificity; predictive value; primary health care setting
Distal ureteric stricture is a common complication of urinary schistosomiasis which is a disease more prevalent in the tropics and subtropics. The surgical management of this complication is more challenging when it affects more than half of both ureters. We report the case of a 17-year-old Nigerian with a long standing recurrent painless terminal hematuria associated with bilateral colicky loin pains. Ultrasound scan showed bilateral hydro ureters and hydro nephrosis with deranged biochemical renal function. The patient had bilateral tube nephrostomy and antibiotic therapy. Definitive bilateral ureteric substitution was done using Mitrofanoff technique for the right ureter and Yang-Montie technique for the left ureter. The patient′s renal function became normal and he was discharged home without complication. The related literatures were reviewed. Surgical nonurothelial ureteral substitution is necessary for long, extensive, severe bilateral ureteric strictures so as to prevent progressive renal damage and end stage renal failure.
Appendix; intestine; schistosomiasis; stricture; ureter; ureteric substitution
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan.
This was a cross sectional study of 197 women diagnosed with different stages of cervical cancer. Data was obtained from the cancer registry unit at the Radiation and Isotopes Centre in Khartoum for all women diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2007.
There was an association between older age and advanced stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.05). Being of African ethnicity was associated with 76% increased odds (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05), living in a rural area was associated with 13% increased odds (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.78–5.50), and being uninsured was associated with an almost eight-fold increase in odds (OR: 7.7, 95% CI: 3.76–15.38). Marital status and education level were not associated with an advanced stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis.
Women with cervical cancer who are elderly, not covered by health insurance, of African ethnicity, and living in a rural area are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of cervical cancer in Sudan. These women should be targeted for cervical cancer screening and a health education program, and encouraged to have health insurance.
predictors; cervical cancer; diagnosis; advanced; health insurance; Sudan
To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.
A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.
Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8), assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9), parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7), female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1), and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8). All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.
This pilot study showed that women who have uterine cervix laceration, assisted vaginal delivery, female genital mutilation, or episiotomy are at an increased risk of cervical cancer. It also showed that VIA is a feasible and acceptable cervical cancer screening method in a primary health care setting.
cervical cancer; screening; visual inspection; acetic acid; feasibility
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an increasing global health problem that continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The impact of PTB has been measured in terms morbidity and mortality and little attention has been paid to continuing respiratory disability in those who were cured. Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a serious respiratory disability that results from structural lung damage and chronic hypoxia. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of PHT in a cohort of treated PTB patients who presented with shortness of breath.
This is a cross-sectional study that included 14 consecutive patients who were cured of PTB and presented with shortness of breath. Demographic and clinical data were recorded for all patients. PHT was diagnosed using Doppler echocardiography.
Fourteen patients who were treated for PTB and were found to have PHT were studied. All patients were sputum smear negative at the time of the study. The mean age (SD) was 43.1 (13.6) and half of the patients were males. The mean number of years since PTB was diagnosed (SD) was 9.4 (10.9). All patients had abnormal chest x-rays. The commonest radiological abnormality was fibrocavitation which occurred in 50% of patients. Estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) of 51 to 80 mm/Hg was found in 9 patients (64.3%) whereas PASP of 40 to 50 mm/Hg was found in 4 patients (28.6%) and one patient had PASP more than 80 mm/Hg.
Different grades of PHT occurred in this cohort of treated PTB patients on average about 9 years after cure. The findings of this study support implementation of strategies for early detection and prevention of PTB. For those who were cured from PTB, longer periods of disability should be implemented in assessment of disease burden.
tuberculosis; pulmonary hypertension; echocardiography
It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample.
The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis.
Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01).
The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.
Protease activities in allergen sources are thought to be involved in triggering allergic inflammation through the disruption of epithelial barrier or the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Protease allergens may also work as type 2 helper T cell (TH2) adjuvants through the cleavage of cell surface receptors. Here, we report molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a new Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen (CPA9) homologous to serine protease, which is initially found as a high IgE-binding spot on our two-dimensional (2-D) IgE immunoblotting map. The cpa9 cDNA encoded a 757 amino acid polypeptide showing a significant sequence identity with plant subtilisin-like serine protease family members including melon major allergen Cuc m 1. We found that native CPA9 purified from C. japonica pollen showed a high IgE-binding frequency and IgE cross-reactivity with melon extract.
allergen; Japanese cedar pollen; serine protease; subtilisin
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with microglial activation and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory potential that so far untested in animal models of diabetes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the efficacy of genistein for alleviation of diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and also to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved therein by analyzing the effect of genistein on concomitant microglia activation in the diabetic retina and in isolated cells.
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats were used. After diabetes was established for two weeks a single intravitreal injection of genistein or vehicle was performed. Forty-eight hours later, rats were killed, their retinal and vitreal samples were processed for Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT–PCR) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses, respectively. For the in vitro study, isolated microglial cells from retinas of newborn rats were used.
mRNA as well as protein levels for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a robust marker of inflammation, were increased in the retina early in the course of diabetes. Moreover, diabetes resulted in elevation of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1) mRNA, known to be upregulated in activated microglia. These effects of diabetes in retina were all reduced by intervention treatment with genistein. Using an in vitro bioassay, we demonstrated the release of TNF-α from microglia activated by glycated albumin, a risk factor for diabetic disorders. This inflammatory signal involves the activation of tyrosine kinase and its subsequent events, ERK and P38 MAPKs. Genistein represses the release of TNF-α and significantly inhibits ERK and P38 phosphorylation in activated microglial cells by acting as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
These findings show genistein to be effective in dampening diabetes-induced retinal inflammation by interfering with inflammatory signaling (ERK and P38 MAPKs) that occurs in activated microglia. This beneficial effect of genistein may represent a new intervention therapy to modulate early pathological pathways long before the occurrence of vision loss among diabetics.
Thirteen indigenous and exotic Acacia species grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for their host status for Meloidogyne javanica in pot tests both in the growth chamber and under outdoor conditions. In both experiments, 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted individually into 15-cm-diam. plastic pots containing a steam-sterilized mixture of equal parts loam and sandy loam. Seedlings were inoculated with 5,000 M. javanica eggs/plant 30 days later. After 120 days, fresh root weight, disease index (1-9 scale), the number of eggs/pot (Pf), eggs/g fresh root, and a reproductive factor (Rf) were determined. Results of both the growth chamber and the outdoor tests were similar. Species were grouped into host suitability categories according to Rf, and they were also grouped into resistance categories based on the sum of gall index, gall size, and percentage of the root system that was galled. Only A. salicina was a poor host and was resistant to M. javanica. Acacia farnisiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var. najdensis, and A. saligna were excellent hosts and highly susceptible. Both A. nilotica and A. stenophylla were classified as good hosts and highly susceptible, while A. ampliceps, A. ehrenbergiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var negevensis, A. sclerosperma, A. seyal, A. tortilis, and A. tortilis subsp. spirocarpa were also good hosts but were classified as susceptible rather than highly susceptible. This is the first report on the susceptibility of Acacia species to M. javanica in Saudi Arabia, including some new hosts worldwide.
Acacia species; forest trees; host suitability; Meloidogyne javanica; reproduction; resistance; root-knot nematode; screening; susceptibility