PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (33)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
Document Types
1.  Alzheimer-signature MRI biomarker predicts AD dementia in cognitively normal adults 
Neurology  2011;76(16):1395-1402.
Objective:
Since Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology is thought to develop years before dementia, it may be possible to detect subtle AD-related atrophy in preclinical AD. Here we hypothesized that the “disease signature” of AD-related cortical thinning, previously identified in patients with mild AD dementia, would be useful as a biomarker to detect anatomic abnormalities consistent with AD in cognitively normal (CN) adults who develop AD dementia after longitudinal follow-up.
Methods:
We studied 2 independent samples of adults who were CN when scanned. In sample 1, 8 individuals developing AD dementia (CN-AD converters) after an average of 11.1 years were compared to 25 individuals who remained CN (CN-stable). In sample 2, 7 CN-AD converters (average follow-up 7.1 years) were compared to 25 CN-stable individuals.
Results:
AD-signature cortical thinning in CN-AD converters in both samples was remarkably similar, about 0.2 mm (p < 0.05). Despite this small absolute difference, Cohen d effect sizes for these differences were very large (>1). Of the 11 CN individuals with baseline low AD-signature thickness (≥1 SD below cohort mean), 55% developed AD dementia over nearly the next decade, while none of the 9 high AD-signature thickness individuals (≥1 SD above mean) developed dementia. This marker predicted time to diagnosis of dementia (hazard ratio = 3.4, p < 0.0005); 1 SD of thinning increased dementia risk by 3.4.
Conclusions:
By focusing on cortical regions known to be affected in AD dementia, subtle but reliable atrophy is identifiable in asymptomatic individuals nearly a decade before dementia, making this measure a potentially important imaging biomarker of early neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182166e96
PMCID: PMC3087406  PMID: 21490323
2.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background:
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives:
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods:
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results:
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions:
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
GLOSSARY
= Automated Anatomic Labeling;
= Alzheimer disease;
= Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center;
= American version of the National Adult Reading Test;
= analysis of covariance;
= Blessed Dementia Scale;
= cerebral amyloid angiopathy;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes;
= dementia with Lewy bodies;
= distribution volume ratio;
= Cued Selective Reminding Test;
= Free Selective Reminding Test;
= Hoehn and Yahr;
= Massachusetts General Hospital;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= normal control;
= neurofibrillary tangle;
= Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire;
= not significant;
= Parkinson disease;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= Pittsburgh Compound B;
= region of interest;
= Statistical Parametric Mapping;
= UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Research Center;
= United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale;
= Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
3.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
4.  MRI measures of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during prodromal AD 
Neurology  2008;71(11):819-825.
Background
MRI studies have demonstrated differential rates of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus during the prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). The current study was designed to determine whether a broader set of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during the evolution of AD.
Methods
Sixteen regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed on MRI scans obtained at baseline and follow-up in 66 subjects comprising three groups: controls = individuals who were cognitively normal at both baseline and follow-up; nonconverters = subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at both baseline and follow-up; converters had MCI at baseline but had progressed to AD at follow-up.
Results
Annualized percent change was analyzed with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), covaried for age. The MANOVA demonstrated an effect of group (p = 0.004). Post hoc comparisons demonstrated greater rates of atrophy for converters vs nonconverters for six ROIs: hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal pole, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Converters showed differentially greater rates of atrophy than controls in five of the same ROIs (and inferior parietal lobule). Rates of change in clinical status were correlated with the atrophy rates in these regions. Comparisons between controls and nonconverters demonstrated no differences.
Conclusion
These results demonstrate that temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy on MRI during prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD). MRI data correlate with measures of clinical severity and cognitive decline, suggesting the potential of these regions of interest as antemortem markers of prodromal AD.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000320055.57329.34
PMCID: PMC2577003  PMID: 18672473
5.  Triflusal reduces dense-core plaque load, associated axonal alterations and inflammatory changes, and rescues cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease 
Neurobiology of disease  2010;38(3):482-491.
Inflammation has been associated with the two classic lesions in the Alzheimer’s (AD) brain, amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. Recent data suggest that Triflusal, a compound with potent anti-inflammatory effects in the central nervous system in vivo, might delay the conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to a fully established clinical picture of dementia. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Triflusal on brain Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation, axonal curvature and cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model (Tg2576). Triflusal treatment did not alter the total brain Aβ accumulation but significantly reduced dense-cored plaque load and associated glial cell proliferation, proinflammatory cytokine levels and abnormal axonal curvature, and rescued cognitive deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behavioral benefit was found to involve increased expression of c-fos and BDNF, two of the genes regulated by CREB, as part of the signal transduction cascade underlying the molecular basis of long-term potentiation. These results add preclinical evidence of a potentially beneficial effect of Triflusal in AD.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.01.019
PMCID: PMC3707138  PMID: 20149872
Alzheimer’s disease; Transgenic mice; Triflusal; Amyloid; Neuroinflammation; Cytokines; Cognition; CREB; c-fos; BDNF
6.  Activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta mediates β-amyloid induced neuritic damage in Alzheimer's disease☆,☆☆,★ 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;45(1):425-437.
β-Amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer (AD) brains are surrounded by severe dendritic and axonal changes, including local spine loss, axonal swellings and distorted neurite trajectories. Whether and how plaques induce these neuropil abnormalities remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that oligomeric assemblies of Aβ, seen in the periphery of plaques, mediate the neurodegenerative phenotype of AD by triggering activation of the enzyme GSK-3β, which in turn appears to inhibit a transcriptional program mediated by CREB. We detect increased activity of GSK-3β after exposure to oligomeric Aβ in neurons in culture, in the brain of double transgenic APP/tau mice and in AD brains. Activation of GSK-3β, even in the absence of Aβ, is sufficient to produce a phenocopy of Aβ-induced dendritic spine loss in neurons in culture, while pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β prevents spine loss and increases expression of CREB-target genes like BDNF. Of note, in transgenic mice GSK-3β inhibition ameliorated plaque-related neuritic changes and increased CREB-mediated gene expression. Moreover, GSK-3β inhibition robustly decreased the oligomeric Aβ load in the mouse brain. All these findings support the idea that GSK3β is aberrantly activated by the presence of Aβ, and contributes, at least in part, to the neuronal anatomical derangement associated with Aβ plaques in AD brains and to Aβ pathology itself.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.09.002
PMCID: PMC3694284  PMID: 21945540
7.  Plasma Aβ, homocysteine, and cognition 
Neurology  2009;72(3):268-272.
Background:
Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) plays a key role in Alzheimer disease (AD) and is also implicated in cerebral small vessel disease. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for small vessel disease and cognitive impairment and correlates with plasma Aβ levels. To determine whether this association results from a common pathophysiologic mechanism, we investigated whether vitamin supplementation–induced reduction of tHcy influences plasma Aβ levels in the Vitamin Intervention in Stroke Prevention (VISP) study.
Methods:
Two groups of 150 patients treated with either the high-dose or low-dose formulation of pyridoxine, cobalamin, and folic acid in a randomized, double-blind fashion were selected among the participants in the VISP study without recurrent stroke during follow-up and in the highest 10% of the distribution for baseline tHcy levels. Concentrations of plasma Aβ with 40 (Aβ40) and 42 (Aβ42) amino acids were measured at baseline and at the 2-year visit.
Results:
tHcy levels significantly decreased with vitamin supplementation in both groups. tHcy were strongly correlated with Aβ40 but not Aβ42 concentrations. There was no difference in the change in Aβ40, Aβ42 (p = 0.40, p = 0.35), or the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio over time (p = 0.86) between treatment groups. Aβ measures were not associated with cognitive change.
Conclusions:
This double-blind randomized controlled trial of vitamin therapy demonstrates a strong correlation between serum tHcy and plasma Aβ40 concentrations in subjects with ischemic stroke. Treatment with high dose vitamins does not, however, influence plasma levels of Aβ, despite their effect on lowering tHcy. Our results suggest that although tHcy is associated with plasma Aβ40, they may be regulated by independent mechanisms.
GLOSSARY
= amyloid-beta;
= Alzheimer disease;
= body mass index;
= diastolic blood pressure;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= modified Rankin Scale;
= NIH Stroke Scale;
= systolic blood pressure;
= total homocysteine;
= Vitamin Intervention in Stroke Prevention study.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000339486.63862.db
PMCID: PMC2677526  PMID: 19153374
8.  Serum cystatin C and the risk of Alzheimer disease in elderly men 
Neurology  2008;71(14):1072-1079.
Background:
Multiple lines of research suggest that increased cystatin C activity in the brain protects against the development of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Methods:
Serum cystatin C levels were analyzed at two examinations of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a longitudinal, community-based study of elderly men (age 70 years, n = 1,153 and age 77 years, n = 761, a subset of the age 70 examination). Cox regressions were used to examine associations between serum cystatin C and incident AD. AD cases were identified by cognitive screening and comprehensive medical chart review in all subjects.
Results:
On follow-up (median 11.3 years), 82 subjects developed AD. At age 70 years, lower cystatin C was associated with higher risk of AD independently of age, APOE4 genotype, glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, education level, and plasma amyloid-β protein 40 and 42 levels (hazard ratio [HR] for lowest [<1.12 μmol/L] vs highest [>1.30 μmol/L] tertile = 2.67, 95% CI 1.22–5.83, p < 0.02). The results were similar at age 77 years (43 participants developed AD during follow-up). Furthermore, a 0.1-μmol/L decrease of cystatin C between ages 70 and 77 years was associated with a 29% higher risk of incident AD (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03–1.63, p < 0.03).
Conclusions:
Low levels of serum cystatin C precede clinically manifest Alzheimer disease (AD) in elderly men free of dementia at baseline and may be a marker of future risk of AD. These findings strengthen the evidence for a role for cystatin C in the development of clinical AD.
GLOSSARY
= amyloid-β protein 40;
= amyloid-β protein 42;
= Alzheimer disease;
= body mass index;
= glomerular filtration rate;
= hazard ratio;
= International Classification of Diseases;
= Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326894.40353.93
PMCID: PMC2676985  PMID: 18824671
9.  MRI measures of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during prodromal AD 
Neurology  2008;71(11):819-825.
Background:
MRI studies have demonstrated differential rates of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus during the prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). The current study was designed to determine whether a broader set of temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy during the evolution of AD.
Methods:
Sixteen regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed on MRI scans obtained at baseline and follow-up in 66 subjects comprising three groups: controls = individuals who were cognitively normal at both baseline and follow-up; nonconverters = subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at both baseline and follow-up; converters had MCI at baseline but had progressed to AD at follow-up.
Results:
Annualized percent change was analyzed with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), covaried for age. The MANOVA demonstrated an effect of group (p = 0.004). Post hoc comparisons demonstrated greater rates of atrophy for converters vs nonconverters for six ROIs: hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal pole, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Converters showed differentially greater rates of atrophy than controls in five of the same ROIs (and inferior parietal lobule). Rates of change in clinical status were correlated with the atrophy rates in these regions. Comparisons between controls and nonconverters demonstrated no differences.
Conclusion:
These results demonstrate that temporoparietal regions show differential rates of atrophy on MRI during prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD). MRI data correlate with measures of clinical severity and cognitive decline, suggesting the potential of these regions of interest as antemortem markers of prodromal AD.
GLOSSARY
= Alzheimer disease;
= annualized percent change;
= Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes;
= California Verbal Learning Test;
= multivariate analysis of variance;
= mild cognitive impairment;
= region of interest;
= Selective Reminding Test.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000320055.57329.34
PMCID: PMC2577003  PMID: 18672473
10.  Competing risks of death in younger and older postmenopausal breast cancer patients 
World Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;5(5):1088-1096.
AIM: To show a new paradigm of simultaneously testing whether breast cancer therapies impact other causes of death.
METHODS: MA.14 allocated 667 postmenopausal women to 5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/daily ± 2 years of octreotide 90 mg, given by depot intramuscular injections monthly. Event-free survival was the primary endpoint of MA.14; at median 7.9 years, the tamoxifen+octreotide and tamoxifen arms had similar event-free survival (P = 0.62). Overall survival was a secondary endpoint, and the two trial arms also had similar overall survival (P = 0.86). We used the median 9.8 years follow-up to examine by intention-to-treat, the multivariate time-to-breast cancer-specific (BrCa) and other cause (OC) mortality with log-normal survival analysis adjusted by treatment and stratification factors. We tested whether baseline factors including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein-3, C-peptide, body mass index, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were associated with (1) all cause mortality, and if so and (2) cause-specific mortality. We also fit step-wise forward cause-specific adjusted models.
RESULTS: The analyses were performed on 329 patients allocated tamoxifen and 329 allocated tamoxifen+octreotide. The median age of MA.14 patients was 60.1 years: 447 (82%) < 70 years and 120 (18%) ≥ 70 years. There were 170 deaths: 106 (62.3%) BrCa; 55 (32.4%) OC, of which 24 were other malignancies, 31 other causes of death; 9 (5.3%) patients with unknown cause of death were excluded from competing risk assessments. BrCa and OC deaths were not significantly different by treatment arm (P = 0.40): tamoxifen patients experienced 50 BrCa and 32 OC deaths, while tamoxifen + octreotide patients experienced 56 BrCa and 23 OC deaths. Proportionately more deaths (P = 0.004) were from BrCa for patients < 70 years, where 70% of deaths were due to BrCa, compared to 54% for those ≥ 70 years of age. The proportion of deaths from OC increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.02). Higher pathologic T and N were associated with more BrCa deaths (P < 0.0001 and 0.002, respectively). The cumulative hazard plot for BrCa and OC mortality indicated the concurrent accrual of both types of death throughout follow-up, that is the existence of competing risks of mortality. MA.14 therapy did not impact mortality (P = 0.77). Three baseline patient and tumor characteristics were differentially associated with cause of death: older patients experienced more OC (P = 0.01) mortality; patients with T1 tumors and hormone receptor positive tumors had less BrCa mortality (respectively, P = 0.01, P = 0.06). Additionally, step-wise cause-specific models indicated that patients with node negative disease experienced less BrCa mortality (P = 0.002); there was weak evidence that, lower C-peptide (P = 0.08) was associated with less BrCa mortality, while higher BMI (P = 0.01) was associated with worse OC mortality.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate here a new paradigm of simultaneous testing of therapeutics directed at multiple diseases for which postmenopausal women are concurrently at risk. Octreotide LAR did not significantly impact breast cancer or other cause mortality, although different baseline factors influenced type of death.
doi:10.5306/wjco.v5.i5.1088
PMCID: PMC4259936  PMID: 25493245
Breast cancer; Postmenopausal; Hormone receptor positive; Competing risks; Tamoxifen; Octreotide LAR
11.  Preoperative Breast MRI and Surgical Outcomes in Elderly Women with Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma: a Population Based Study 
Background
Existing evidence suggests that preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might not improve surgical outcomes in the general breast cancer population. To determine if patients differentially benefit from breast MRI, we examined surgical outcomes—initial mastectomy, reoperation, and final mastectomy rates—among patients grouped by histologic type.
Methods
We identified women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer from 2004-2007 in the SEER-Medicare dataset. We classified patients as having invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), mixed ductal/lobular carcinoma (IDLC) or other histologic type. Medicare claims were used to identify breast MRI and definitive surgeries during the initial surgical treatment episode. We used propensity score methods to account for the differential likelihood of exposure to MRI.
Results
Of the 20,333 patients who met our inclusion criteria for this study, 12.2% had a preoperative breast MRI. Patients with ILC as compared to other histologic groups were most likely to receive MRI (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: [2.02, 2.67]). In the propensity score adjusted analyses, breast MRI was associated with an increased likelihood of an initial mastectomy for all patients and among all histologic subgroups. Among patients with ILC, having a breast MRI was associated with lower odds of a reoperation (OR: 0.59; 95% CI [0.40, 0.86]), and an equal likelihood of a final mastectomy compared to similar patients without a breast MRI. Overall and among patients with IDC and IDLC, breast MRI was not significantly associated with a likelihood of a reoperation but was associated with greater odds of a final mastectomy.
Conclusion
Our study provides evidence in support of the targeted use of preoperative breast MRI among patients with ILC to improve surgical planning; it does not provide evidence for the routine use of breast MRI among all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients or among patients with IDC.
doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2787-4
PMCID: PMC4093828  PMID: 24305978
Magnetic resonance imaging; Surgery, Outcomes; Invasive lobular carcinoma; SEER-Medicare; Preoperative care
12.  Lumpectomy Plus Tamoxifen With or Without Irradiation in Women Age 70 Years or Older With Early Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up of CALGB 9343 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(19):2382-2387.
Purpose
To determine whether there is a benefit to adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen in women age ≥ 70 years with early-stage breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
Between July 1994 and February 1999, 636 women (age ≥ 70 years) who had clinical stage I (T1N0M0 according to TNM classification) estrogen receptor (ER) –positive breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen plus radiation therapy (TamRT; 317 women) or tamoxifen alone (Tam; 319 women). Primary end points were time to local or regional recurrence, frequency of mastectomy, breast cancer–specific survival, time to distant metastasis, and overall survival (OS).
Results
Median follow-up for treated patients is now 12.6 years. At 10 years, 98% of patients receiving TamRT (95% CI, 96% to 99%) compared with 90% of those receiving Tam (95% CI, 85% to 93%) were free from local and regional recurrences. There were no significant differences in time to mastectomy, time to distant metastasis, breast cancer–specific survival, or OS between the two groups. Ten-year OS was 67% (95% CI, 62% to 72%) and 66% (95% CI, 61% to 71%) in the TamRT and Tam groups, respectively.
Conclusion
With long-term follow-up, the previously observed small improvement in locoregional recurrence with the addition of radiation therapy remains. However, this does not translate into an advantage in OS, distant disease-free survival, or breast preservation. Depending on the value placed on local recurrence, Tam remains a reasonable option for women age ≥ 70 years with ER-positive early-stage breast cancer.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.45.2615
PMCID: PMC3691356  PMID: 23690420
13.  Cognitive function in older women with breast cancer treated with standard chemotherapy and capecitabine on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 49907 
Cognitive changes in older women receiving chemotherapy are poorly understood. We examined self-reported cognitive function for older women who received adjuvant chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 49907. CALGB 49907 randomized 633 women aged ≥65 with stage I–III breast cancer to standard adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluoro-uracil or doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) versus capecitabine. We examined self-reported cognitive function in 297 women (CALGB 361002) who enrolled on the quality of life substudy and had no gross impairment on cognitive screening. Women were evaluated using an 18-item instrument at six time points (baseline through 24 months). At each time point for each patient, we calculated a cognitive function score (CFS) defined as the mean response of items 1–18 and defined impairment as a score >1.5 standard deviations above the overall average baseline score. Differences in scores by patient characteristics were evaluated using a Kruskal–Wallis test. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess CFSs by treatment over time. Among 297 women, the median age was 71.5 (range 65–85) and 73 % had performance status of 0. Baseline depression and fatigue were reported in 6 and 14 % of patients, respectively. The average CFS at baseline was 2.08 (corresponding to “normal ability”), and baseline cognitive function did not differ by treatment regimen (p = 0.350). Over 24 months, women reported minimal changes at each time point and insignificant differences by treatment arm were observed. In a healthy group of older women, chemotherapy was not associated with longitudinal changes in self-reported cognitive function.
doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2562-6
PMCID: PMC3920483  PMID: 23681403
Cognitive function; Older women; Breast cancer; Age
14.  A planned, prospective comparison of short-term quality of life outcomes among older breast cancer patients treated with standard chemotherapy in a randomized clinical trial vs. an observational study: CALGB #49907 and #369901✰ 
Journal of geriatric oncology  2013;4(4):353-361.
Objectives
Patients ≥65 years old (“older”) are often not included in randomized clinical trials (RCT), but when they are, care in an RCT might improve quality of life (QoL). We conducted a prospective comparison of QoL among older women receiving standard chemotherapy from the same cooperative group physicians in an RCT vs. an observational study (“off-trial”).
Methods
Older women with invasive, non-metastatic breast cancer (n = 150 RCT; 530 off-trial) were included. Linear mixed-effects models tested associations between chemotherapy on- vs. off-trial and changes in EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire) QoL scores over 24 months, controlling for pre-treatment QoL, age, education, tumor factors, comorbidity, and other covariates.
Results
Anthracycline regimens were used by 58% of women treated on-trial vs. 54% of those treated off-trial. Women in the RCT reported an adjusted mean increase of 13.7 points (95% CI 10.2, 17.1) in global QoL at 24 months (vs. mid-treatment), while women treated off-trial had only an adjusted improvement of 7.0 points (95% CI 3.5, 10.4; p = .007 for difference in mean changes). Women in the RCT had significantly greater improvement in emotional function than those treated off-trial, controlling for baseline; they also had greater reductions in therapy side effects and fatigue at 24 months than women off-trial, controlling for covariates.
Conclusion
There may be different QoL trajectories for older women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy on- vs. off-trial. If confirmed, the results suggest that the extra monitoring and communication within an RCT could provide the infrastructure for interventions to address symptoms and improve QoL for the growing older cancer population.
doi:10.1016/j.jgo.2013.05.004
PMCID: PMC3910230  PMID: 24472479
Older patients; Breast cancer; Chemotherapy; Quality of Life; Randomized clinical trials; Observational studies
15.  Detection of promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in serum DNA of breast cancer cases and benign breast disease controls 
Epigenetics  2012;7(11):1258-1267.
Tumors are capable of shedding DNA into the blood stream. This shed DNA may be recovered from serum or plasma. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pyrosequencing promoter DNA in a panel of 12 breast cancer-related genes (APC, BRCA1, CCND2, CDH1, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN1, P16, RARβ, RASSF1, SFRP1 and TWIST) to measure the degree of methylation would lead to a useful serum-based marker of breast cancer. Serum was obtained from women who were about to undergo a breast biopsy or mastectomy at three hospitals from 1977 to 1987 in Grand Rapids, MI USA. We compared the methylation status of 12 genes in serum DNA obtained from three groups of postmenopausal women (mean age at blood collection: 63.0 y; SD 9.9; range 35–91): breast cancer cases with lymph node-positive disease (n = 241); breast cancer cases with lymph node-negative disease (n = 63); and benign breast disease control subjects (n = 234). Overall, median levels of promoter methylation were low, typically below 5%, for all genes in all study groups. For all genes, median levels of methylation were higher (by 3.3 to 47.6%) in lymph node-positive breast cancer cases than in the controls. Comparing mean methylation level between lymph-node positive cases and controls, the most statistically significant findings, after adjustment of the false-positive rate (q-value), were for TWIST (p = 0.04), SFRP1 (p = 0.16), ESR1 (p = 0.17), P16 (p = 0.19) and APC (p = 0.19). For two of these four genes (TWIST, P16), the median methylation level was also highest in lymph-node positive cases, intermediate in lymph node-negative cases and lowest in the controls. The percent of study subjects with mean methylation scores ≥ 5% was higher among lymph node-positive cases than controls for ten genes, and significantly higher for HIN1 and TWIST (22.0 vs. 12.2%, p = 0.04 and 37.9 vs. 24.5%, p = 0.004, respectively). Despite relatively consistent variation in methylation patterns among groups, these modest differences did not provide sufficient ability to distinguish between cases and controls in a clinical setting.
doi:10.4161/epi.22220
PMCID: PMC3499327  PMID: 22986510
serum DNA; breast cancer; promoter methylation; early marker; pyrosequencing
16.  Accuracy and Outcomes of Screening Mammography in Women With a Personal History of Early-Stage Breast Cancer 
Context
Women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC) are at risk of developing another breast cancer and are recommended for screening mammography. Few high-quality data exist on screening performance in PHBC women.
Objective
To examine the accuracy and outcomes of mammography screening in PHBC women relative to screening of similar women without PHBC.
Design and Setting
Cohort of PHBC women, mammogram matched to non-PHBC women, screened through facilities (1996–2007) affiliated with the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium.
Participants
There were 58 870 screening mammograms in 19 078 women with a history of early-stage (in situ or stage I-II invasive) breast cancer and 58 870 matched (breast density, age group, mammography year, and registry) screening mammograms in 55 315 non-PHBC women.
Main Outcome Measures
Mammography accuracy based on final assessment, cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, and stage at diagnosis.
Results
Within 1 year after screening, 655 cancers were observed in PHBC women (499 invasive, 156 in situ) and 342 cancers (285 invasive, 57 in situ) in non-PHBC women. Screening accuracy and outcomes in PHBC relative to non-PHBC women were cancer rates of 10.5 per 1000 screens (95%CI, 9.7–11.3) vs 5.8 per 1000 screens (95%CI, 5.2–6.4), cancer detection rate of 6.8 per 1000 screens (95%CI, 6.2–7.5) vs 4.4 per 1000 screens (95% CI, 3.9–5.0), interval cancer rate of 3.6 per 1000 screens (95%CI, 3.2–4.1) vs 1.4 per 1000 screens (95% CI, 1.1–1.7), sensitivity 65.4% (95% CI, 61.5%–69.0%) vs 76.5% (95% CI, 71.7%–80.7%), specificity 98.3% (95% CI, 98.2%–98.4%) vs 99.0% (95% CI, 98.9%–99.1%), abnormal mammogram results in 2.3% (95% CI, 2.2%–2.5%) vs 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3%–1.5%) (all comparisons P <.001). Screening sensitivity in PHBC women was higher for detection of in situ cancer (78.7%;95% CI, 71.4%–84.5%) than invasive cancer (61.1%; 95% CI, 56.6%–65.4%), P<.001; lower in the initial 5 years (60.2%; 95% CI, 54.7%–65.5%) than after 5 years from first cancer (70.8%;95% CI, 65.4%–75.6%), P =.006; and was similar for detection of ipsilateral cancer (66.3%; 95% CI, 60.3%–71.8%) and contralateral cancer (66.1%; 95% CI, 60.9%–70.9%), P=.96. Screen-detected and interval cancers in women with and without PHBC were predominantly early stage.
Conclusion
Mammography screening in PHBC women detects early-stage second breast cancers but has lower sensitivity and higher interval cancer rate, despite more evaluation and higher underlying cancer rate, relative to that in non-PHBC women.
doi:10.1001/jama.2011.188
PMCID: PMC3799940  PMID: 21343578
17.  Prediction of Late Disease Recurrence and Extended Adjuvant Letrozole Benefit by the HOXB13/IL17BR Biomarker 
Background
Biomarkers to optimize extended adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer are limited. The HOXB13/IL17BR (H/I) biomarker predicts recurrence risk in ER-positive, lymph node–negative breast cancer patients. H/I was evaluated in MA.17 trial for prognostic performance for late recurrence and treatment benefit from extended adjuvant letrozole.
Methods
A prospective–retrospective, nested case-control design of 83 recurrences matched to 166 nonrecurrences from letrozole- and placebo-treated patients within MA.17 was conducted. Expression of H/I within primary tumors was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with a prespecified cutpoint. The predictive ability of H/I for ascertaining benefit from letrozole was determined using multivariable conditional logistic regression including standard clinicopathological factors as covariates. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
High H/I was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in late recurrence in patients receiving extended letrozole therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.75; P = .007). In an adjusted model with standard clinicopathological factors, high H/I remained statistically significantly associated with patient benefit from letrozole (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.73; P = .006). Reduction in the absolute risk of recurrence at 5 years was 16.5% for patients with high H/I (P = .007). The interaction between H/I and letrozole treatment was statistically significant (P = .03).
Conclusions
In the absence of extended letrozole therapy, high H/I identifies a subgroup of ER-positive patients disease-free after 5 years of tamoxifen who are at risk for late recurrence. When extended endocrine therapy with letrozole is prescribed, high H/I predicts benefit from therapy and a decreased probability of late disease recurrence.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt146
PMCID: PMC3888138  PMID: 23812955
18.  Cardiopulmonary Function and Age-Related Decline Across the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2012;30(20):2530-2537.
Purpose
To evaluate cardiopulmonary function (as measured by peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) across the breast cancer continuum and its prognostic significance in women with metastatic disease.
Patients and Methods
Patients with breast cancer representing four cross-sectional cohorts—that is, (1) before, (2) during, and (3) after adjuvant therapy for nonmetastatic disease, and (4) during therapy in metastatic disease—were studied. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with expired gas analysis was used to assess VO2peak. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of death according to VO2peak category (< 15.4 v ≥ 15.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1) with adjustment for clinical factors.
Results
A total of 248 women (age, 55 ± 8 years) completed a CPET. Mean VO2peak was 17.8 ± a standard deviation of 4.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1, the equivalent of 27% ± 17% below age-matched healthy sedentary women. For the entire cohort, 32% had a VO2peak less than 15.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1—the VO2peak required for functional independence. VO2peak was significantly different across breast cancer cohorts for relative (mL · kg−1 · min−1) and absolute (L · min−1) VO2peak (P = .017 and P < .001, respectively); VO2peak was lowest in women with metastatic disease. In patients with metastatic disease (n = 52), compared with patients achieving a VO2peak ≤ 1.09 L · min−1, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.67, P = .002) for a VO2peak more than 1.09 L · min−1.
Conclusion
Patients with breast cancer have marked impairment in VO2peak across the entire survivorship continuum. VO2peak may be an independent predictor of survival in metastatic disease.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.39.9014
PMCID: PMC3397786  PMID: 22614980
19.  Biological, Clinical, and Psychosocial Correlates at the Interface of Cancer and Aging Research 
In September 2010, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging, conducted the first of three planned conferences to discuss research methodology to generate the highest quality research in older adults with cancer and then disseminate these findings among those working in the fields of cancer and aging. Conference speakers discussed the current level of research evidence in geriatric oncology, outlined the current knowledge gaps, and put forth principles for research designs and strategies that would address these gaps within the next 10 years. It was agreed that future oncology research trials that enroll older adults should include: 1) improved standardized geriatric assessment of older oncology patients, 2) substantially enhanced biological assessment of older oncology patients, 3) specific trials for the most vulnerable and/or those older than 75 years, and 4) research infrastructure that specifically targets older adults and substantially strengthened geriatrics and oncology research collaborations. This initial conference laid the foundation for the next two meetings, which will address the research designs and collaborations needed to enhance therapeutic and intervention trials in older adults with cancer.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djs145
PMCID: PMC3328422  PMID: 22457474
20.  Symptom Management in Metastatic Breast Cancer 
The Oncologist  2011;16(9):1203-1214.
The most common symptoms in patients with breast cancer metastases are identified and an overview of their management is provided.
Approximately 40,000 women die as a result of breast cancer each year and many more live with advanced disease. When breast cancer recurs, the goals of treatment often shift from one of cure to controlling the disease for as long as possible while palliating symptoms interfering with the patient's functional status and quality of life. This requires ongoing discussions with the patient and family about the goals of care. Many symptoms depend on the site of metastasis, with bone being the most frequent, and commonly occur with fatigue, depression, insomnia, and pain. The purpose of this paper is to identify and provide an overview of the management of the most common symptoms in patients with breast cancer metastases.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0159
PMCID: PMC3228166  PMID: 21880861
Metastatic breast cancer; Symptom management; Palliative care; Treatment
21.  Implementing a Geriatric Assessment in Cooperative Group Clinical Cancer Trials: CALGB 360401 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(10):1290-1296.
Purpose
Factors captured in a geriatric assessment can predict morbidity and mortality in older adults, but are not routinely measured in cancer clinical trials. This study evaluated the implementation of a geriatric assessment tool in the cooperative group setting.
Patients and Methods
Patients age ≥ 65 with cancer, who enrolled on cooperative group cancer trials, were eligible to enroll on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 360401. They completed a geriatric assessment tool before initiation of protocol therapy, consisting of valid and reliable geriatric assessment measures which are primarily self-administered and require minimal resources and time by healthcare providers. The assessment measures functional status, comorbidity, cognitive function, psychological state, social support, and nutritional status. The protocol specified criteria for incorporation of the tool in future cooperative group trials was based on the time to completion and percent of patients who could complete their portion without assistance. Patient satisfaction with the tool was captured.
Results
Of the 93 patients who enrolled in this study, five (5%) met criteria for cognitive impairment and three did not complete the cognitive screen, leaving 85 assessable patients (median age, 72 years). The median time to complete the geriatric assessment tool was 22 minutes, 87% of patients (n = 74) completed their portion without assistance, 92% (n = 78) were satisfied with the questionnaire length, 95% (n = 81) reported no difficult questions, and 96% (n = 82) reported no upsetting questions. One hundred percent of health care professionals completed their portion.
Conclusion
This brief, primarily self-administered geriatric assessment tool met the protocol specified criteria for inclusion in future cooperative group clinical trials.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.30.6985
PMCID: PMC3083997  PMID: 21357782
22.  Quality of Life of Older Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Companion Study to Cancer and Leukemia Group B 49907 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(8):1022-1028.
Purpose
A phase III trial (Cancer and Leukemia Group B CALGB-49907) was conducted to test whether older patients with early-stage breast cancer would have equivalent relapse-free and overall survival with capecitabine compared with standard chemotherapy. The quality of life (QoL) substudy tested whether capecitabine treatment would be associated with a better QoL than standard chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
QoL was assessed in 350 patients randomly assigned to either standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil [CMF] or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide [AC]; n = 182) or capecitabine (n = 168). Patients were interviewed by telephone before treatment (baseline), midtreatment, within 1 month post-treatment, and at 12, 18, and 24 months postbaseline by using questionnaires from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), a breast systemic adverse effects scale (EORTC BR23), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Results
Compared with patients who were treated with standard chemotherapy, patients who were treated with capecitabine had significantly better QoL, role function, and social function, fewer systemic adverse effects, less psychological distress, and less fatigue during and at the completion of treatment (P ≤ .005). Capecitabine treatment was associated with less nausea, vomiting, and constipation and with better appetite than standard treatment (P ≤ .004), but worse hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea (P < .005). These differences all resolved by 12 months.
Conclusion
Standard chemotherapy was superior to capecitabine in improving relapse-free and overall survival for older women with early-stage breast cancer. Although capecitabine was associated with better QoL during treatment, QoL was similar for both groups at 1 year. The brief period of poorer QoL with standard treatment is a modest price to pay for a chance at improved survival.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.29.9859
PMCID: PMC3068052  PMID: 21300923
23.  A Randomized Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Tamoxifen Timing in Postmenopausal, Endocrine-Responsive, Node-Positive Breast Cancer 
Lancet  2009;374(9707):2055-2063.
Background
Tamoxifen is standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The benefit of adding chemotherapy and optimal timing of tamoxifen with chemotherapy are unknown.
Methods
We conducted a parallel randomized phase III trial in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, node-positive breast cancer to test whether disease-free survival (DFS) with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (AdriamycinR), and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) plus 5 years of tamoxifen was longer than with tamoxifen alone; and whether DFS with CAF followed by tamoxifen (CAF-T) was better than CAF plus concurrent tamoxifen (CAFT). Overall survival and toxicity were predefined, important secondary outcomes. Randomization was a 2:3:3 (T:CAF-T:CAFT) unblinded allocation and analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00929591.
Findings
Of 1558 women randomized, 1477 (95%) were eligible (tamoxifen, 361; CAF-T, 566; CAFT, 550). The combined CAF groups were superior to tamoxifen for the primary outcome of DFS (P=0.002), with adjusted Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) =0.76 (95% CI 0.64,0.91). CAF-T was marginally better than CAFT for DFS (P=0.055) with adjusted HR 0.84 (0.70,1.01). Ten-year DFS for CAF-T, CAFT, and T were 60%, 53%, and 48%, respectively. The planned secondary outcome, overall survival, showed a similar pattern of results, with combined CAF groups seem superior to tamoxifen [p=0.043, adjusted HR 0.83 (0.68,1.01)]. Neutropenia, stomatitis, thromboembolism, congestive heart failure and leukemia were more frequent with CAF than tamoxifen alone.
Interpretation
Chemotherapy with CAF plus tamoxifen resulted in longer survival over tamoxifen in endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer, with greater benefit when tamoxifen followed CAF.
Funding
National Cancer Institute (NIH-USA).
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61523-3
PMCID: PMC3140679  PMID: 20004966
24.  Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Older Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;360(20):2055-2065.
BACKGROUND
Older women with breast cancer are underrepresented in clinical trials, and data on the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients are scant. We tested for the noninferiority of capecitabine as compared with standard chemotherapy in women with breast cancer who were 65 years of age or older.
METHODS
We randomly assigned patients with stage I, II, IIIA, or IIIB breast cancer to standard chemotherapy (either cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin) or capecitabine. Endocrine therapy was recommended after chemotherapy in patients with hormone-receptor–positive tumors. A Bayesian statistical design was used with a range in sample size from 600 to 1800 patients. The primary end point was relapse-free survival.
RESULTS
When the 600th patient was enrolled, the probability that, with longer follow-up, capecitabine therapy was highly likely to be inferior to standard chemotherapy met a prescribed level, and enrollment was discontinued. After an additional year of follow-up, the hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death in the capecitabine group was 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 3.17; P<0.001). Patients who were randomly assigned to capecitabine were twice as likely to have a relapse and almost twice as likely to die as patients who were randomly assigned to standard chemotherapy (P = 0.02). At 3 years, the rate of relapse-free survival was 68% in the capecitabine group versus 85% in the standard-chemotherapy group, and the overall survival rate was 86% versus 91%. Two patients in the capecitabine group died of treatment-related complications; as compared with patients receiving capecitabine, twice as many patients receiving standard chemotherapy had moderate-to-severe toxic effects (64% vs. 33%).
CONCLUSIONS
Standard adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to capecitabine in patients with early-stage breast cancer who are 65 years of age or older. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00024102.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0810266
PMCID: PMC3082436  PMID: 19439741
25.  Competing Causes of Death From a Randomized Trial of Extended Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer 
Background
Older women with early-stage breast cancer experience higher rates of non—breast cancer-related death. We examined factors associated with cause-specific death in a large cohort of breast cancer patients treated with extended adjuvant endocrine therapy.
Methods
In the MA.17 trial, conducted by the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, 5170 breast cancer patients (median age = 62 years; range = 32–94 years) who were disease free after approximately 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment were randomly assigned to treatment with letrozole (2583 women) or placebo (2587 women). The median follow-up was 3.9 years (range = 0–7 years). We investigated the association of 11 baseline factors with the competing risks of death from breast cancer, other malignancies, and other causes. All statistical tests were two-sided likelihood ratio criterion tests.
Results
During follow-up, 256 deaths were reported (102 from breast cancer, 50 from other malignancies, 100 from other causes, and four from an unknown cause). Non—breast cancer deaths accounted for 60% of the 252 known deaths (72% for those ≥70 years and 48% for those <70 years). Two baseline factors were differentially associated with type of death: cardiovascular disease was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of death from other causes (P = .002), and osteoporosis was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of death from other malignancies (P = .05). An increased risk of breast cancer—specific death was associated with lymph node involvement (P < .001). Increased risk of death from all three causes was associated with older age (P < .001).
Conclusions
Non—breast cancer-related deaths were more common than breast cancer—specific deaths in this cohort of 5-year breast cancer survivors, especially among older women.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djn014
PMCID: PMC2745611  PMID: 18270335

Results 1-25 (33)