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1.  Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band: How to Reduce the Early Morbidity 
Background:
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band insertion is a safe weight reduction procedure, but serious complications can develop. The aim of this study was to evaluate our technique in preventing early band complications.
Methods:
Patients were given the choice of procedure according to body mass index, the presence of diabetes, and preference. Weight loss data were not considered, as our aim was to evaluate the morbidity of band surgery using a specific technique. A pars flaccida approach and plication technique were used for all patients. Postoperative follow-up was provided at 1 month, 2 months, and every 3 months for the first year and then yearly for a further 2 years. Thereafter, general practitioners referred patients if late complications arose.
Results:
From January 2007 to August 2011, 1149 patients (245 men [21.32%], 904 women [78.67%]) underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric band insertion under the care of a single bariatric surgeon. Patients were hospitalized for 1 night only unless they developed early complications. The primary and secondary outcomes were major and minor band complications, respectively. Patients' age range was 18 to 64 years (mean, 44 years). Body mass index ranged from 33 to 62 kg/m2 (mean, 42 kg/m2). There were 2 band erosions (0.17%), 6 cases of band prolapse (0.52%), 4 port problems (0.34%), 1 band leak (0.08%), 3 tight bands (0.26%), 2 port infections (0.17%), and no deaths. Five procedures (0.43%) were abandoned and excluded from this study, and 1 (0.17%) was converted to minilaparotomy to control abdominal wall bleeding. The duration of follow-up ranged from 16 to 60 months.
Conclusions:
A combined pars flaccida and plication technique is associated with a low early complication rate.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00241
PMCID: PMC4154413  PMID: 25392623
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band; Body mass index; pars flaccida
2.  Bariatric emergencies: current evidence and strategies of management 
Background
The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management.
Methods
The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review.
Results
Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14%-2.2% and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5% (p = 0.002). Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p = value 0.01).
Conclusions
Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-8-58
PMCID: PMC3923426  PMID: 24373182
Laparoscopic roux en-Y gastric bypass; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band; Stomal ulceration
3.  Recurrent small bowel infarction in a young man: polycythaemia or vasculitis? 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr11.2008.1296.
A 29-year-old man presented with a 3 day history of right lower quadrant pain, nausea and vomiting. There was tenderness in the right lower quadrant. At surgery the appendix was normal but an infarcted terminal ileum segment was found and resected. Histopathological examination was suggestive of vasculitis. The patient was discharged in good condition and follow-up for the first year was unremarkable. Unfortunately he developed another episode of bowel ischaemia in the second year and underwent resection of a short segment of proximal ileum. An autoimmune profile was negative. However, subsequent blood tests confirmed polycythaemia. Small bowel infarction due to polycythaemia in a young patient is rare and may be difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds.
doi:10.1136/bcr.11.2008.1296
PMCID: PMC3029039  PMID: 21822449
4.  Obstructive jaundice due to autoimmune cholangiopathy 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr11.2008.1291.
A 59-year-old man presented with upper abdominal pain, cholestasis and radiological evidence of common hepatic duct hilar stricture which was suggestive of cholangiocarcinoma. The patient initially underwent percutaneous drainage and a laparotomy. No evidence of malignancy was identified. He was noted to have retroperitoneal fibrosis, which was confirmed on histology. The combination of cholangiopathy and retroperitoneal fibrosis suggested an underlying autoimmune process. Although the investigations did not show any evidence of IgG4 related disease, the combination of a cholangiopathy and retroperitoneal fibrosis is in keeping with autoimmune cholangiopathy and a steroid regimen was commenced. Our patient is now symptom-free with no further episodes of cholangitis. He has commenced azathioprine to maintain long term remission.
doi:10.1136/bcr.11.2008.1291
PMCID: PMC3027632  PMID: 21686376
5.  Occult small bowel perforation in a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2010;3:57.
Patients who present with a co-existing connective tissue disorder add a degree of complexity to operative intervention. We present an unusual case of a 53-year-old Caucasian female patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome who presented with an occult perforation of the distal ileum. The patient had known small bowel diverticulae yet the perforation occurred within the normal bowel wall. The pre-operative CT only showed malrotation of the large bowel and did not correlate with the intra-operative findings. Our case has highlighted that although small bowel perforation is a rare occurrence, it may be more common in Ehlers Danlos and may present with atypical features. Perforation may also occur alongside normal bowel as well as diverticulae within the bowel. Where diverticulae exists within a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome and there is some diagnostic uncertainty, there should be a lower threshold for operative intervention. We present in the discussion a number of salient features and learning points.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-3-57
PMCID: PMC2829519  PMID: 20205912
6.  Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric stromal tumour: a case report 
Cases Journal  2010;3:58.
Introduction
Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastro-intestinal tract. This case report highlights the necessity of early surgical intervention in such cases to avoid mortality due to rebleeding and to raise the awareness of rare causes of upper gastrointestinal bleed and their management.
Case presentation
A 61-year-old male presented to the accident and emergency department with a one-day history of haemetemesis with coffee ground vomiting. After initial resuscitation, he underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy under sedation which demonstrated a large, bleeding, gastric mass with a central crater along the greater curvature of the stomach. A partial gastrectomy was performed taking a wedge of the stomach with clearance from the tumour, with no signs of extraperitoneal disease.
Conclusion
Early surgical intervention, either open or laparoscopic resection, is the treatment of choice to prevent rebleeds. In general, complete surgical resection is accomplished in 40-60% of all gastro-intestinal stromal tumours patients, and in >70% of those with primary non- metastatic gastro-intestinal stromal tumour. In our case we had completely excised the tumour. Following surgery, all patients must be referred to centres which have more experience in treating gastro-intestinal stromal tumours. Imatinib is proven to be the first effective systemic therapy in cases of unresectable or metastatic disease. All gastro-intestinal stromal tumours have the potential for aggressive behaviour with the risk being estimated from tumour size and mitotic count.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-3-58
PMCID: PMC2836292  PMID: 20509859
7.  Can Roux-en-Y gastric bypass provide a lifelong solution for diabetes mellitus? 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2009;52(6):E269-E275.
Background
The surgical treatment of diabetes had witnessed progressive development and success since the first case of pancreatic transplantation. Although this was a great step, wide clinical application was limited by several factors. Bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass is emerging as a promising option in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this article is to explore the current application of gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes and the theoretical bases of gastric bypass as a treatment option for type 1 diabetes.
Methods
We performed a MEDLINE search for articles published from August 1955 to December 2008 using the words “surgical treatment of diabetes,” “etiology of diabetes” and “gastric bypass.”
Results
We identified 3215 studies and selected 72 relevant papers for review. Surgical treatment of diabetes is evolving from complex pancreatic and islets transplantation surgery for type 1 diabetes with critical postoperative outcome and follow-up to a metabolic surgery, including gastric bypass. Gastric bypass (no immune suppression or graft rejection) has proven to be highly effective treatment for obese patients and nonobese animals with type 2 diabetes. There are certain shared criteria between types 1 and 2 diabetes, making a selected spectrum of the disease a potential target for metabolic surgery to improve or cure diabetes.
Conclusion
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a promising option for lifelong treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has the potential to improve or cure a selected spectrum of type 1 diabetes when performed early in the disease. Further animal model studies or randomized controlled trials are needed to support our conclusion.
PMCID: PMC2792412  PMID: 20011163
8.  Long-Term Study of Port-Site Incisional Hernia After Laparoscopic Procedures 
Background:
Laparoscopic surgery is widely practiced and offers realistic benefits over conventional surgery. There is considerable variation in results between surgeons, concerning port-site complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the laparoscopic port closure technique and to explore the factors associated with port-site incisional hernia.
Methods:
Between January 2000 and January 2007, 5541 laparoscopic operations were performed by a single consultant surgeon for different indications. The ports were closed by the classical method using a J-shaped needle after release of pneumoperitoneum. The incidence of port-site incisional hernias was calculated. All patients were followed up by outpatient clinic visits and by their general practitioners.
Results:
During a 6-year period, 5541 laparoscopic operations were performed. Eight patients (0.14%) developed port-site hernia during a mean follow-up period of 43 months (range, 25 to 96) and required elective surgery to repair their hernias. No major complications or mortality was reported.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic port closure using the classical method was associated with an acceptable incidence of port-site hernia. Modification of the current methods of closure may lead to a new technique to prevent or reduce the incidence of port-site incisional hernias.
PMCID: PMC3015977  PMID: 19793475
Port-site incisional hernia; Pneumoperitoneum; Port closure
9.  Management of complications after laparoscopic Nissen's fundoplication: a surgeon's perspective 
Introduction
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common problem in the Western countries, and the interest in the minimal access surgical approaches to treat GORD is increasing. In this study, we would like to discuss the presentations and management of complications we encountered after Laparoscopic Nissen's fundoplication in our District General NHS Hospital. The aim is to recognise these complications at the earliest stage for effective management to minimise the morbidity and mortality.
Methods
301 patients underwent laparoscopic treatment for GORD by a single consultant surgeon in our NHS Trust from September 1999. The data was prospectively collected and entered into a database. The data was retrospectively analysed for presentations for complications and their management.
Results
Surgery was completed laparoscopically in all patients, except in five, where the operation was technically difficult due to pre-existing conditions. The complications we encountered during surgery and follow-up period were major intra-operative bleeding (n = 1, 0.33%), severe post-operative nausea and vomiting (n = 1, 0.33%), wound infection (n = 3, 1%), port-site herniation (n = 1, 0.33%), wrap-migration (n = 2, 0.66%), wrap-ischaemia (n = 1, 0.33%), recurrent regurgitation (n = 4, 1.32%), recurrent heartburn (n = 29, 9.63%), tension pneumothorax (n = 2, 0.66%), surgical emphysema (n = 8, 2.66%), and port-site pain (n = 4, 1.33%).
Conclusion
Minimal access approach to treat GORD has presented with some specific and unique complications. It is important to recognise these complications at the earliest possible stage as some of these patients may present in an acute setting requiring emergency surgery. All members of the department, and not just the members of the specialised team, should be aware about these complications to minimise the morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-3-1
PMCID: PMC2644311  PMID: 19193220
10.  Patient Experience With Gallstone Disease in a National Health Service District Hospital 
Background:
The prevalence of gallstone disease in the community makes it an important area of service in district general hospitals. Laparoscopic surgical techniques in synergy with modern imaging and endoscopic and interventional techniques have revolutionized the treatment of gallstone disease, making it possible to provide prompt and definitive care to patients.
Methods:
Patients with gallstone disease were treated based on a predetermined protocol by a special-interest team depending on the patient's mode of presentation. Data were collected and analyzed prospectively.
Results:
Our team treated 1332 patients with gallstone disease between September 1999 and December 2007. Patients (249) with acute symptoms presented through Accident and Emergency (A&E). Despite varied presentations, laparoscopic treatment was possible in all but 8 patients. The study comprised 696 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) as in-hospital (23 hour) cases in a stand-alone center, and 257 outpatients and 379 inpatients. Sixty-seven patients with acute cholecystitis had their surgery within 96 hours of acute presentation. Seventy patients had laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. The overall morbidity was 2.33% with 3 patients having residual common bile duct stones; 3 patients had biliary leak from cystic or accessory duct stumps and one had idiopathic right segmental liver atrophy; 19 had wound infections, 5 had port-site hernia. No mortalities occurred during the 30-day follow-up.
Conclusion:
We believe that prompt investigation with imaging and endoscopic intervention if needed along with LC at the earliest safe opportunity by a specialized dedicated team represents an effective method for treating gallstone disease in district general hospitals. Our experience with over 1000 patients has offered us the courage of conviction to say that justice is finally here for gallstone sufferers.
PMCID: PMC3016000  PMID: 19275855
Gallstones; Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic
11.  Portal vein gas in emergency surgery 
Background
Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery.
Methods
A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008.
Results
Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%). This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%), obstruction and dilatation (9.03%), sepsis (6.6%), iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01%) and cancer (1.8%). Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%).
Conclusion
Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-3-21
PMCID: PMC2490689  PMID: 18637169
12.  An unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction during percutaneous endogastric feeding: a case report 
Introduction
The differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in children include common and rare pathologies. Within this list, different types of bezoars causing gastrointestinal obstruction have been reported in the literature and different methods of management have been described. The aim of this article is to highlight a rare presentation of lactobezoars following prolonged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding and its successful surgical management.
Case presentation
A 16-year-old boy was admitted to a paediatric ward with abdominal distension and high output from his permanent gastrostomy feeding tube, with drainage of bilious fluids. The clinical, radiological and endoscopical examinations were suggestive of partial duodenal obstruction with multiple bezoars in the stomach and duodenum. Gastrojejunostomy was performed after the removal of 14 bezoars. The child had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the sixth postoperative day in a stable condition.
Conclusion
Lactobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in patients with percutaneous endogastric feeding. Endoscopy is important in making the diagnosis of this surgical condition of the upper gastrointestinal tract in a child.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-199
PMCID: PMC2432065  PMID: 18547437
13.  Moderate size infantile haemangioma of the neck – conservative or surgical treatment? : a case report 
Introduction
Infantile haemangioma is the commonest benign tumour in infancy. While the management of the majority of small haemangiomas consists of simply watching or steroid treatment, giant and moderate size infantile haemangiomas are challenging problems, especially in health systems with limited resources in developing countries.
Case presentation
A one-year old boy was presented to us by his parents with a moderate size haemangioma on the posterior triangle of the left side of the neck. Clinical assessment and radiological examinations were helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Surgical excision was performed successfully without major morbidity. Partial necrosis of the skin flap developed shortly after the operation but healing was complete in eight weeks. There was no residual problem on review five years after the operation.
Conclusion
Early surgical excision of a moderate size infantile haemangioma may be justified especially when there is difficulty of follow-up, which can be a common problem in developing countries. This approach will prevent growth deformation, impact on nearby vital organs and psychological problems.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-52
PMCID: PMC2265728  PMID: 18284695
14.  Complicated diverticular disease of the colon, do we need to change the classical approach, a retrospective study of 110 patients in southeast England 
Background
Complicated diverticular disease of the colon imposes a serious risk to patient's life, challenge to surgeons and has cost implications for health authority. The aim of this study is to evaluate the management outcome of complicated colonic diverticular disease in a district hospital and to explore the current strategies of treatment.
Methods
This is a retrospective study of all patients who were admitted to the surgical ward between May 2002 and November 2006 with a diagnosis of complicated diverticular disease. A proforma of patients' details, admission date, ITU admission, management outcomes and the follow up were recorded from the patients case notes and analyzed. The mean follow-up was 34 months (range 6–60 months)
Results
The mean age of patients was 72.7 years (range 39–87 years). Thirty-one men (28.18 %) and Seventy-nine women (71.81%) were included in this study. Male: female ratio was 1:2.5.
Sixty-eight percent of patients had one or more co-morbidities. Forty-one patients (37.27%) had two or more episodes of diverticulitis while 41.8% of them had no history of diverticular disease.
Eighty-six percent of patients presented with acute abdominal pain while bleeding per rectum was the main presentation in 14%. Constipation and erratic bowel habit were the commonest chronic symptoms in patients with history of diverticular disease. Generalized tenderness was reported in 64.28% while 35.71% have left iliac fossa tenderness. Leukocytosis was reported in 58 patients (52.72%).
The mean time from the admission until the start of operative intervention was 20.57 hours (range 4–96 hours). Perforation was confirmed in 59.52%. Mortality was 10.90%. Another 4 (3.63%) died during follow up for other reasons.
Conclusion
Complicated diverticular disease carries significant morbidity and mortality. These influenced by patient-related factors. Because of high mortality and morbidities, we suggest the need to target a specific group of patients for prophylactic resection.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-3-5
PMCID: PMC2246106  PMID: 18218109
15.  Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Can Be Safely Performed in a Resource-Limited Setting: the First 49 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies in Yemen 
Background:
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for gallstone disease. Many studies have confirmed the safety and feasibility of LC and have shown that it is comparable regarding complications to open cholecystectomy (OC).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of LC including safety, feasibility in a resource-poor setting like Yemen, and also to compare the outcomes of LC with those of OC.
Methods:
This was a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study of 112 patients who were admitted to Alburaihy Hospital with a diagnosis of gallstone disease and underwent cholecystectomy from July 1998 to March 2004. Hospital stay, duration of operation, postoperative analgesia, and morbidity due to wound infection, bile leak, common bile duct (CBD) injury, missed CBD stone, bleeding, subphrenic abscess, and hernia were evaluated. Patients were followed up on an outpatient basis.
Results:
Forty-nine patients underwent LC and 63 patients underwent OC. The mean age of LC patients was 43.96 years and of OC patients was 44.63 years. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age (p=0.740) and sex (p=0.535).
No significant difference was found in the incidence of acute cholecystitis between the 2 groups (p=0.000). The mean operative duration for LC was 39.88 minutes versus 56.76 minutes for OC (p=0.000), and the mean hospital stay was 1.63 and 5.38 days for LC and OC, respectively (p=0.000). A drain was used frequently in OC (p=0.000). LC patients needed less analgesia (p=0.000). The morbidity rate in LC was 12.2% versus 6.3% for OC, which was not statistically significant (p=0.394), (p>0.05). Wound infection and bile leak were more common with LC. No mortalities were reported in either group.
Conclusion:
An experienced surgeon can perform LC safely and successfully in a resource-limited setting. As in other studies, LC outcomes were better than OC outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3016033  PMID: 18402743
Gallbladder; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Open cholecystectomy; Cholecystectomy; Common hepatic duct; Common bile duct
16.  An apricot story: view through a keyhole 
Background
Very few cases of small bowel obstruction due to ingested fruits have been described in literature, and most of these have managed by a laparotomy. Laparoscopic assisted surgery can effectively deal with such impacted foreign bodies, thereby avoiding a formal laparotomy.
Case presentation
A 75 years old lady was admitted via the Accident and Emergency to the surgical ward with a three-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Investigations were suggestive of acute small bowel obstruction. On laparoscopy, there was an area of sudden change in calibre of small bowel with dilated proximal and collapsed distal segment in distal jejunum. A foreign body, dried undigested apricot, was extracted by mini-laparotomy.
Discussion
Small bowel obstruction is a frequent cause of emergency surgery, and aetiology may include food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is usually confirmed intra-operatively. Foreign body impacted in small bowel can be removed by open or laparoscopic methods.
Conclusion
Generally, laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and management in acute bowel obstruction, but with increasing expertise, laparoscopy can be equally effective with all the other advantages of minimal access approach.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-2-20
PMCID: PMC1976312  PMID: 17697369

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