Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory loss that leads to a profound emotional disturbance in later stages. As no safe and effective drug is yet available for the treatment of AD, secondary metabolites from plants may be instrumental in meeting this challenge. Keeping in view this point we evaluated sesquiterpenes of medicinal plant Amberboa ramosa for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
Four sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Amberboa ramosa. In which one compound Amberbin C (1) was found to be new while other three Amberin (2), Amberbin A (3), and Amberbin B (4) were previously reported ones. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic techniques. Isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes. All compounds showed excellent inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase.
A new sesquiterpene lactone has been isolated and fully characterized, the sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa showed good inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes, this study indicated that sesquiterpene lactone can become interesting lead molecules in drug development against Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Amberbin C; Amberboa ramosa; Compositeae; Acetyl cholinesterase; Butyryl cholinesterase
GST is a family of enzymes that are important in protection of the body against oxidative stress.
Investigate the association between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism and hypertension.
Materials and Methods
GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes were detected by PCR. The fragments were then analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.
There is no significant association between GSTT1 & GSTM1 polymorphism and hypertension (OR = 2.4, P > 0.05 and OR = 1.6, P > 0.05)
GSTT1 & GSTM1 polymorphism can be considered a risk factor for hypertension.
Hypertension; Glutathione S-Transferase T1; Polymorphism, Genetic
To assess the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum (S. xanthocarpum) fruit extract against antitubercular drug-induced liver toxicity in experimental animals.
Ethanolic (50%) fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) was administered daily for 35 days in experimental animals. Liver toxicity was induced by combination of three antitubercular drugs [isoniazid (I) 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin (R) 10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide (P) 35 mg/kg] given orally as suspension for 35 days in rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), total bilirubin (TBL), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), lactate dehydroginase (LDH), and serum cholesterol (CHL). Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in rat liver homogenate. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination.
The results demonstrated that treatment with S. xanthocarpum significantly (P<0.05-P<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, S. xanthocarpum significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the LPO in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that S. xanthocarpum attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration.
The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of S. xanthocarpum against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.
Solanum xanthocarpum; Rifampicin; Isoniazid; Pyrazinamide; Antioxidant; Antihepatotoxicity; Hepatoprotective effect; Antitubercular drug; Liver toxicity; Liver injury; Biochemical parameter; Histopathology
Selective Alzheimer Disease Indicator-1 (or Seladin-1) is a multifunctional protein first discovered by downregulation of its expression in Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, the expression of this protein is upregulated in several cancers, including primary bladder cancer. However, its role in cancer formation has yet to be discovered. Goniothalamin is a natural product that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we have elucidated the role of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity towards human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4.
The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin in human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4 was assessed using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Finally, the expression of Seladin-1 protein in goniothalamin-treated RT4 cells was determined by Western blot.
MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on RT4 cells was concentration and time dependent with IC50 values of 61 μM (24 hr), 38 μM (48 hr) and 31 μM for 72 hr, respectively. Cell death induced was confirmed through apoptosis; as assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Furthermore, the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis was evidenced through the cleavage of 60 kDa protein to 40 kDa and 20 kDa. This was followed by a gradual increase of 20 kDa fragment suggesting the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis on RT4 cells.
This study demonstrates that goniothalamin induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis on RT4 cells. The involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis further suggested that Seladin-1 may play a role in the formation of primary bladder cancer.
Seladin-1; Bladder cancer; Goniothalamin; Apoptosis
Disease registries, containing systematic records of cases, have for nearly 100 years been valuable in exploring and understanding various aspects of cardiology. This is particularly true for myocardial infarction, where such registries have provided both epidemiological and clinical information that was not readily available from randomised controlled trials in highly-selected populations. Registries, whether mandated or voluntary, prospective or retrospective in their analysis, have at their core a common study population and common data definitions. In this review we highlight how registries have diversified to offer information on epidemiology, risk modelling, quality assurance/improvement and original research-through data mining, transnational comparisons and the facilitation of enrolment in, and follow-up during registry-based randomised clinical trials.
Myocardial infarction; Acute coronary syndrome; Coronary artery disease; Health statistics; Ethics; Patient records; Audit; Research; Patient safety
This paper investigates the relationship betweendifferent types of
impactions with postoperativeinflammatory tissue reaction.
Materials & Methods:
Consecutive patients with only mandibular third molar impactions
were included in our study. They were classified by winter’s
classification. The disimpactions were performed under local
anaesthesia. Time for surgery was noted for each surgical
procedure. Postoperative inflammatory complication in terms of
pain, swelling and trismus were noted.
150 male patients in the age groupof 18-40 years were studied.
Inflammatory tissue reactions were increasing with more operative
time. Distoangular and Horizontal impactions were associated with
more pain on first 3 days of surgery along with more swelling and
trismus. Vertically impacted teeth were associated with least
Post operative morbidity was increasing along with moreoperating
time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction.
How to cite the article:
Mansuri S, Mujeeb A, Hussain SA, Hussain MA. Mandibular third molar
impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types
of impaction on inflammatory complications. J Int Oral Health
Operative time length; pain; third molar; trismus
Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.
Women have been reported to show more frequent recanalization and better recovery after intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for acute stroke compared with men. To investigate this we studied a series of stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA and undergoing acute transcranial doppler (TCD) examination.
Acute stroke patients received IV rt-PA and had acute TCD examination within 4 hours of symptom onset at 4 major stroke centers. TCD findings were interpreted using the Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia (TIBI) flow grading system. The recanalization rates, and poor 3-month outcomes (modified Rankin scale >2) of men and women were compared using the chi-square test. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess sex as a predictor of recanalization and poor 3-month outcome after controlling for age, baseline NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), time to treatment, hypertension, and blood glucose.
369 patients had TCD examinations before or during IV rt-PA treatment. The 199 (53.9%) men and 170 (46.1%) women had mean ages of 67 ± 13 and 70 ± 14 years, respectively. The sexes did not differ significantly in baseline stroke severity, time to TCD examination, or time to thrombolysis. Of the men, 68 (34.2%) had complete recanalization, 58 (29.1%) had partial recanalization, and 73 (36.6%) had no recanalization. Of the women, 53 (31.2%) had complete recanalization, 46 (27%) had partial recanalization, and 71 (41.8%) had no recanalization (p = 0.6). Multiple regression analyses showed no difference between the sexes in recanalization rate, time to recanalization, or clinical outcome at 3 months.
In our study; sex is not a significant predictor of recanalization rate, time to recanalization or 3-month outcome in stroke patients following IV rt-PA.
Data from CLOTBUST trial Clinicaltrails.gov Identifier: NCT01240356.
Sex; Gender; rt-PA; Thrombolysis; Stroke
To identify patients’ attitudes, preferences and comfort levels regarding the presence and involvement of medical students during consultations and examinations.
A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2011 to December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants were randomly selected from the outpatient and inpatient clinics at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Emergency Department, provided they were admitted for obstetric or gynecology-related conditions. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Of the 327 patients who were recruited, 272 (83%) were elective patients who were seen at the outpatient and inpatient clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (group I). The other 55 (16.8%) were seen at the Emergency Department or the Labor and Delivery Ward (group II). One hundred seventy-nine participants (160 [58.8%] in group I and 19 [34.5%] in group II) reported positive attitudes about the presence of female medical students during consultations. Fewer participants (115 [42.3%] were in group I and 17 [30.9%] in group II) reported positive attitudes regarding the presence of male medical students during consultations (p=0.095). The gender of the medical student was the primary factor that influenced patients’ decision to accept or decline medical student involvement. No significant associations were observed between patients’ attitudes and perceptions toward medical students and the patients' age, educational level, nationality or the gender of the consultant.
Obstetrics and Gynecology patients are typically accepting of female medical student involvement during examinations. Student gender is the primary factor that influences patient attitudes regarding student involvement during physical examinations.
Medical student; OB-GYN patients; Saudi Arabia
Objective: A Cross Sectional population based serological studies was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for syphilis women with recurrent miscarriages.
Methods: Patient’s 5ml whole blood was collected through venepuncture technique. Data were collected by all women answered a questionnaire and by investigating blood sample VDRL test and FTA-ABS test. The study was conducted in a confidential manner and numbers were used to identify the participant.
Results: Total 256 women were included in the present study. Mean age of women was 29.4 years while range was 21 to 38 years (206/256). Out of the 256 samples, 05 (1.9%) were positive for active syphilis. Majority belonged to low socioeconomic group, uneducated and had previous congenital anomaly.
Conclusion: Active infection with Treponema pallidum (T.P) in women belonging to low socioeconomic level were disquieting. This is probably due to illiteracy and high proportion of unsafe sexual behavior. It is also suggestive that seropositive status is often discovered in routine serological studies during pregnancy.
Syphilis; Treponema Pallidum infection; Recurrent miscarriages; VDRL; FTA-ABS
In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated in three dimensions (3D) on nickel foam by the hydrothermal method. The nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanostructures exhibit nanoneedle-like morphology grown in 3D with good crystalline quality. The nanomaterial is composed of nickel, cobalt and oxygen atoms. By using the favorable porosity of the nanomaterial and the substrate itself, a sensitive glucose sensor is proposed by immobilizing glucose oxidase. The presented glucose sensor has shown linear response over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0.005 mM to 15 mM with a sensitivity of 91.34 mV/decade and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The NiCo2O4 nanostructures-based glucose sensor has shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The sensor showed negligible response to the normal concentrations of common interferents with glucose sensing, including uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have high potential for the determination of glucose in biological samples, food and other related areas.
nickel cobalt oxide nanostructures; nickel foam; glucose sensor; potentiometric method
We present two patients with osteoid osteomas of the lumbar spine to highlight the delay in diagnosis and the utility of precise radiological localization enabling tumor resection without jeopardizing spinal stability.
Two young patients with refractory back pain presented after having undergone a year of conservative treatment for presumed mechanical back pain. The presence of “red-flag” symptoms (e.g. rest and night pain, and transient pain relief with aspirin) led to the performance of an isotope bone scan, and subsequent computed tomography (CT), which were both consistent with the diagnosis of an osteoid osteoma. After accurate CT-based preoperative planning for tumor excision, a customized conservative surgical technique was utilized that included marginal en-bloc surgical resection of the tumors. As the intervertebral facet joints were also carefully preserved along with stability, no accompanying instrumented fusion was warranted. Both patients returned to full function with complete resolution of their long-standing back pain of more than 2 years.
The diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of the spine requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnostic evaluations should include thin-slice CT scan to assist in planning the most restricted/conservative en-bloc surgical resection while preserving vertebral stability with facet preservation, and thus avoiding instrumented fusions. Without the availability of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, such restricted/conservative approaches to osteoid osteomas are viable options in countries with developing economies.
Lumbar vertebrae; osteoid osteoma; spine; tumor resection
A 41-year-old gentleman with insulin dependent diabetes had decreased vision in the right eye due to non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. One month following intravitreal ranibizumab, he developed retino-choroidal ischemia with further loss of vision. Authors show the fluorescein angiographic transition from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion to retino-choroidal ischemia.
Central retinal vein occlusion; Macular edema; Retinochoroidal ischemia
An important source of debate in many orthopaedic practices is the choice of performing simultaneous or staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty.
The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare simultaneous bilateral with staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty for peri-operative complication rates, infection rates and mortality outcomes.
All relevant citations were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE databases and the unpublished literature. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality and abstracted data was conducted independently by two reviewers. Data was categorized into subgroups and pooled using the DerSimonian and Laird’s random effects model.
A total of 18 articles were identified from 873 potentially relevant titles and selected for inclusion in the primary meta-analyses. The incidence of mortality was significantly higher in the simultaneous group at 30 days (RR [relative risk] 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68–8.02, p = 0.001, I2 = 59%, n = 67,691 patients), 3 months (RR 2.45, 95% CI 2.15–2.79, p < 0.00001, I2 = 0%, n = 66,142 patients) and 1 year (RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.66–2.06, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%, n = 65,322 patients) after surgery. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to in-hospital mortality rates (R 1.18, 95% CI 0.74–1.88, p = 0.48, I2 = 0%, n = 33,814 patients). In addition, there was no increased risk of deep vein thrombosis, cardiac complication, and pulmonary embolism or infection rates in either comparison group.
The results of the analysis suggest that simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty has a significantly higher rate of mortality at 30 days, 3 months and 1 year after surgery, but similar infection and complication rates in comparison to staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty.
simultaneous or staged bilateral; total knee arthroplasty; meta-analysis; complication rates; infection; mortality
Application of upper lip catch test (ULCT) for airway evaluation in edentulous patients.
This research is an evaluation of a clinical diagnostic test in edentulous patients prior to operation. Five hundred eighty eight edentulous patients in a referral university hospital, between March 2008 and June 2011 scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Those unable to open the mouth and those with pharyngo-laryngeal pathology were excluded. ULCT was assessed and compared with Cormack-Lehane grading as a gold standard for airway evaluation.
A high negative predictive value of 99.4% was a notable finding for the ULCT. The results also showed a high specificity (89.4%), high sensitivity (75.0%) and a high accuracy (89.3%) in a comparatively higher range for the ULCT.
The ULCT proved to be a useful predictor for airway assessment in edentulous patients in this setting. Further studies are needed to reconfirm its validity in other ethnic groups.
Airway; Cormack-Lehane grade; difficult intubation; modified Mallampati test; upper lip catch test
Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.
smokeless tobacco; oral cancer; TSNAs
The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.
In the molecule of the title difluorobenzamide derivative, C10H7F2NO, the angle formed by the least-squares mean line through the prop-2-ynyl group [maximum deviation = 0.011 (3) Å] and the normal to the benzene ring is 59.03 (7)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H⋯O and C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to the ac plane.
Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.
White light-emitting diode; ZnO nanorods; Nanotubes; NiO buffer layer
Neurological manifestations of mononucleosis are extremely rare, occurring in about 1% of all cases. However, when they occur, appropriate treatment must be undertaken to ensure appropriate symptomatic management and reduce morbidity. We present the case of a 25-year-old graduate student with weeklong complaints of fever, sore throat, fatigue, nausea, and “dizziness.” She later developed increased sleep requirements, ataxia, vertigo, and nystagmus with a positive EBV IgM titer confirming acute infectious mononucleosis. The patient was clinically diagnosed with EBV-associated cerebellitis and encephalitis, displaying neurological and psychiatric impairment commonly seen in postconcussion syndrome. MRI showed no acute changes. She was started on valacyclovir and a prednisone taper, recovering by the end of twelve weeks. Though corticosteroids and acyclovir are not recommended therapy in patients presenting with EBV-associated ataxia, clinicians may want to keep a low threshold to start these medications in case more serious neurological sequelae develop.
The properties of Boswellia plants have been exploited for millennia in the traditional medicines of Africa, China, and especially in the Indian Ayurveda. In Western countries, the advent of synthetic drugs has obscured the pharmaceutical use of Boswellia, until it was reported that an ethanolic extract exerts anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects. Frankincense was commonly used for medicinal purposes. This paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge of the volatile constituents of frankincense, with explicit consideration concerning the diverse Boswellia species. Altogether, more than 340 volatiles in Boswellia have been reported in the literature. In particular, a broad diversity has been found in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles with respect to different varieties of Boswellia. A detailed discussion of the various biological activities of Boswellia frankincense is also presented.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer globally. Tobacco consumption and HPV infection, both are the major risk factor for the development of oral cancer and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes modify the effect of environmental exposures, thereby playing a significant role in gene–environment interactions and hence contributing to the individual susceptibility to cancer. Here, we have investigated the association of tobacco - betel quid chewing, HPV infection, GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes, and tumour stages with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content variation in oral cancer patients.
The study comprised of 124 cases of OSCC and 140 control subjects to PCR based detection was done for high-risk HPV using a consensus primer and multiplex PCR was done for detection of GSTM1-GSTT1 polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for determination of mtDNA content. The risk of OSCC increased with the ceased mtDNA copy number (Ptrend = 0.003). The association between mtDNA copy number and OSCC risk was evident among tobacco – betel quid chewers rather than tobacco – betel quid non chewers; the interaction between mtDNA copy number and tobacco – betel quid was significant (P = 0.0005). Significant difference was observed between GSTM1 - GSTT1 null genotypes (P = 0.04, P = 0.001 respectively) and HPV infection (P<0.001) with mtDNA content variation in cases and controls. Positive correlation was found with decrease in mtDNA content with the increase in tumour stages (P<0.001). We are reporting for the first time the association of HPV infection and GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes with mtDNA content in OSCC.
Our results indicate that the mtDNA content in tumour tissues changes with tumour stage and tobacco-betel quid chewing habits while low levels of mtDNA content suggests invasive thereby serving as a biomarker in detection of OSCC.
To study the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract of the rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa (Scrophulariaceae) in normal and immunosuppressed mice models.
Materials and Methods:
The rhizomes extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa was administered orally according to their body weight in mice. The study was carried out by various hematological and serological tests. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity was studied by administration of test extract. The method of cyclophasphamide-induced immunosuppression was employed with slight modification to study the immunomodulatory potential of the extract. Plant extracts were administered by oral feeding canula to the test groups (groups III–VI), group I (control animals) and group II (model control animals) received same volume of normal saline (0.2 ml). Humoral antibody response to SRBC measurement of antibody titer by hemagglutination reaction was done. The mice belonging to the all groups were antigenically challenged with SRBC (0.5×109 cells/ml/100 g) on 10th day intraparitoneally. Cellular immune response (Foot pad reaction test) the edema was induced by injecting SRBC (0.025×109 cells) in left paw, and 0.025 ml of saline was injected in right paw.
The plant extract showed protective effects on humoral immunity. The change in percentage deduction in footpad volume was also found significant (P<0.001). Administration of extract remarkably ameliorated both cellular and humoral antibody response.
It is concluded that the test extracts possessed promising immunostimulant properties. But, the alcoholic extract is more potent than aqueous extract in producing delayed type hypersensitivity response.
Hematological and serological tests; immunomodulatory activity; Picrorrhiza kurroa; rhizomes