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HSS Journal (2)
Hughes, Alex (2)
Cammisa, Frank P. (1)
Girardi, Federico (1)
Kotwal, Suhel (1)
Lebl, Darren R. (1)
O’Leary, Patrick F. (1)
Pumberger, Matthias (1)
Year of Publication
Degenerative Scoliosis: A Review
Degenerative lumbar scoliosis is a coronal deviation of the spine that is prevalent in the elderly population. Although the etiology is unclear, it is associated with progressive and asymmetric degeneration of the disc, facet joints, and other structural spinal elements typically leading to neural element compression. Clinical presentation varies and is frequently associated with axial back pain and neurogenic claudication. Indications for treatment include pain, neurogenic symptoms, and progressive cosmetic deformity. Non-operative treatment includes physical conditioning and exercise, pharmacological agents for pain control, and use of orthotics and invasive modalities like epidural and facet injections. Operative treatment should be contemplated after multi-factorial and multidisciplinary evaluation of the risks and the benefits. Options include decompression, instrumented stabilization with posterior or anterior fusion, correction of deformity, or a combination of these that are tailored to each patient. Incidence of perioperative complications is substantial and must be considered when deciding appropriate operative treatment. The primary goal of surgical treatment is to provide pain relief and to improve the quality of life with minimum risk of complications.
degenerative scoliosis; adult scoliosis; adult deformity; spinal stenosis; secondary scoliosis
Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment
Lebl, Darren R.
Cammisa, Frank P.
O’Leary, Patrick F.
Age-related changes in the spinal column result in a degenerative cascade known as spondylosis. Genetic, environmental, and occupational influences may play a role. These spondylotic changes may result in direct compressive and ischemic dysfunction of the spinal cord known as cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Both static and dynamic factors contribute to the pathogenesis. CSM may present as subclinical stenosis or may follow a more pernicious and progressive course. Most reports of the natural history of CSM involve periods of quiescent disease with intermittent episodes of neurologic decline. If conservative treatment is chosen for mild CSM, close clinical and radiographic follow-up should be undertaken in addition to precautions for trauma-related neurologic sequelae. Operative treatment remains the standard of care for moderate to severe CSM and is most effective in preventing the progression of disease. Anterior surgery is often beneficial in patients with stenotic disease limited to a few segments or in cases in which correction of a kyphotic deformity is desired. Posterior procedures allow decompression of multiple segments simultaneously provided that adequate posterior drift of the cord is attainable from areas of anterior compression. Distinct risks exist with both anterior and posterior surgery and should be considered in clinical decision-making.
cervical spine; spondylosis; myelopathy; natural history; operative treatment
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