CD147 is an MMP-inducing protein often implicated in cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of CD147 in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and the prognostic ability of CD147 in predicting biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy.
Plasma membrane-localized CD147 protein expression was quantified in patient samples using immunohistochemistry and multispectral imaging, and expression was compared to clinico-pathological features (pathologic stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, preoperative PSA, lymph node status, surgical margins, biochemical recurrence status). CD147 specificity and expression were confirmed with immunoblotting of prostate cell lines, and CD147 mRNA expression was evaluated in public expression microarray datasets of patient prostate tumors.
Expression of CD147 protein was significantly decreased in localized tumors (pT2; p = 0.02) and aggressive PCa (≥pT3; p = 0.004), and metastases (p = 0.001) compared to benign prostatic tissue. Decreased CD147 was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p = 0.009) and high Gleason score (p = 0.02), and low CD147 expression predicted biochemical recurrence (HR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.31–0.97; p = 0.04) independent of clinico-pathologic features. Immunoblot bands were detected at 44 kDa and 66 kDa, representing non-glycosylated and glycosylated forms of CD147 protein, and CD147 expression was lower in tumorigenic T10 cells than non-tumorigenic BPH-1 cells (p = 0.02). Decreased CD147 mRNA expression was associated with increased Gleason score and pathologic stage in patient tumors but is not associated with recurrence status.
Membrane-associated CD147 expression is significantly decreased in PCa compared to non-malignant prostate tissue and is associated with tumor progression, and low CD147 expression predicts biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy independent of pathologic stage, Gleason score, lymph node status, surgical margins, and tumor volume in multivariable analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1559-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Antigen, CD147; Recurrence; Prostatectomy; Biological marker
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease, causes characteristic cognitive impairment, and no curative treatments are currently available. Stem cell transplantation offers a powerful tool for the treatment of AD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from controlled studies to study the impact of stem cell biology and experimental design on learning and memory function following stem cell transplantation in animal models of AD. A total of 58 eligible controlled studies were included by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to April 13, 2015. Meta-analysis showed that stem cell transplantation could promote both learning and memory recovery. Stratified meta-analysis was used to explore the influence of the potential factors on the estimated effect size, and meta-regression analyses were undertaken to explore the sources of heterogeneity for learning and memory function. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. The present review reinforces the evidence supporting stem cell transplantation in experimental AD. However, it highlights areas that require well-designed and well-reported animal studies.
Developing organic optoelectronic materials with desired photophysical properties has always been at the forefront of organic electronics. The variation of singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) can provide useful means in modulating organic excitons for diversified photophysical phenomena, but controlling ΔEST in a desired manner within a large tuning scope remains a daunting challenge. Here, we demonstrate a convenient and quantitative approach to relate ΔEST to the frontier orbital overlap and separation distance via a set of newly developed parameters using natural transition orbital analysis to consider whole pictures of electron transitions for both the lowest singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) excited states. These critical parameters revealed that both separated S1 and T1 states leads to ultralow ΔEST; separated S1 and overlapped T1 states results in small ΔEST; and both overlapped S1 and T1 states induces large ΔEST. Importantly, we realized a widely-tuned ΔEST in a range from ultralow (0.0003 eV) to extra-large (1.47 eV) via a subtle symmetric control of triazine molecules, based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations combined with experimental explorations. These findings provide keen insights into ΔEST control for feasible excited state tuning, offering valuable guidelines for the construction of molecules with desired optoelectronic properties.
AIM: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) with regard to assessing liver functional reserve.
METHODS: Data from inpatients diagnosed with a liver tumor at an interventional radiology department from July 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance unit was used to scan 32 patients with confirmed diagnoses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); an MRE sequence was added to the protocol, and the data were reconstructed and analyzed by two attending radiologists. Regions of interest were identified in different slices of the non-tumor liver parenchyma to measure average stiffness. In addition, the indocyanine green (ICG) test was performed no more than 1 wk before or after the magnetic resonance examination for all 32 patients; the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICGR-15) and the ICG plasma clearance rate (ICG-K) were recorded. Correlational analyses were performed between the liver stiffness values and the ICGR-15 as well as between the liver stiffness values and the ICG-K.
RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging, including an MRE sequence and the ICG test, was performed successfully in all 32 enrolled patients. None of the patients developed complications. The mean ± SD of the elasticity values measured by the two attending radiologists were 4.7 ± 2.2 kPa and 4.7 ± 2.1 kPa, respectively. The average liver stiffness value of the non-tumor parenchyma measured using MRE in HCC patients was 4.7 ± 2.2 kPa. The average ICGR-15 was 0.089 ± 0.077, and the average ICG-K was 0.19 ± 0.07. We found that the liver stiffness value of the non-tumor parenchyma was significantly and positively related to the ICGR-15 (r = 0.746, P < 0.01) as well as significantly and negatively related to the ICG-K (r = -0.599, P < 0.01). The ICGR-15 was significantly and negatively related to the ICG-K (r = -0.852, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: MRE is accurate and non-invasive; furthermore, it can be used to effectively assess the liver functional reserve of HCC patients.
Magnetic resonance elastography; Liver functional reserve; Indocyanine green clearance test; Liver fibrosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
The reversible post-translational modification (PTM) of eukaryotic proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) regulates key cellular processes including protein degradation and gene transcription. Studies of the mechanistic roles for protein ubiquitylation require quantities of homogenously modified substrates that are typically inaccessible from natural sources or by enzymatic ubiquitylation in vitro. Therefore, we developed a facile and scalable methodology for site-specific chemical ubiquitylation. Our semisynthetic strategy utilized a temporary ligation auxiliary, 2-(aminooxy)ethanethiol, to direct ubiquitylation at specific lysines in peptide substrates. Mild reductive removal of the auxiliary after ligation yielded ubiquitylated peptides with the native isopeptide linkage. Alternatively, retention of the ligation auxiliary yielded protease-resistant analogues of ubiquitylated peptides. Importantly, our strategy was fully compatible with protein sulfhydryl groups, as demonstrated by the synthesis of peptides modified by the human small ubiquitin-related modifier 3 (SUMO-3) protein.
Conjugation; peptides; ubiquitin; SUMO; protein modifications
The adaptor protein Tespa1 negatively regulates mast cell activation, including cytokine production and degranulation. Mice lacking Tespa1 have exaggerated responses in mast cell–dependent inflammation models, including anaphylaxis and allergic inflammation.
Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE on mast cells triggers a signaling cascade that results in their degranulation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which are key effectors in allergic reactions. We show that the activation of mast cells is negatively regulated by the newly identified adaptor protein Tespa1. Loss of Tespa1 in mouse mast cells led to hyper-responsiveness to stimulation via FcεRI. Mice lacking Tespa1 also displayed increased sensitivity to IgE-mediated allergic responses. The dysregulated signaling in KO mast cells was associated with increased activation of Grb2-PLC-γ1-SLP-76 signaling within the LAT1 (linker for activation of T cells family, member 1) signalosome versus the LAT2 signalosome. Collectively, these findings show that Tespa1 orchestrates mast cell activation by tuning the balance of LAT1 and LAT2 signalosome assembly.
To investigate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for detecting liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.
This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Liver fibrosis in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg 50% CCl4 twice a week for 4-13 weeks. Control rats were injected with saline. Liver fibrosis was graded using the Metaviar score: no fibrosis (F0), mild fibrosis (F1-F2) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA was performed for all rats. Ktrans, Kep, Ve and iAUC of the liver parenchyma were measured. Relative enhancement (RE) value of the liver was calculated on T1-weighted images at 15, 20 and 25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration.
Thirty-five rats were included: no fibrosis (n=13), mild fibrosis (n=11) and advanced fibrosis (n=11). Ktrans and iAUC values were highest in advanced fibrosis group and lowest in no fibrosis group (P＜0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for fibrosis (stages F1 and greater) were 0.773 and 0.882 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. AUROC for advanced fibrosis were 0.835 and 0.867 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. Kep and RE values were not able to differentiate fibrosis stages (all P＞0.05).
Ktrans and iAUC obtained from DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA are useful for the detection and staging of rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4.
Cortex Eucommiae (Du-zhong) is the dried bark of the Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. The natural products identified from Du-zhong include lignans, iridoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, terpenes, and proteins, Liu et al. (2012). Lignans, the main bioactive components, were protective against hypertensive renal injury in spontaneous hypertensive rats in our previous study, Li et al. (2012). Moreover, Eucommia lignans also diminished aldose reductase (AR) overexpression in the kidney, Li et al. (2012). However, the pathological mechanism underlying the protective effects of Eucommia lignans remains unknown. Cellular proliferation was reported to contribute to important pathological changes in hypertensive renal injuries, and increased angiotensin II (Ang II) expression was reported to be essential for target-organ damage during hypertension. Ang II is the main effective peptide in the renin-angiotensin system and is considered to be a key mediator in the development of hypertensive nephropathy, Rüster and Wolf (2011). Our preliminary results showed that Eucommia lignans had inhibitory effects on Ang II-induced proliferation of rat mesangial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Eucommia ulmoides on Ang II-induced proliferation and apoptosis of rat mesangial cells. Cell cycle-related genes P21 and P27, and cell apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2, were determined.
3-Aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, Triapine®) is a novel small molecule inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) with clinical signs of activity in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the Phase 2 Consortium (P2C) initiated a trial (two single stage studies with planned interim analysis) of 3-AP at 96 mg/m2 intravenously days 1–4 and 15–18 of a 28-day cycle in both chemotherapy-naive and gemcitabine-refractory (GR) patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The primary endpoint was survival at six months (chemotherapy-naive) and four months (GR). Secondary endpoints were toxicity, response, overall survival, time to progression and mechanistic studies. Fifteen patients were enrolled including one chemotherapy-naïve and 14 GR. The chemotherapy-naïve patient progressed during cycle 1 with grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Of 14 GR patients, seven received two cycles, six received one cycle and one received eight cycles. Progression precluded further treatment in 11 GR patients. Additionally, one died of an ileus in cycle 1 considered related to treatment and two stopped treatment due to toxicity. Five GR patients had grade 4 toxicities possibly related to 3-AP and six GR patients had grade 3 fatigue. Toxicities and lack of meaningful clinical benefit prompted early study closure. Four-month survival in GR patients was 21% (95% CI: 8–58%). Correlative studies confirmed that 3-AP increased the percentage of S-phase buccal mucosal cells, the presence of multidrug resistance gene polymorphisms appeared to predict leukopenia, and baseline pancreatic tumor RR M2 expression was low relative to other tumors treated with 3-AP. In conclusion, this regimen appears inactive against predominantly GR pancreatic cancer. RR M2 protein may not have a critical role in the malignant potential of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; Triapine; 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone; 3-AP; Ribonucleotide reductase
Probucol, an agent characterized by lipid-lowering and antioxidant property, retards atherosclerosis effectively. To test the hypothesis that probucol might act its antiatherosclerotic role by suppressing immune maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), 7-week-old LDLR−/− mice were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) and then fed either a high-fat diet only or added with 0.5% (wt/wt) probucol for 4 months, and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with or without probucol and stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. In STZ-induced diabetic LDLR−/− mice, probucol treatment significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels; regressed aortic atherosclerotic lesions; reduced splenic CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC-II expression, and plasma IL-12p70 production; and decreased the expression of CD11c+ DCs within atherosclerotic lesions. In vitro, oxidized low-density lipoprotein promoted human monocyte–derived dendritic cells maturation; stimulated CD40, CD86, CD1a, HLA-DR expression; increased tumor necrosis factor-α production; and decreased IL-4 production. However, these effects were obviously inhibited by probucol pretreatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that probucol effectively retarded atherosclerosis at least partly through lipid-lowering and inhibiting immune maturation of CD11c+ DCs in STZ-induced diabetic LDLR−/− mice.
probucol; dendritic cells; atherosclerosis; streptozotocin; diabetes; LDLR−/− mice; ox-LDL
The purpose of this study was to identify the dysregulated genes involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC), and their possible mechanisms. Endometrial specimens including normal endometrial tissues, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and EEC were analyzed. The expression profiles were compared using GeneChip Array. The gene expression levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in the training and testing sets to correlate the clinico-pathological parameters of EEC. Immunoblotting, in vitro cell migration and invasion assays were performed in human endometrial cancer cell lines and their transfectants. In microarray analysis, seven dysregulated genes were identified. Only the levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were higher in EEC with deep myometrial invasion, positive lympho-vascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced stages. After multivariate analysis, uPA was the only independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in the EEC patients (hazard ratio: 4.65, p = 0.03). uPA may enhance the migratory and invasive capabilities of endometrial tumor cells by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and p38 molecules. uPA is a dysregulated gene involved in the tumorigenesis, bio-pathological features and outcomes of EEC. uPA may be a potential molecule and target for the detection and treatment of EEC.
At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.
Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have
been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral
infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs
collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested
for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for
BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo.
Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences
obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under
the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which
suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included
only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were
closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly
divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in
cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction
and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common
to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of
closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current
study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the
largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in
bovine astrovirus; cattle; China; phylogenetic analysis; water buffalo
AIM: To investigate the differences in outcome following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD).
METHODS: Major databases including PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library were searched for comparative studies between patients with PPPD and SSPPD published between January 1978 and July 2014. Studies were selected based on speciﬁc inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Secondary outcomes included operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pancreatic fistula, postoperative hemorrhage, intraabdominal abscess, wound infection, time to starting liquid diet, time to starting solid diet, period of nasogastric intubation, reinsertion of nasogastric tube, mortality and hospital stay. The pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model.
RESULTS: Eight comparative studies recruiting 650 patients were analyzed, which include two RCTs, one non-randomized prospective and 5 retrospective trial designs. Patients undergoing SSPPD experienced significantly lower rates of DGE (OR = 2.75; 95%CI: 1.75-4.30, P < 0.00001) and a shorter period of nasogastric intubation (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 0.77-4.58, P < 0.00001), with a tendency towards shorter time to liquid (WMD = 2.97, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.09) and solid diets (WMD = 3.69, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.08) as well as shorter inpatient stay (WMD = 3.92, 95%CI: -0.37-8.22; P = 0.07), although these latter three did not reach statistical significance. PPPD, however, was associated with less intraoperative blood loss than SSPPD [WMD = -217.70, 95%CI: -429.77-(-5.63); P = 0.04]. There were no differences in other parameters between the two approaches, including operative time (WMD = -5.30, 95%CI: -43.44-32.84; P = 0.79), pancreatic fistula (OR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.56-1.49; P = 0.70), postoperative hemorrhage (OR = 0.51; 95%CI: 0.15-1.74; P = 0.29), intraabdominal abscess (OR = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.54-2.05; P = 0.89), wound infection (OR = 0.88; 95%CI: 0.39-1.97; P = 0.75), reinsertion of nasogastric tube (OR = 1.90; 95%CI: 0.91-3.97; P = 0.09) and mortality (OR = 0.31; 95%CI: 0.05-2.01; P = 0.22).
CONCLUSION: SSPPD may improve intraoperative and short-term postoperative outcomes compared to PPPD, especially DGE. However, these findings need to be further ascertained by well-designed randomized controlled trials.
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pylorus preserving Subtotal stomach preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy; Delayed gastric emptying; Pancreatic surgery; Meta-analysis
MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in modulating gene expression during the processes of tumorigenesis and tumor development. Previous studies have found that miR-145 is down-regulated in the stomach neoplasm and is related to tumor migration and invasion. However, both the molecular mechanism and function of miR-145 in gastric cancer remain unclear. The present study is the first demonstration of the significant down-regulation of miR-145 expression in infiltrative gastric cancer compared to expanding gastric cancer. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed strong inverse correlations between miR-145 and FSCN1 expression levels in infiltrative gastric cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-145 directly targets FSCN1 and suppresses cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer. Knocking down the expression of FSCN1 led to the suppression of migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells, and re-expressing FSCN1 in miR-145-overexpressing cells reversed their migration and invasion defects. Thus, we concluded that miR-145 regulates cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer primarily by directly targeting FSCN1.
Here we found loss of c-Cbl, an E3 ligase, expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with its adjacent normal tissue in patient specimens. HDAC inhibition by WJ or knockdown of HDAC 1, HDAC2, HDAC3 or HDAC6 all induced c-Cbl. Ectopic expression of c-Cbl induced decreased EGFR, inhibited growth in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of EGFR inhibited NSCLC growth. Mutation of EGFR at Y1045 decreased WJ-induced growth inhibition as well as in vivo anti-cancer effect and EGFR degradation mediated by WJ. Time-lapse confocal analysis showed co-localization of c-Cbl and EGFR after WJ treatment. Furthermore, WJ inhibited lung tumor growth through c-Cbl induction in orthotopic and tail vein injected models. C-Cbl up-regulation induced by HDACi is a potential strategy for NSCLC treatment.
c-Cbl; EGFR; HDAC inhibitors; lung cancer
Gastroschisis requires surgical repair, which is generally performed after birth. We report a case in which a fetus with gastroschisis underwent the abdominal wall defect repair before birth. To ensure reliable operating conditions for the repair (to prevent fetal movement and crying), the fetus received deep anesthesia via placental transfer of maternally administered anesthetics. Meanwhile, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure was performed to ensure fetal oxygen supply, which was likely to be compromised by the deep fetal anesthesia. The procedure last for 23 minutes and the gastroschisis was successfully repaired before the neonate was delivered. Maternal hemodynamics was kept stable during this surgical procedure. The prenatal repair of abdominal wall defect is safe for the mother and the fetus, which could potentially improve the neonatal outcomes.
Gastroschisis; fetal therapy; general anesthesia; EXIT procedure
Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosus)patients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43).Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE) and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A). The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045).Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009). Analysis with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.
Background and Objective. Exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated cardioprotective effects. This study examined the role of exosomes derived from MSC overexpressing CXCR4 for recovery of cardiac functions after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. In vitro, exosomes from MSC transduced with lentiviral CXCR4 (ExoCR4) encoding a silencing sequence or null vector were isolated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Gene expression was then analyzed by qPCR and Western blotting. Cytoprotective effects on cardiomyocytes were evaluated and effects of exosomes on angiogenesis analyzed. In vivo, an exosome-pretreated MSC-sheet was implanted into a region of scarred myocardium in a rat MI model. Angiogenesis, infarct size, and cardiac functions were then analyzed. Results. In vitro, ExoCR4 significantly upregulated IGF-1α and pAkt levels and downregulated active caspase 3 level in cardiomyocytes. ExoCR4 also enhanced VEGF expression and vessel formation. However, effects of ExoCR4 were abolished by an Akt inhibitor or CXCR4 knockdown. In vivo, ExoCR4 treated MSC-sheet implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration by increasing angiogenesis, reducing infarct size, and improving cardiac remodeling. Conclusions. This study reveals a novel role of exosomes derived from MSCCR4 and highlights a new mechanism of intercellular mediation of stem cells for MI treatment.
Null mutations in one copy of ATP2A2, the gene encoding sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2), cause Darier disease in humans, a skin condition involving keratinocytes. Cardiac function appears to be unimpaired in Darier disease patients, with no evidence that SERCA2 haploinsufficiency itself causes heart disease. However, SERCA2 deficiency is widely considered a contributing factor in heart failure. We therefore analyzed Atp2a2 heterozygous mice to determine whether SERCA2 haploinsufficiency can exacerbate specific heart disease conditions. Despite reduced SERCA2a levels in heart, Atp2a2 heterozygous mice resembled humans in exhibiting normal cardiac physiology. When subjected to hypothyroidism or crossed with a transgenic model of reduced myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 deficiency caused no enhancement of the disease state. However, when combined with a transgenic model of increased myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity, SERCA2 haploinsufficiency caused rapid onset of hypertrophy, decompensation, and death. These effects were associated with reduced expression of the antiapoptotic Hax1, increased levels of the proapoptotic genes Chop and Casp12, and evidence of perturbations in energy metabolism. These data reveal myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity to be an important determinant of the cardiac effects of SERCA2 haploinsufficiency and raise the possibility that Darier disease patients are more susceptible to heart failure under certain conditions.
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. While myocardial dysfunction has been recognized as a major manifestation in severe sepsis, the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with septic cardiomyopathy remain unclear. In this study, we performed a miRNA array analysis in hearts collected from a severe septic mouse model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Among the 19 miRNAs that were dys-regulated in CLP-mouse hearts, miR-223(3p) and miR-223*(5p) were most significantly downregulated, compared with sham-operated mouse hearts. To test whether a drop of miR-223 duplex plays any roles in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and inflammation, a knockout (KO) mouse model with a deletion of the miR-223 gene locus and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to CLP or sham surgery. We observed that sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, inflammatory response and mortality were remarkably aggravated in CLP-treated KO mice, compared with control WTs. Using Western-blotting and Luciferase reporter assays, we identified Sema3A, an activator of cytokine storm and a neural chemorepellent for sympathetic axons, as an authentic target of miR-223* in the myocardium. In addition, we validated that miR-223 negatively regulated the expression of STAT-3 and IL-6 in mouse hearts. Furthermore, injection of Sema3A protein into WT mice revealed an exacerbation of sepsis-triggered inflammatory response and myocardial depression, compared with control IgG1 protein-treated WT mice following CLP surgery. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of miR-223/- 223* causes an aggravation of sepsis-induced inflammation, myocardial dysfunction and mortality. Our study uncovers a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying septic cardiomyopathy and thereby, may provide a new strategy to treat sepsis.
Sepsis; microRNA; myocardial depression; Sema3A; inflammation
Wear debris particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening is one of the major causes of failure of total joint replacement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of titanium implant material and inflammatory cytokines on human synovial cells and the development to osteolysis and aseptic loosening.
This study investigated the effect of titanium implant material on the ECM-degraded MMP-2 in human synovial cells and analyzed the contribution of synovial cells in osteolysis and aseptic loosening.
When human synovial cells are exposed to titanium materials, MMP-2 activity is induced by 1.72 ± 0.14-fold with Ti disc and 3.95 ± 0.10-fold with Ti particles, compared with that of the controls, respectively. Inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β are also shown to induce MMP-2 activity by 3.65 ± 0.28-fold and 6.76 ± 0.28-fold, respectively. A combination of Ti particles and cytokines induces MMP-2 activities to a higher level (10.54 ± 0.45-fold). Inhibitors of various signal pathways involved in MMP-2 reverse Ti particle-induced MMP-2 activities.
Synovial cells surrounding the bone–prosthesis interface may contribute to production of MMP-2, and NFκB inhibitors may be explored as potential therapeutics to alleviate wear debris-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening.
Prosthetic arthroplasty; Osteolysis; MMP-2; Inflammatory cytokines; Synovial membrane
Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Previous studies suggested that in male Sprague Dawley rats, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced short-term hyperalgesia depends on protein kinase A (PKA) activity, whereas long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 with carrageenan pre-injection, requires protein kinase Cε (PKCε). However, the mechanism underlying the kinase switch with short- to long-term hyperalgesia remains unclear. In this study, we used the inflammatory agents carrageenan or complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce long-term hyperalgesia, and examined PKA and PKCε dependence and switching time. Hyperalgesia induced by both agents depended on PKA/PKCε and Gs/Gi-proteins, and the switching time from PKA to PKCε and from Gs to Gi was about 3 to 4 h after inflammation induction. Among the single inflammatory mediators tested, PGE2 and 5-HT induced transient hyperalgesia, which depended on PKA and PKCε, respectively. Only acidic solution-induced hyperalgesia required Gs-PKA and Gi-PKCε, and the switch time for kinase dependency matched inflammatory hyperalgesia, in approximately 2 to 4 h. Thus, acidosis in inflamed tissues may be a decisive factor to regulate switching of PKA and PKCε dependence via proton-sensing G-protein–coupled receptors.
It is very interesting that magic electron affection promotes growth of nanocrystals
due to nanoscale characteristics of electronic de Broglie wave which produces
resonance to transfer energy to atoms. In our experiment, it was observed that
silicon nanocrystals rapidly grow with irradiation of electron beam on amorphous
silicon film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and silicon nanocrystals
almost occur in sphere shape on smaller nanocrystals with less irradiation time of
electron beam. In the process, it was investigated that condensed structures of
silicon nanocrystals are changed with different impurity atoms in silicon film, in
which localized states emission was observed. Through electron beam irradiation for
15min on amorphous Si film doped with oxygen impurity atoms by PLD process, enhanced
photoluminescence emission peaks are observed in visible light. And
electroluminescence emission is manipulated into the optical communication window on
the bigger Si-Yb-Er nanocrystals after irradiation of electron beam for 30min.
We reported a simple and effective way of fabricating one-dimensional (1D) graphene oxide nanoscrolls (GONS) from graphene oxide (GO) sheets through shock cooling by liquid nitrogen. The corresponding mechanism of rolling was proposed. One possibility is the formation of ice crystals during the shock cooling process in liquid nitrogen to be the driving force. The other might be due to the uneven stress of the sheets inside or outside ice during the lyophilization. After reducing, graphene nanoscrolls (GNS) exhibited good structural stability, high specific surface area, and high specific capacitance. The capacitance properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrical impedance spectroscopy. A specific capacity of 156 F/g for the GNS at the current density of 1.0 A/g was obtained comparing with the specific capacity of 108 F/g for graphene sheets. Those results indicated that GNS-based rolling structure could be a kind of promising electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries.
81.07.De (Nanotubes); 81.16.Be (Chemical synthesis methods); 62.23.Hj (Nanowires); 72.80.Vp (Graphene electronic transport); Graphene nanoscrolls; Shock cooling; Supercapacitors