Maintaining genomic integrity is of paramount importance to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as mutations are readily propagated to daughter cells. ESCs display hypersensitivity to DNA damage-induced apoptosis (DIA) to prevent such propagation, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this apoptotic response are unclear. Here, we report the regulatory RNA Apela positively regulates p53-mediated DIA. Apela is highly expressed in mouse ESCs and is repressed by p53 activation, and Apela depletion compromises p53-dependent DIA. Although Apela contains a coding region, this coding ability is dispensable for Apela’s role in p53-mediated DIA. Instead, Apela functions as a regulatory RNA and interacts with hnRNPL, which prevents the mitochondrial localization and activation of p53. Together, these results describe a tri-element negative feedback loop composed of p53, Apela, and hnRNPL that regulates p53-mediated DIA, and further demonstrate that regulatory RNAs add a layer of complexity to the apoptotic response of ESCs following DNA damage.
embryonic stem cells; apoptosis; p53; regulatory RNA; hnRNPL; epigenetics
Metabolic pathway alignment has been widely used to find one-to-one and/or one-to-many reaction mappings to identify the alternative pathways that have similar functions through different sets of reactions, which has important applications in reconstructing phylogeny and understanding metabolic functions. The existing alignment methods exhaustively search reaction sets, which may become infeasible for large pathways. To address this problem, we present an effective alignment method for accurately extracting reaction mappings between two metabolic pathways. We show that connected relation between reactions can be formalized as binary relation of reactions in metabolic pathways, and the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relations of reactions can be accomplished in finite steps. By utilizing the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relation of reactions, we efficiently obtain reaction sets in a small number of steps without exhaustive search, and accurately uncover biologically relevant reaction mappings. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of topological similarity of nodes (reactions) by comparing the structural similarity of the k-neighborhood subgraphs of the nodes in aligning metabolic pathways. We employ this similarity metric to improve the accuracy of the alignments. The experimental results on the KEGG database show that when compared with other state-of-the-art methods, in most cases, our method obtains better performance in the node correctness and edge correctness, and the number of the edges of the largest common connected subgraph for one-to-one reaction mappings, and the number of correct one-to-many reaction mappings. Our method is scalable in finding more reaction mappings with better biological relevance in large metabolic pathways.
Through analysis of a reported microarray-based high-throughput examination, we found that miR-1275 was significantly down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). While its role and mechanism participated in NPC progression are still little known. Here, we explored the effect of miR-1275 on the progression of NPC. Results demonstrated that miR-1275 was markedly down-regulated in NPC tissues and cell lines. MiR-1275 markedly repressed cell growth as confirmed by CCK8 and colony formation assay, via inhibition of HOXB5 in NPC cell lines. Moreover, miR-1275 suppressed G1/S transition via inhibition of HOXB5. Further, oncogene HOXB5 was evidenced to be a potential target of miR-1275, and its expression was conversely correlated with miR-1275 expression in NPC. Collectively, our study indicated that miR-1275, a tumor suppressor, played a critical effect on NPC progression via inhibition of cell growth, and suppression of G1/S transition by targeting oncogenic HOXB5.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12079-016-0351-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
microRNA-1275 (miR-1275); HOXB5; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); Proliferation
Background and Objectives
Complete surgical resection is recommended for early stage lung cancer, and adjuvant chemotherapy is given for stage IB to IIIA disease. No studies have examined the best timing to administer chemotherapy after surgery in lung cancer. This study was to investigate the optimal timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection.
Data collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between January, 2004 and December, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with stage IB to IIIA lung cancer underwent complete surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy were included. A total of 1522 patients were included. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the interval between surgery and chemotherapy: group 1, < 30 days; group 2, 30–45 days; group 3, 46–60 days; group 4 > 60 days. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors for overall survival.
The numbers of patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 153, 161, 290, and 818, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 41% in group 1, 48% in group 2, 50% in group 3, and 35% in group 4 (p<0.001). The median survival time was 44.50 months in group 1, 59.53 months in group 2, 67.33 months in group 3 and 36.33 months in group 4 (p<0.001) Survival rate is the poorest when chemotherapy is delayed beyond 60 days after surgical resection Multivariate analysis also indicated the interval between surgery and first course of chemotherapy more than 60 days after surgery was an independent risk factor for survival.
Timing of chemotherapy after surgery is associated with poorer survival in lung cancer patients.
Three (BLM, WRN, RECQ4) of the five human RecQ helicases are linked to genetic disorders characterized by genomic instability, cancer, and accelerated aging . RECQ1, the first human RecQ helicase discovered [2–4] and most abundant , was recently implicated in breast cancer [6,7]. RECQ1 is an ATP-dependent DNA unwinding enzyme (helicase) [8,9] with roles in replication [10–12] and DNA repair [13–16]. RECQ1 is highly expressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines (for review, see ) and its suppression reduces cancer cell proliferation , suggesting a target for anti-cancer drugs. RECQ1’s assembly state plays a critical role in modulating its helicase, branch-migration (BM), or strand annealing [18,19]. The crystal structure of truncated RECQ1 [20,21] resembles that of E. coli RecQ  with two RecA-like domains, a RecQ-specific zinc-binding and winged-helix domains, the latter implicated in DNA strand separation and oligomer formation. In addition, a conserved aromatic loop (AL) is important for DNA unwinding by bacterial RecQ [23,24] and truncated RECQ1 helicases . To better understand the roles of RECQ1, two AL mutants (W227A, F231A) in full-length RECQ1 were characterized biochemically and genetically. The RECQ1 mutants were defective in helicase or BM, but retained DNA binding, oligomerization, ATPase, and strand annealing. RECQ1-depleted HeLa cells expressing either AL mutant displayed reduced replication tract length, elevated dormant origin firing, and increased double-strand breaks that could be suppressed by exogenously expressed Replication Protein A (RPA). Thus, RECQ1 governs RPA’s availability in order to maintain normal replication dynamics, suppress DNA damage, and preserve genome homeostasis.
Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a number of mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens are vertically transmitted in their insect vectors, providing a mechanism for these arboviruses to persist during adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of a susceptible vertebrate host. In this study, designed to test whether Zika virus (ZIKV) could be vertically transmitted, female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were injected with ZIKV, and their F1 adult progeny were tested for ZIKV infection. Six of 69 Ae. aegypti pools, comprised of a total of 1,738 F1 adults, yielded ZIKV upon culture, giving a minimum filial infection rate of 1:290. In contrast, none of 803 F1
Ae. albopictus adults (32 pools) yielded ZIKV. The MFIR for Ae. aegypti was comparable to MFIRs reported for other flaviviruses in mosquitoes, including dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. The results suggest that vertical transmission may provide a potential mechanism for the virus to survive during adverse conditions.
β-Sitosterol is the most abundant plant sterol in the human diet. It is
also the major component of several traditional medicines, including saw palmetto and
devil’s claw. Although β-sitosterol is effective against enlarged prostate
in human clinical trials and has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, the
mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of two new
binding proteins for β-sitosterol that may underlie its beneficial effects.
β-Sitosterol; 17β-HSD4; E-Syt1; Target identification; Phytosterol
Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre-test knowledge scores on universal precautions were relatively high. Correct answers about universal precautions improved significantly from pre-test (83.71%) to post-test (89.58%; χ2 = 25.00, p = 0.00). After the intervention, nurses’ attitude scores improved significantly from pre-test (3.80 ± 0.79) to post-test (4.06 ± 0.75; t = 3.74, p = 0.00). Conclusions: Integrated educational interventions enhance nurses’ knowledge of risk reduction for occupationally acquired HIV infections and improve the observance of universal precautionary procedures. This enhancement allows nurses to assume a teaching role for prevention and management of HIV/AIDS.
nurses; occupational exposure; HIV; knowledge; early intervention
Associative learning, including classical conditioning and operant conditioning, is regarded as the most fundamental type of learning for animals and human beings. Many models have been proposed surrounding classical conditioning or operant conditioning. However, a unified and integrated model to explain the two types of conditioning is much less studied. Here, a model based on neuromodulated synaptic plasticity is presented. The model is bioinspired including multistored memory module and simulated VTA dopaminergic neurons to produce reward signal. The synaptic weights are modified according to the reward signal, which simulates the change of associative strengths in associative learning. The experiment results in real robots prove the suitability and validity of the proposed model.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease, which causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in infants and the elderly. Models of human RSV pulmonary disease are needed to better understand RSV pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of RSV vaccines. We assessed the RSV-specific human innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses in humanized mice (mice with a human immune system [HIS mice]) with functional human CD4+ T and B cells. These mice were generated by introduction of HLA class II genes, various human cytokines, and human B cell activation factor into immunodeficient NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice by the use of an adeno-associated virus vector, followed by engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. During the first 3 days of infection, HIS mice lost more weight and cleared RSV faster than NSG mice. Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and human interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was detected in the RSV-infected HIS mice. The pathological features induced by RSV infection in HIS mice included peribronchiolar inflammation, neutrophil predominance in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, and enhanced airway mucus production. Human anti-RSV IgG and RSV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum and human anti-RSV mucosal IgA was detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid for up to 6 weeks. RSV infection induced an RSV-specific human gamma interferon response in HIS mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that human immune cells can induce features of RSV lung disease, including mucus hyperplasia, in murine lungs and that HIS mice can be used to elicit human anti-RSV humoral and cellular immunity.
IMPORTANCE Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common and can cause severe lung disease in infants and the elderly. The lack of a suitable animal model with disease features similar to those in humans has hampered efforts to predict the efficacy of novel anti-RSV therapies and vaccines for use in humans. A murine model consisting of mice with a human immune system (HIS mice) could be useful for assessment of RSV disease and anti-RSV responses specific to humans. This study investigates an HIS mouse model to imitate human RSV disease and immune responses. We found that RSV lung infection in HIS mice results in an RSV-specific pathology that mimics RSV disease in humans and induces human anti-RSV immune responses. This model could be useful for better understanding of human RSV disease and for the development of RSV therapies.
Adhesion molecules may play an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of interleukin- (IL-) 15 on CD11b, CD54, and CD62L expression on natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, and CD56+CD3+ NKT-like cells from SLE subjects and healthy controls. SLE patients had decreased circulating NK cells and NKT-like cells compared to controls. NK cells from SLE patients showed higher CD11b and CD62L expression compared to controls. IL-15 enhanced CD11b and CD54 but downregulated CD62L expression on NK cells from SLE patients. Similar observations were found for T cells and NKT-like cells. NK cells from SLE patients expressed higher CD56 than controls; both could be further enhanced by IL-15. IL-15 also enhanced CD56 expression of NKT-like cells from SLE patients. A greater degree of IL-15 induced downregulation of CD62L on NKT-like cells noted in SLE patients compared to controls. The percentage of CD11b expressing NK cells and the % inhibition of CD62L expression on NKT-like cells by IL-15 correlated with serum anti-dsDNA levels in SLE patients, respectively. Taken together, we demonstrated the dysfunctional NK and NKT-like cells in SLE patients with regard to CD11b and CD62L expression and their response to IL-15.
Recently we described a novel di-benzene-pyrylium-indolene (BAS00127538) inhibitor of Lipid II. BAS00127538 (1-Methyl-2,4-diphenyl-6-((1E,3E)-3-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)prop-1-en-1-yl)pyryl-1-ium) tetrafluoroborate is the first small molecule Lipid II inhibitor and is structurally distinct from natural agents that bind Lipid II, such as vancomycin. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of 50 new analogs of BAS00127538 designed to explore the structure-activity relationships of the scaffold. The results of this study indicate an activity map of the scaffold, identifying regions that are critical to cytotoxicity, Lipid II binding and range of anti-bacterial action. One compound, 6jc48-1, showed significantly enhanced drug-like properties compared to BAS00127538. 6jc48-1 has reduced cytotoxicity, while retaining specific Lipid II binding and activity against Enterococcus spp. in vitro and in vivo. Further, this compound showed a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile with a half-life of over 13 hours upon intravenous and oral administration and was stable in plasma. These results suggest that scaffolds like that of 6jc48-1 can be developed into small molecule antibiotic drugs that target Lipid II.
Pancreatic cancer is characterized as a disease with low survival and high mortality because of no effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies available in clinic. Conventional clinical diagnostic methods including serum markers and radiological imaging (CT, MRI, EUS, etc.) often fail to detect precancerous or early stage lesions. Development of effective biomarkers is unmet for reduction of mortality of pancreatic cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-protein-coding RNAs playing roles in regulation of cell physiology including tumorigenesis, apoptotic escape, proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and chemoresistance. Various altered signaling pathways involving in molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer are mediated by miRNAs as a role of either oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Among biomarkers developed including protein, metabolites, DNA, RNA, epigenetic mutation, miRNAs are superior because of its unique chemical property. Recent study suggests that miRNAs may be promising biomarkers used for early detection of pancreatic cancer. This review will update the progression made in early detection of pancreatic cancer.
Early detection; Pancreatic cancer; Cancer stem cells; microRNAs; Signal transduction; Biomarker
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been associated with decreased lung cancer risk. However, they have been associated with pulmonary infections (tuberculosis [TB] and pneumonia) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TB and pneumonia have increased lung cancer risk. The association between post-ICS pulmonary infections and lung cancer remains unclear.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2003 to 2010 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Among the 1,089,955 patients with COPD, we identified 8813 new users of ICS prescribed for a period of 3 months or more and 35,252 non-ICS users who were randomly matched for sex, age and date of ICS use from 2003 to 2005. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of pulmonary infections in patients with/without ICS use.
The HRs for lung cancer in ICS users with sequential lung infections were as follows; 2.42 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.28–4.58) for individuals with TB, 2.37 (95 % CI, 1.01–5.54) for TB and pneumonia, and 1.17(95 % CI, 0.69–1.98) for those with pneumonia. For non-ICS users with pulmonary infections, the HRs were 1.68 (95 % CI, 0.78–3.65) for individual with TB and pneumonia, 1.42 (95 % CI, 0.89–2.26) for TB, and 0.95 (95 % CI, 0.62–1.46) for individuals with pneumonia.
COPD patients with TB /or pneumonia who used ICS had increased risk of lung cancer. Because the overall prognosis of lung cancer remains poor, screening tests are recommended for patients with these conditions.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Inhaled corticosteroid; Pneumonia; Tuberculosis
An urge of biomarker identification is needed to better monitor lupus nephritis (LN) disease activity, guide clinical treatment, and predict patient's long-term outcome. With the proinflammatory effect and its association with inflammasomes, the significance of interleukin-18 (IL-18) among pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematous (pSLE) patient, especially, its importance in predicting long-term renal outcome was investigated.
In a pSLE cohort of 96 patients with an average follow-up period of 10.39 ± 3.31 years, clinical data and laboratory workups including serum IL-18 were collected at time of disease onset and 6 months after treatment despite their initial renal status. Through Cox regression analysis, the parameters at baseline and at 6 months posttreatment were carefully analyzed.
Average age of all cases was 12.74 ± 3.01 years old and 65 of them underwent renal biopsy at the time of diagnosis. Nine subjects (9.38%) progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 2 cases (2.08%) died during follow-up. Through multivariate analysis, serum IL-18 level 6 months posttreatment was found to be the most unfavorable factor associating poor clinical outcome despite patient's initial renal status. In addition, the presentation of serum IL-18 in its correlation with SLE global disease activity as well as the presence and severity of LN were all significant (P < 0.001, P = 0.03, and P = 0.02, respectively). The histological classification of LN, however, was not associated with the level of IL-18 among the pSLE patients (P = 0.64).
The role of serum IL-18 as biomarker representing global disease activity and status of renal flares among pSLE population was shown for the first time. Additionally, we have identified IL-18 at 6 months posttreatment a novel marker for long-term renal outcome prediction.
biomarker; interleukin-18; lupus nephritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; treatment response
FBPA I from E. coli was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase is one of the most important enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The full-length fbaB gene encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase class I (FBPA I) was cloned from Escherichia coli strain BL21. FBPA I was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. Biochemical analysis found that the optimum reaction temperature of FBPA I is 330.5 K and that the enzyme has a high temperature tolerance. Crystals of recombinant FBPA I were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique in a condition consisting of 19 mg ml−1 FBPA I in 0.1 M Tris pH 9.0, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000 and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 217.7, b = 114.9, c = 183.9 Å, β = 124.6°. The asymmetric unit of these crystals may contain ten molecules, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.48 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 50.5%.
thermostability; Ec-FBPA I; fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase
Low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation from high-dose scan is required in optimizing radiation dose to patients. In this study, we propose a simple low-dose CT simulation strategy in sinogram domain using the raw data from high-dose scan. Specially, a relationship between the incident fluxes of low- and high- dose scans is first determined according to the repeated projection measurements and analysis. Second, the incident flux level of the simulated low-dose scan is generated by properly scaling the incident flux level of high-dose scan via the determined relationship in the first step. Third, the low-dose CT transmission data by energy integrating detection is simulated by adding a statistically independent Poisson noise distribution plus a statistically independent Gaussian noise distribution. Finally, a filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is implemented to reconstruct the resultant low-dose CT images. The present low-dose simulation strategy is verified on the simulations and real scans by comparing it with the existing low-dose CT simulation tool. Experimental results demonstrated that the present low-dose CT simulation strategy can generate accurate low-dose CT sinogram data from high-dose scan in terms of qualitative and quantitative measurements.
X-ray CT; low-dose; high-dose; simulation
Patient-derived cell lines and animal models have proven invaluable for the understanding of human intestinal diseases and for drug development although both inherently comprise disadvantages and caveats. Many genetically determined intestinal diseases occur in specific tissue microenvironments that are not adequately modeled by monolayer cell culture. Likewise, animal models incompletely recapitulate the complex pathologies of intestinal diseases of humans and fall short in predicting the effects of candidate drugs. Patient-derived stem cell organoids are new and effective models for the development of novel targeted therapies. With the use of intestinal organoids from patients with inherited diseases, the potency and toxicity of drug candidates can be evaluated better. Moreover, owing to the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 genome-editing technologies, researchers can use organoids to precisely modulate human genetic status and identify pathogenesis-related genes of intestinal diseases. Therefore, here we discuss how patient-derived organoids should be grown and how advanced genome-editing tools may be applied to research on modeling of cancer and infectious diseases. We also highlight practical applications of organoids ranging from basic studies to drug screening and precision medicine.
organoid; pluripotent stem cells; intestinal cancer; inflammatory bowel disease
Early surgical intervention is required for the primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). There are currently few reports on the surgical outcomes in infants with PCG. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of trabeculotomy and the postoperative visual outcomes in Chinese newborns with PCG within 4 weeks of birth.
A total of 21 eyes of 12 patients with PCG who underwent primary trabeculotomy within 4 weeks of birth were retrospectively studied. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal clarity and diameter, axial length and optic disc cupping, visual acuity and postoperative refractive error, success rates, and complications were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to evaluate the success rates.
The mean follow-up time was 46.9 ± 34.4 months (range: 12–122 months). The postoperative IOP was significantly lower than the preoperative IOP at all of the follow-up visits (P < 0.001). The complete success rates for all eyes at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years postoperatively were 90.5%, 85.7%, 85.7%, and 85.7%, respectively. The IOPs of the three patients who needed antiglaucomatous medications postoperatively were also well controlled. At the last visit, the cornea became clear, and the cup-to-disc ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01) although the horizontal corneal diameter did not change significantly (P = 0.11). Visual acuities were able to be recorded in eight eyes at the last visit, among which six eyes had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. There were no severe intraoperative or postoperative complications.
Trabeculotomy proves to be a safe and effective treatment in reducing IOP in this group of Chinese newborns with PCG. The outcomes of vision function were satisfactory in most of the patients.
Glaucoma; Primary; Congenital; Newborn; Trabeculotomy
Growing evidence from recent studies has demonstrated an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and two polymorphisms of DLG5 R30Q (rs1248696) and P1371Q (rs2289310), but the results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis including a total of 22 studies with 10,878 IBD patients and 7917 healthy controls for R30Q and 5277 IBD cases and 4367 controls for P1371Q in order to systematically assess their association with the disease. The results indicated that R30Q was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to IBD in Europeans by allelic and dominant comparisons, but not in overall population. No significant association was found between R30Q and Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). P1371Q was associated with increased risk of IBD in Europeans and Americans. On the contrary, a decreased risk of IBD was observed in Asian population for P1371Q. In disease subgroup analysis, we found that P1371Q was also significantly associated with CD, but this relationship was not present for UC. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the both polymorphisms of DLG5 are correlated with IBD susceptibility in an ethnic-specific manner. Additional well-designed studies with large and diverse cohorts are needed to further strengthen our findings.
Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.
Sex and age difference; Anti-stroke target; Ischemic stroke
Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) has been demonstrated to improve endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, which played a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) impairs eNOS activity. We tested the hypothesis that DM may retard unilateral hindlimb ischemia-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting eNOS in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, and that TUS may reverse DM-related impairment of angiogenesis. C57BL/6 mice were allocated to four groups: (A) mice were fed standard diet (control); (B) mice were fed standard diet and treated with TUS (control+TUS); (C) type-2 DM mice were induced by HFD/STZ (diabetic); and (D) type-2 DM mice and treated with TUS (dabetic+TUS). All mice were surgically induced unilateral limb ischemia. The ischemic skeletal muscles in groups B and D were irradiated with extracorporeal TUS for 9 minutes/day (frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 0.3 W/cm2) for 14 consecutive days. The result showed that TUS augmented the blood perfusion, increased capillary density accompanied by an upregulation of angiogenic factors and a downregulation of apoptotic proteins in group D relative to group C. In vitro, TUS inhibited the apoptosis, promoted tubule formation, proliferation and migration capacities, increased angiogenic factors expression and reduced apoptotic protein levels in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, TUS can robust reverse the inhibiting effect induced by high glucose (HG) on HUVECs, and these benefits could be blocked by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or eNOS inhibitor (L-NAME). Together, TUS restored type-2 DM-mediated inhibition of ischemia-induced angiogenesis, partially via PI3K-Akt-eNOS signal pathway.
Angiogenesis; diabetic mice; hindlimb ischemia; therapeutic ultrasound
Recently we discovered that the central metabolite α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) extends lifespan in C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Unexpectedly, here we find that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various α-KG mediated processes, extends worm lifespan similarly. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like α-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase, and inhibit mTOR signaling; these effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or α-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, such as when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.