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1.  In vitro and in vivo characterization of a West Nile virus MAD78 infectious clone 
Archives of Virology  2014;159(11):3113-3118.
The viral determinants governing the varied neuropathogenicity of different West Nile virus (WNV) strains are poorly understood. Here, we generated an infectious clone (WNV-MADIC) of the non-pathogenic strain WNV-MAD78 and compared its replication to that of parental WNV-MAD78 and a WNV-MAD78 infectious clone (WNV-MADTX-UTRs) containing the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the pathogenic strain WNV-TX. All three viruses replicated at similar rates and caused similar lethality in mice. Thus, the infectious clone is indistinguishable from parental virus in replication and neurovirulence, and the UTRs alone do not account for the increased virulence of WNV-TX compared to WNV-MAD78.
PMCID: PMC4200346  PMID: 25023336
West Nile virus; WNV; Infectious clone; WNV-MAD78; Pathogenicity
2.  A FOXO3/IRF7 gene regulatory circuit limits inflammatory sequelae of antiviral responses 
Nature  2012;490(7420):421-425.
Antiviral responses must be tightly regulated to rapidly defend against infection while minimizing inflammatory damage. Type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are crucial mediators of antiviral responses1 and their transcription is regulated by a variety of transcription factors2; principal amongst these is the family of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs)3. The IRF gene regulatory networks are complex and contain multiple feedback loops. The tools of systems biology are well suited to elucidate the complex interactions that give rise to precise coordination of the interferon response. Here we have used an unbiased systems approach to predict that a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, FOXO3, is a negative regulator of a subset of antiviral genes. This prediction was validated using macrophages isolated from Foxo3-null mice. Genome-wide location analysis combined with gene deletion studies identified the Irf7 gene as a critical target of FOXO3. FOXO3 was identified as a negative regulator of Irf7 transcription and we have further demonstrated that FOXO3, IRF7 and IFN-I form a coherent feed-forward regulatory circuit. Our data suggest that the FOXO3-IRF7 regulatory circuit represents a novel mechanism for establishing the requisite set points in the interferon pathway that balances the beneficial effects and deleterious sequelae of the antiviral response.
PMCID: PMC3556990  PMID: 22982991
3.  The lineage-defining factors T-bet and Bcl-6 collaborate to regulate Th1 gene expression patterns 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2011;208(5):1001-1013.
T-bet acts as a functional repressor in association with Bcl-6 to antagonize SOCS1, SOCS3, TCF-1, and late-stage IFN-γ to regulate Th1 development.
The T-box transcription factor T-bet is important for the differentiation of naive CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells) into the Th1 phenotype. Much is known about T-bet’s role as a transcriptional activator, but less is known about the mechanisms by which T-bet functionally represses alternative Th cell genetic programs. In this study, we first identify Socs1, Socs3, and Tcf7 (TCF-1) as gene targets that are negatively regulated by T-bet. Significantly, T-bet’s role in the repression of these genes is through a direct interaction with their promoters. Consistent with this, we identified two T-bet DNA-binding elements in the Socs1 promoter that are functionally used to down-regulate transcription in primary Th1 cells. Importantly, T-bet’s novel role in transcriptional repression is because of its ability to physically associate with, and functionally recruit, the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 to a subset of promoters. Furthermore, T-bet functionally recruits Bcl-6 to the Ifng locus in late stages of Th1 differentiation to repress its activity, possibly to prevent the overproduction of IFN-γ, which could result in autoimmunity. Collectively, these data establish a novel mechanism for T-bet–mediated gene repression in which two lineage-defining transcription factors, one a classical activator and one a repressor, collaborate to promote and properly regulate Th1 development.
PMCID: PMC3092354  PMID: 21518797
4.  Using cell fate attractors to uncover transcriptional regulation of HL60 neutrophil differentiation 
BMC Systems Biology  2009;3:20.
The process of cellular differentiation is governed by complex dynamical biomolecular networks consisting of a multitude of genes and their products acting in concert to determine a particular cell fate. Thus, a systems level view is necessary for understanding how a cell coordinates this process and for developing effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases, such as cancer, in which differentiation plays a significant role. Theoretical considerations and recent experimental evidence support the view that cell fates are high dimensional attractor states of the underlying molecular networks. The temporal behavior of the network states progressing toward different cell fate attractors has the potential to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms governing differentiation.
Using the HL60 multipotent promyelocytic leukemia cell line, we performed experiments that ultimately led to two different cell fate attractors by two treatments of varying dosage and duration of the differentiation agent all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). The dosage and duration combinations of the two treatments were chosen by means of flow cytometric measurements of CD11b, a well-known early differentiation marker, such that they generated two intermediate populations that were poised at the apparently same stage of differentiation. However, the population of one treatment proceeded toward the terminally differentiated neutrophil attractor while that of the other treatment reverted back toward the undifferentiated promyelocytic attractor. We monitored the gene expression changes in the two populations after their respective treatments over a period of five days and identified a set of genes that diverged in their expression, a subset of which promotes neutrophil differentiation while the other represses cell cycle progression. By employing promoter based transcription factor binding site analysis, we found enrichment in the set of divergent genes, of transcription factors functionally linked to tumor progression, cell cycle, and development.
Since many of the transcription factors identified by this approach are also known to be implicated in hematopoietic differentiation and leukemia, this study points to the utility of incorporating a dynamical systems level view into a computational analysis framework for elucidating transcriptional mechanisms regulating differentiation.
PMCID: PMC2652435  PMID: 19222862

Results 1-4 (4)