Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with special morphology were commonly used as biomaterials, while morphological effects of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs on biological behaviors were still unclear. In this research, spherical and rod-like Fe3O4 in a comparable size were synthesized and then surface-modified by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs. Morphological effects were featured by TEM and quantification of in vitro phagocytic uptake, as well as the in vivo quantification of particles in reticuloendothelial system (RES)-related organs of normal Kunming mice. For these non-targeted BSA-modified MNPs, intracellular distributions were the same, but the rod-like MNPs were more likely to be uptake by macrophages; furthermore, the BSA-modified MNPs gathered in RES-related organs soon after intravenous injection, but the rod-like ones were expelled from the lung more quickly and expelled from the spleen more slowly. These preliminary results may be referable if MNPs or other similar biomolecule-modified nanoparticles were used.
Magnetic nanoparticles; Morphological effects; Reticuloendothelial system; Cellular uptake; Biodistribution
Inappropriate feeding practices during infancy may lead to overweight. The aims of this study are to investigate the growth of children in the first 18 months of life; to evaluate the feeding practices of caregivers using developed Young Child Feeding Questionnaire; and to investigate caregivers’ feeding attitudes and behaviors associated with infants’ weight status.
Six month-old infants and their main caregivers entering the Kongjiang Community Health Center for a routine well-child check were recruited for this study and followed up every 6 months for 12 months. Questionnaire survey was carried out through on-site face-to-face interview at each visit with the main caregivers of children using Young Child Feeding Questionnaire, which included caregivers’ feeding attitudes and behaviors. The weight and length of children were measured at each visit.
Among 197 children who completed the investigation at 18 months of age, 64 (32.49 %) children were overweight (BMI-for-age z scores > +1). The increases in weight-for-age z scores and BMI-for-age z scores from birth to 6 months, 12 to 18 months and birth to 18 months in overweight children were significantly higher than those in normal weight children (P < 0.001). In normal weight children, caregivers worried more about children’s being “underweight” and “eating less” (P = 0.001), whereas caregivers with overweight children worried more about children’s “eating too much” and being “overweight” (P < 0.001). In 64 overweight infants, the scores of “concern about child’s food intake” were significantly correlated with increase in BAZ between 12 and 18 months (Bata = 0.293, P = 0.029).
Young Child Feeding Questionnaire is a valid tool for evaluating feeding practice of caregivers. The rapid BMI gain in overweight children may be associated with some inappropriate feeding attitudes and behaviors of caregivers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0418-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Children; Feeding practices; Overweight
The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of Escherichia coli and eight strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were conducted for both sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was then performed to verify the correspondence of proteins between SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that the mass spectrum of ca. 35,000, 37,000, and 38,000-m/z peaks of E. coli ATCC 25922 corresponded to OmpA, OmpC, and OmpF with molecular weight of approximately ca. 38, 40, and 41 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. The band of OmpC and OmpF porins were unable to be distinguished by SDS-PAGE, whereas it was easy to be differentiated by MALDI-TOF MS. As for K. pneumoniae isolates, the mass spectrum of ca. 36,000 and 38,600-m/z peaks was observed corresponding to OmpA and OmpK36 with molecular weight of approximately ca. 40 and 42 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. Porin OmpK35 was not observed in the current SDS-PAGE, while a 37,000-m/z peak was found in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and carbapenem-susceptible strains by MALDI-TOF MS which was presumed to be the characteristic peak of the OmpK35 porin. Compared with SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS is able to rapidly identify the porin-deficient strains within half an hour with better sensitivity, less cost, and is easier to operate and has less interference.
outer membrane protein; MALDI-TOF MS; SDS-PAGE; E. coli; K. pneumoniae
The Gossypium hirsutum homoeologous chromosome 12 encodes important genes that contribute to fiber fuzz, lethality, gland development and male sterility. In this study a physical map of the cotton TM-1 chromosome 12 was constructed. A number of large-insert cotton genome libraries are available, and genome-wide physical mapping using large insert segments combined with bacterial cloning is a thriving area of genome research. However, sequencing of the cotton genome is difficult due to sequence repeats and homoeologous regions. In order to effectively distinguish the homologous segments, a new method for adjusting the parameters of the FPC software was applied for contig map construction.
All available markers on chromosomes A12 and D12 were used to screen the TM-1 BAC library by PCR. A total of 775 clones (387 for A12, 388 for D12) were obtained using Hind III fingerprinting and used for construction of the contig map. Seven pairs of SSR markers located on A12 and D12 were chosen for contig analysis. Following optimization of the tolerance (10) and cutoff (1e-12) parameters, combining all clones from A12 and D12 produced two separate contigs.
The BAC contig map of chromosomes A12 and D12 was constructed and FPC software parameters were optimized for analysis. The resulting approach is a powerful platform for genome-wide and evolutionary research on cotton.
Contig; BAC; Fingerprint; Homoeologous chromosome; Cotton; Genomics
In this study, we determined and genetically characterized three fowl adenoviruses isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) in China and assessed their pathogenicity. The full genome of HBQ12, BJH13 and JSJ13 was found to be 44,081, 43,966 and 43,756 nucleotides long, respectively. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain HBQ12 and BJH13 were clustered together belonging to fowl adenoviruses D species and serotyped as FAdV-11, whereas strain JSJ13 was classified into fowl adenoviruses C species and serotyped as FAdV-4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FAdV-4 strain circulating in China. The pathogenicity test showed that mortality for chickens infected with HBQ12 and JSJ13 within 21 days post infection (dpi) was 8.6% and 28.6%, respectively. Necropsy displayed mild or severe hepatitis and hydropericardium at 3 and 5 dpi as well as dead chickens. Viral DNA was detected in almost all tissues sampled from dead chickens. These results revealed that fowl adenovirus strains HBQ12 and JSJ13 are capable of causing IBH and HPS in chickens, indicating that preventive measures against FAdV infection on poultry farms should be implemented in China.
Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0–15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29–1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter and plays a central role in the high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol metabolism and lipid clearance from the foam cell. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous lipid mediator that requires cell-cell interaction or cell-platelet interaction for its synthesis. The roles of LXA4 on inflammatory responses are well described, while its effects on mediating ABCA1 and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that LXA4 significantly increases expression of ABCA1 and LXRα in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Cellular cholesterol content was decreased while cholesterol efflux was increased by LXA4 treatment. However, after short interfering RNA of LXRα, the effects of LXA4 on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol metabolism were significantly abolished. These results provide evidence that LXA4 increases ABCA1 expression and promotes cholesterol efflux through LXRα pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.
LXA4; LXRα; ABCA1; cholesterol efflux; THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells
SNPs are the most abundant polymorphism type, and have been explored in many crop genomic studies, including rice and maize. SNP discovery in allotetraploid cotton genomes has lagged behind that of other crops due to their complexity and polyploidy. In this study, genome-wide SNPs are detected systematically using next-generation sequencing and efficient SNP genotyping methods, and used to construct a linkage map and characterize the structural variations in polyploid cotton genomes.
We construct an ultra-dense inter-specific genetic map comprising 4,999,048 SNP loci distributed unevenly in 26 allotetraploid cotton linkage groups and covering 4,042 cM. The map is used to order tetraploid cotton genome scaffolds for accurate assembly of G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Recombination rates and hotspots are identified across the cotton genome by comparing the assembled draft sequence and the genetic map. Using this map, genome rearrangements and centromeric regions are identified in tetraploid cotton by combining information from the publicly-available G. raimondii genome with fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis.
We report the genotype-by-sequencing method used to identify millions of SNPs between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. We construct and use an ultra-dense SNP map to correct sequence mis-assemblies, merge scaffolds into pseudomolecules corresponding to chromosomes, detect genome rearrangements, and identify centromeric regions in allotetraploid cottons. We find that the centromeric retro-element sequence of tetraploid cotton derived from the D subgenome progenitor might have invaded the A subgenome centromeres after allotetrapolyploid formation. This study serves as a valuable genomic resource for genetic research and breeding of cotton.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0678-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Association and disassociation of gene loci with respect to specific nuclear compartments accompany changes in gene expression, yet little is known concerning the mechanisms by which this occurs or its functional consequences. Previously we showed that tethering acidic activators to a peripheral chromosome site led to movement of the chromosome site away from the nuclear periphery, but the physiological relevance of this movement was unclear . Nuclear speckles, or interchromatin granule clusters, are enriched in factors involved in RNA processing , and the association of a subset of active genes at their periphery suggests speckles may play a role in gene expression [3, 4]. Here we show an actin dependent association of Hsp70 transgenes with nuclear speckles after heat shock. We visualized Hsp70 transgenes moving curvilinearly towards nuclear speckles over ~0.5–6 μm distances at velocities of 1–2 μm min−1. Chromatin stretching in the direction of movement demonstrates a force generating mechanism. Transcription in nearly all cases increased noticeably only after initial contact with a nuclear speckle. Moreover, blocking new Hsp70 transgene/speckle association by actin depolymerization prevented significant heat-shock induced transcriptional activation in transgenes not associated with speckles, although robust transcriptional activation was observed for Hsp70 transgenes associated with nuclear speckles. Our results demonstrate the existence of a still to be revealed machinery for moving chromatin in a direct path over long distances towards nuclear speckles in response to transcriptional activation; moreover this speckle association enhances the heat-shock activation of these Hsp70 transgenes.
The major surface lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), is an immunosuppressive epitope of M. tb. Interleukin (IL)-37, is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the correlation between ManLAM and IL-37 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the possible role and relative molecular mechanism of ManLAM in IL-37 production of human type II alveolar epithelial cells by using A549 cell line. Here, we report that M. tb induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We next fractionated components of M. tb using chloroform: methanol (C:M) and water. In sharp contrast to the C:M phase, water phase was mainly responsible for the production of IL-37. Since ManLAM is the major component of water phase, we found that ManLAM induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner, while this activity was almost totally abolished by the ERK1/2 (U0126) and p38 (SB203580) inhibitor. ManLAM stimulation significantly induced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells, as well as cell surface TLR2 expression. After interfering TLR2 expression, ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels were markedly decreased, and also IL-37 production. Though ManLAM also promoted TLR4 expression on A549 cells, TLR4 interference showed no influence on ManLAM-induced IL-37 production. Our results indicate that ManLAM induces IL-37 production in human type II alveolar epithelial cells via up-regulating TLR2/p38 or ERK1/2 pathway, and this provide an important evidence to explain the pathological role of ManLAM that contribute to the persistence of M. tb.
ManLAM; tuberculosis; IL-37; TLR2; ERK1/2; p38
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, AADD) is an allotetraploid, therefore the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is difficult. The recent emergence of genome complexity reduction technologies based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform has greatly expedited SNP discovery in crops with highly repetitive and complex genomes. Here we applied restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technology for de novo SNP discovery in allotetraploid cotton. We identified 21,109 SNPs between the two parents and used these for genotyping of 161 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Finally, a high dense linkage map comprising 4,153 loci over 3500-cM was developed based on the previous result. Using this map quantitative trait locus (QTLs) conferring fiber strength and Verticillium Wilt (VW) resistance were mapped to a more accurate region in comparison to the 1576-cM interval determined using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map. This suggests that the newly constructed map has more power and resolution than the previous SSR map. It will pave the way for the rapid identification of the marker-assisted selection in cotton breeding and cloning of QTL of interest traits.
Intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer remains a challenging manipulation due to the uncontrolled direction of the jejunal side or unintended embedded tissues, although several methods have been introduced. In this study, we simplified the procedure based on a surgical string fixing technique using a transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™; Covidien Ltd., Mansfield, MA, USA).
From March 2012 to September 2013, 14 consecutive patients underwent simplified intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer at our hospital. Clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical outcomes of these patients were retrospectively analyzed.
All of the procedures were successful completed with no complication or conversion to open surgery. The mean overall operative time was 193.8 ± 41.8 min, whereas the mean reconstruction time was 32.6 ± 4.6 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 105.7 ± 65.4 ml. The mean diameter of anastomosis measured by upper gastrointestinal contrast X-ray test at 1 month after operation was 2.3 cm. During a median follow-up period of 12 months, neither local recurrence nor anastomosis-related morbidity was observed.
Our preliminary results suggested that this automatically contamination-avoiding technique based on a surgical-string-fixing strategy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer might be feasible and safe and provide a simple solution for intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy.
Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy; Esophagojejunostomy; Gastrectomy
We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 1-3 of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study, and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.88; P=7.72x10−20) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR= 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91; P=3.10x10−13). rs7447927 is a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TMEM173 and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.46; P=1.99x10−10). Our joint analysis identified new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the ESCC high risk Taihang Mountain region.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and the effect of low-dose glucocorticoid on prognosis of CIRCI in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
Since January 2010 to December 2012, 385 patients, who met the criteria of AECOPD, were enrolled in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the First People’s Hospital and Municipal Central Hospital of Xiangtan City. The AECOPD patients complicated with CIRCI screened by an adrenalcorticotrophic hormone test within 12 hours after admission to ICU were divided into a treatment group (n=32) and a control group (n=31) for a prospective, randomized and controlled clinical trial. Hydrocortisone (150 mg/d) or normal saline was injected intravenously for 7 days. The patients were followed up for 28 days after injection. The endpoint included 28-day survival time, non-shock time, ICU stay and the period of non-mechanical ventilation. The markers of inflammation C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6 and procalcitonin were measured at baseline and 7 days after treatment. The variables were analyzed by Student’s t test, the non-parametric statistical test, the Chi-square test or the Kaplan-Meier method with SPSS18.0 statistic software. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Totally 63 patients were diagnosed with CIRCI by an adrenalcorticotrophic hormone test and the prevalence rate was 16.4%. The shock rate of the AECOPD patients complicated with CIRCI was higher than that of the AECOPD patients without CIRCI (23.8% vs. 8.7%, P<0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the 28-day survival time of the treatment group was obviously longer than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, shock-free days within 28 days was longer in the treatment group (18.2±9.5 vs. 25.8±4.1, P<0.05). Treatment with low-dose glucocorticoid obviously decreased the markers of infection and inflammation (P<0.01), such as C-reactive protein (13.2±5.5 mg/L vs. 8.3±3.1 mg/L for the control group; 13.5±5.9 mg/L vs. 5.1±2.3 mg/L for the treatment group), tumor necrosis factor-α (26.1±16.2 μg/L vs. 17.5±11.7 μg/L for the control group; 25.0±14.8 μg/L vs. 10.4±7.8 μg/L for the treatment group) and procalcitonin (3.88 μg/L vs. 2.03 μg/L for the control group; 3.77 μg/L vs. 1.26 μg/L for the treatment group). Furthermore, the markers in the treatment group decreased more obviously than those in the control group (P<0.01).
The prevalence rate of CIRCI was higher in the patients with AECOPD in the department of critical medicine, and low-dose glucocorticoid treatment for one week reduced the 28-day mortality, shock time and markers of infection and inflammation.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Acute exacerbation; Glucocorticoid; Critical illness; Corticosteroid insufficiency; Prevalence rate; Prognosis; Inflammation
Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is a human zoonotic pathogen, which could result in severe respiratory disease. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of C. psittaci in regulating the inflammatory response in host cells. C. psittaci-infected THP-1 cells were incubated with the specific T3SS inhibitor INP0007, inhibitors of ERK, p38, or JNK, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed using Q-PCR and ELISA. The levels of ERK, p38, and JNK phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot. Our results verified that INP0007 inhibited chlamydial growth in vitro, but the coaddition of exogenous iron completely reversed the growth deficit. INP0007 inhibited the growth of C. psittaci and decreased the levels of IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Exogenous iron restored the chlamydial growth but not the production of inflammatory cytokines. These results demonstrated that the expression of inflammatory cytokines during infection was associated with the T3SS which reduced by incubation with ERK and JNK inhibitors, but not with p38 inhibitor. We concluded that the T3SS elicited inflammatory responses by activating the JNK or ERK signaling pathways in the infection of C. psittaci.
Soluble cluster of differentiation 40 (sCD40) is proteolytically cleaved from membrane-bound CD40 and binds to CD154, thereby inhibiting CD40-CD154-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of sCD40 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The sCD40 levels in sera from 132 patients with CHB and 33 healthy individuals were retrospectively measured. sCD40 concentrations in patients with CHB were higher than those in healthy controls, and sCD40 levels correlated positively with serum levels of the liver dysfunction biomarkers alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). sCD40 concentrations increased with a rise in the severity of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. Patients with >75% liver tissue staining positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen expression showed significantly lower sCD40 levels than those who stained negative for the HBV antigen. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of sCD40 was greater than that of ALT and AST; thus, sCD40 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting severe liver inflammation in patients with CHB, and could serve as an immunological marker of hepatic tissue injury.
fibrosis; hepatocyte; immune; necroinflammatory
Intestinal nematodes or roundworms (aka soil-transmitted helminths or STHs) cause great disease. They infect upwards of two billion people, leading to high morbidity and a range of health problems, especially in infected children and pregnant women. Development of resistance to the two main classes of drugs used to treat intestinal nematode infections of humans has been reported. To fight STH infections, we need new and more effective drugs and ways to improve the efficacy of the old drugs. One promising alternative drug is nitazoxanide (NTZ). NTZ, approved for treating human protozoan infections, was serendipitously shown to have therapeutic activity against STHs. However, its mechanism of action against nematodes is not known. Using the laboratory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that NTZ acts on the nematodes through avr-14, an alpha-type subunit of a glutamate-gated chloride ion channel known for its role in ivermectin susceptibility. In addition, a forward genetic screen to select C. elegans mutants resistant to NTZ resulted in isolation of two NTZ resistant mutants that are not in avr-14, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in resistance to NTZ. We found that NTZ combines synergistically with other classes of anthelmintic drugs, i.e. albendazole and pyrantel, making it a good candidate for further studies on its use in drug combination therapy of STH infections. Given NTZ acts against a wide range of nematode parasites, our findings also validate avr-14 as an excellent target for pan-STH therapy.
To investigate characteristics of euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
This retrospective study was carried out between May 2010 and April 2013 at the Pediatric Department of Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, China. Diabetic ketoacidosis children were divided into 2 groups: euthyroidism (group one, n=30) and ESS (group 2, n=40). C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), bicarbonate, anion gap (AG), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were measured before and after 7 days of insulin treatment. Daily blood glucose (BG) profiles were recorded.
Glycosylated hemoglobin, AG, the mean daily BG, and fasting blood glucose levels were higher, and bicarbonate, FT3, FT4, and TSH levels were lower in group 2 than in group one (all p<0.05). Free triiodothyronine (r=-0.593, p<0.001) and FT4 (r=-0.402, p=0.001) were negatively correlated with HbA1c. Free triiodothyronine (r=-0.438, p<0.001) and FT4 (r=-0.505, p<0.001) were negatively correlated with AG, and FT3 (r=0.503, p<0.001) and FT4 (r=0.448, p<0.001) were positively correlated with bicarbonate.
Diabetic ketoacidosis children with ESS have poor diabetic control. Free thyroid hormones are associated with the severity of DKA.
Aim: To explore the mechanisms underlying the different responses of macrophages to distinct Candida albicans strains. Methods: Bone marrow was collected from mice. Macrophages were independently incubated with 3 Candida albicans strains. Results: MyD88 expression in Candida albicans 3683 group was significantly higher than that in Candida albicans 3630 group and Candida albicans SC5314 group, and marked difference was also observed between later two groups (P<0.05). CARD9 expression in Candida albicans 3630 group was higher than that in Candida albicans 3683 group and Candida albicans SC5314 group. Fluorescence intensity was 46.78±0.79 in Candida albicans 3630 group, 32.60±1.31 in Candida albicans 3683 group and 19.40±0.58 in Candida albicans SC5314, and significant difference was observed between any two groups (P<0.05). TNF-α and IL-10 were 18.9843±0.7081 pg/ml and 11.6690±0.3167 pg/ml, respectively, in Candida albicans 3683 group, which were markedly higher than those in Candida albicans 3630 group and Candida albicans SC5314 group (P<0.05 and 0.01). Conclusion: Different Candida albicans strains may induce CARD9 expression and alter the production of ROS, TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages, which may be one of mechanisms underlying the different killing effects of macrophages on distinct Candida albicans strains.
Candida albicans; macrophage; MyD88; CARD9; IL-10/TNF-α; reactive oxygen species
AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing laparoscopic (LGD2) and open D2 gastrectomies (OGD2) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing LGD2 with OGD2 for AGC treatment, published between 1 January 2000 and 12 January 2013, were identified in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Primary endpoints included operative outcomes (operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and conversion rate), postoperative outcomes (postoperative analgesic consumption, time to first ambulation, time to first flatus, time to first oral intake, postoperative hospital stay length, postoperative morbidity, incidence of reoperation, and postoperative mortality), and oncologic outcomes (the number of lymph nodes harvested, tumor recurrence and metastasis, disease-free rates, and overall survival rates). The Cochrane Collaboration tools and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality and risk of bias of RCTs and non-RCTs in the study. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the incidence rate of various postoperative morbidities as well as recurrence and metastasis patterns. A Begg’s test was used to evaluate the publication bias.
RESULTS: One RCT and 13 non-RCTs totaling 2596 patients were included in the meta-analysis. LGD2 in comparison to OGD2 showed lower intraoperative blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -137.87 mL, 95%CI: -164.41--111.33; P < 0.01], lower analgesic consumption (WMD = -1.94, 95%CI: -2.50--1.38; P < 0.01), shorter times to first ambulation (WMD = -1.03 d, 95%CI: -1.90--0.16; P < 0.05), flatus (WMD = -0.98 d, 95%CI: -1.30--0.66; P < 0.01), and oral intake (WMD = -0.85 d, 95%CI: -1.67--0.03; P < 0.05), shorter hospitalization (WMD = -3.08 d, 95%CI: -4.38--1.78; P < 0.01), and lower postoperative morbidity (odds ratio = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.61-0.99; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between LGD2 and OGD2 for the following criteria: reoperation incidence, postoperative mortality, number of harvested lymph nodes, tumor recurrence/metastasis, or three- or five-year disease-free and overall survival rates. However, LGD2 had longer operative times (WMD = 57.06 min, 95%CI: 41.87-72.25; P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Although a technically demanding and time-consuming procedure, LGD2 may be safe and effective, and offer some advantages over OGD2 for treatment of locally AGC.
D2 lymph node dissection; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy; Meta-analysis
Backgroud. CCR6+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (CCR6+ Tregs), a distinct Tregs subset, played an important role in various immune diseases. Recent evidence showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators in the function of immune cells. However, the potential role of miRNAs in the function of CCR6+ Tregs remains largely unknown. In this study, we detected the expression profile of miRNAs in CCR6+ Tregs.
Materials and Methods. The expression profile of miRNAs as well as genes in CCR6+ Tregs or CCR6- Tregs from Balb/c mice were detected by microarray. The signaling pathways were analyzed using the Keggs pathway library.
Results. We found that there were 58 miRNAs significantly upregulated and 62 downregulated up to 2 fold in CCR6+ Tregs compared with CCR6- Tregs. Moreover, 1,391 genes were observed with 3 fold change and 20 signaling pathways were enriched using the Keggs pathway library.
Conclusion. The present data showed CCR6+ Tregs expressed specific miRNAs pattern, which provides insight into the role of miRNAs in the biological function of distinct Tregs subsets.
CCR6; miRNAs; Regulatory T cell; Microarray
Twenty-two KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from three hospitals in Hangzhou, China, from 2007 to 2011. One isolate, with OmpC porin deficiency, exhibited high-level carbapenem resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that few isolates were indistinguishable or closely related. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type 131 (ST131) was the predominant type (9 isolates, 40.9%), followed by ST648 (5 isolates), ST405 (2 isolates), ST38 (2 isolates), and 4 single STs, ST69, ST2003, ST2179, and ST744. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 9 group B2 isolates belonged to ST131, and 5 of 11 group D isolates belonged to ST648. Only one group B1 isolate and one group A isolate were identified. A representative plasmid (pE1) was partially sequenced, and a 7,788-bp DNA fragment encoding Tn3 transposase, Tn3 resolvase, ISKpn8 transposase, KPC-2, and ISKpn6-like transposase was obtained. The blaKPC-2-surrounding sequence was amplified by a series of primers. The PCR results showed that 13 isolates were consistent with the genetic environment in pE1. It is the first report of rapid emergence of KPC-2-producing E. coli ST131 in China. The blaKPC-2 gene of most isolates was located on a similar genetic structure.
Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are often located in the deep mucosa or submucosa, and the efficacy of endoscopic biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of GI-NENs is not fully understood.
The current study analyzed GI-NENs, especially those diagnosed pathologically and resected endoscopically, and focused on the biopsy and cold biopsy forceps polypectomy (CBP) to analyze their roles in diagnosing and treating GI-NENs.
Clinical data of all GI-NENs were reviewed from January 2006 to March 2012. Histopathology was used to diagnose GI-NENs, which were confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
67.96% GI-NENs were diagnosed pathologically by endoscopy. Only 26.21% were diagnosed pathologically by biopsies before treatment. The diagnostic rate was significantly higher in polypoid (76.47%) and submucosal lesions (68.75%), than in ulcerative lesions (12.00%). However, biopsies were only taken in 56.31% patients, including 51.52% of polypoid lesions, 35.56% of submucosal lesions and 100.00% of ulcerative lesions. Endoscopic resection removed 61.76% of GI-NENs, including six by CBP, 14 by snare polypectomy with electrocauterization, 28 by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and 15 by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). 51.52% polypoid GI-NENs had infiltrated the submucosa under microscopic examination. CBP had a significantly higher rate of remnant (33.33%) than snare polypectomy with electrocauterization, EMR and ESD (all 0.00%).
Biopsies for all polypoid and submucosal lesions will improve pre-operative diagnosis. The high rate of submucosal infiltration of polypoid GI-NENs determined that CBP was inadequate in the treatment of GI-NENs. Diminutive polypoid GI-NENs that disappeared after CBP had a high risk of remnant and should be closely followed up over the long term.
High intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The trabecular meshwork (TM), a reticular tissue in the outflow passage of the aqueous humor (AH), is a major contributor to intraocular outflow resistance. High levels of myocilin (MYOC), which is expressed in the TM, are associated with high IOP. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) concentrations in human AH are significantly elevated in POAG patients. This study was designed to investigate the effects of TGF-β2 on MYOC expression and secretion in human primary cultured TM cells. Primary cultured human TM cells were treated with 0 (control group), 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL TGF-β2 for 12, 24, or 48 h. MYOC mRNA and protein expressions in TM cells and protein secretion in conditioned media were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), respectively. TM cells treated with 1, 10, and, 100 ng/mL TGF-β2 for 48 h showed higher MYOC mRNA and protein expressions than those in the control group (0 ng/mL TGF-β2) (all P < 0.05). Treatment with TGF-β2 for 48 h also induced MYOC secretion in conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner (0 ng/mL: 7.107±1.163 pg/ml; 1 ng/mL: 7.879±1.894 pg/ml; 10 ng/mL: 8.063±1.181 pg/ml; 100 ng/mL: 8.902±0.699 pg/ml; all P < 0.05). In Conclusion, TGF-β2 induced MYOC expression and secretion in human primary cultured TM cells. Further investigations are required to confirm the involvement of these two factors in POAG pathogenesis.
Primary cell culture; trabecular meshwork cells; glaucoma; transforming growth factor-beta 2; myocilin