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1.  The Role of Parenting in Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Latino Adolescents 
Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San Diego-Tijuana border. Logistic regression was used to test parenting behaviors’ impact. Parenting was protective against alcohol use, but not related to tobacco use. Substance using peers affected both alcohol and tobacco use. Alcohol prevention efforts among Latino adolescents should target parenting behaviors.
doi:10.1080/1067828X.2012.730359
PMCID: PMC3579539  PMID: 23439845
adolescents; alcohol; tobacco; Latinos; parental influence
2.  Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86391.
Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (THS) – the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker) similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS). In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086391
PMCID: PMC3906039  PMID: 24489722
3.  Latino Parenting Practices: A Comparison of Parent and Child Reports of Parenting Practices and the Association with Gateway Drug Use 
Journal of ethnicity in substance abuse  2011;10(1):10.1080/15332640.2011.547800.
Parent and adolescent self-reports are the most common sources for measuring parenting practices. This study’s purpose was to compare how parent and adolescent reports of parenting behaviors differentially predict adolescent gateway drug use. The sample consisted of 252 Latino adolescent-parent dyads. After controlling for potential confounding influences, only adolescents’ reports about their parents’ parenting behaviors were significant and explained 38% of the variance in gateway drug use. Practitioners may recommend to parents seeking parenting advice that they solicit feedback from their adolescent to ensure parenting efforts are received in the manner they were intended.
doi:10.1080/15332640.2011.547800
PMCID: PMC3880251  PMID: 21409705
adolescents; gateway drugs; Latino; parenting
4.  An Adaptive Physical Activity Intervention for Overweight Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82901.
Background
Physical activity (PA) interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible.
Objective
To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention.
Methods
Participants (N = 20) were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1) static intervention (SI) or 2) adaptive intervention (AI). Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9±9.2 years, 35% non-white) in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data.
Results
A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001) and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p = .017). The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74).
Conclusions
The adaptive intervention outperformed the static intervention for increasing PA. The adaptive goal and feedback algorithm is a “behavior change technology” that could be incorporated into mHealth technologies and scaled to reach large populations.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01793064
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082901
PMCID: PMC3857300  PMID: 24349392
5.  Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California 
Journal of family violence  2012;27(8):801-811.
This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation.
doi:10.1007/s10896-012-9471-z
PMCID: PMC3640577  PMID: 23645971
intimate partner violence; family violence; Korean; immigration stress
6.  Beliefs About the Health Effects of “Thirdhand” Smoke and Home Smoking Bans 
Pediatrics  2009;123(1):e74-e79.
OBJECTIVE
There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Children are uniquely susceptible to thirdhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to assess health beliefs of adults regarding thirdhand smoke exposure of children and whether smokers and nonsmokers differ in those beliefs. We hypothesized that beliefs about thirdhand smoke would be associated with household smoking bans.
METHODS
Data were collected by a national random-digit-dial telephone survey from September to November 2005. The sample was weighted by race and gender within Census region on the basis of US Census data. The study questions assessed the level of agreement with statements that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of children.
RESULTS
Of 2000 eligible respondents contacted, 1510 (87%) completed surveys, 1478 (97.9%) answered all questions pertinent to this analysis, and 273 (18.9%) were smokers. Overall, 95.4% of nonsmokers versus 84.1% of smokers agreed that secondhand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2% of nonsmokers versus 43.3% of smokers agreed that thirdhand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoking in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers: 88.4% vs 26.7%. In multivariate logistic regression, after controlling for certain variables, belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children remained independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home. Belief that secondhand smoke harms the health of children was not independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home and car.
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that beliefs about the health effects of thirdhand smoke are independently associated with home smoking bans. Emphasizing that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children may be an important element in encouraging home smoking bans.
doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2184
PMCID: PMC3784302  PMID: 19117850
smoking; tobacco; pediatrics; family practice; parent; smoking cessation; secondhand smoke; environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco control
7.  Promoting Smoke-Free Homes: A Novel Behavioral Intervention Using Real-Time Audio-Visual Feedback on Airborne Particle Levels 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73251.
Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073251
PMCID: PMC3751871  PMID: 24009742
8.  Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:753.
Background
High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA.
Methods/Design
A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants’ online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on primary and secondary outcomes will be analyzed using general linear modeling (GLM), or generalized linear modeling if the assumptions for GLM cannot be met.
Discussion
Results will contribute to greater understanding of how to conceptualize and implement social networks to support long-term PA. Establishing social networks for PA across multiple life settings could contribute to cultural norms that sustain active living.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01142804
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-753
PMCID: PMC3844372  PMID: 23945138
Social networks; Social environment; Social support; Built environment; Walking; Exercise; Accelerometers; Social media; Internet; Sustainability
9.  A TWO-WAY ROAD: RATES OF HIV INFECTION AND BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS AMONG DEPORTED MEXICAN LABOR MIGRANTS 
AIDS and Behavior  2012;16(6):1630-1640.
A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N=693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23% and 0.80%, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3%) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0%), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1%), casual partners (25.7%), and sex workers (8.6%), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico.
doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0196-z
PMCID: PMC3402603  PMID: 22562390
HIV; risk behaviors; Mexican migrants; deportation
10.  Residential smoking restrictions are not associated with reduced child SHS exposure in a baseline sample of low-income, urban African Americans 
Health  2010;2(11):1264-1271.
Second hand smoke exposure (SHSe) relates to many chronic and acute illnesses. Low income African American (AA) maternal smokers and their children have disproportionately higher tobacco-use and child SHSe-related morbidity and mortality than other populations. While public health officials promote residential smoking restrictions to reduce SHSe and promote smoking cessation, little is known about the impact of restrictions in changing smoking behavior and SHSe in this population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between residential smoking restrictions, maternal smoking, and young children’s SHSe in the context of other factors known to influence low income AA mothers’ smoking behavior. For this study, we used cross-sectional, baseline data from 307 AA maternal smokers’ pre-treatment interviews completed as part of a subsequent behavioral counseling trial to reduce their young (< 4 years old) children’s SHSe. Residential smoking restriction was dichotomized as 0 = no restrictions and 1 = some restrictions. Child urine cotinine provided a biomarker of SHSe. Mothers reported cigarettes/day smoked, cigarettes/day exposed to child, and intention to quit. Multivariate regressions modeled effects of restriction as the primary predictor of smoking and exposure outcomes. Maternal smoking patterns such as cigarettes per day (β = 0.52, p < 0.001) and years smoked (β = −0.11; p = 0.03) along with presence of additional smokers in the home (β = 0.10; p = 0.04), but not residential restriction (β = −0.09, p = 0.10), predicted reported SHSe. Restriction did not relate to baby cotinine or maternal intention to quit. Thus, residential smoking restrictions may contribute to efforts to reduce children’s SHSe and promote maternal smoking change; but alone, may not constitute a sufficient intervention to protect children. Multi-level intervention approaches that include SHSe-reduction residential smoking policies plus support and cessation assistance for smokers may be a necessary approach to smoke-free home adoption and adherence.
doi:10.4236/health.2010.211188
PMCID: PMC3715960  PMID: 23875066
Home Smoking Policy; Second Hand Smoke; Underserved Populations
11.  Smoking-Related Weight Concerns Among Underserved, Black Maternal Smokers 
Objective
To expand understanding of a smoking cessation barrier for women, weight concerns, in a medically underserved population.
Methods
Baseline weight concerns were examined among 235 low-income, black maternal smokers enrolled in a smoking trial. Logistic regression evaluated factors related to weight concerns.
Results
Higher BMI (OR 3.35, P<.001), intention to quit (OR 2.12, P=.02), more previous quit attempts (OR 1.14, P=.03), and less support for quitting (OR 0.81, P=.05) predicted weight concerns.
Conclusions
This is the first study to delineate factors predicting weight concerns in this population, thus expanding our understanding of a key cessation barrier and informing future cessation strategies in a population known to bear increased risk of tobacco-related disease.
PMCID: PMC3715964  PMID: 19320618
weight concerns; smoking cessation; maternal; underserved; black
12.  Smoking Trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: Exemplifying a Common Error in Age Parameterization 
Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001–2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Koreans and Korean Americans, with these patterns also differing between men and women. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.
PMCID: PMC3677836  PMID: 22901135
South Koreans' Health; Korean Americans' Health; Age; Tobacco Control; Immigration; Smoking
13.  When smokers move out and nonsmokers move in: Residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure 
Tobacco control  2010;20(1):e1.
Background
This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers’ homes after they move out and nonsmokers move in, and whether new nonsmoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes.
Methods
Homes of 100 smokers and 50 nonsmokers were visited before the residents moved out. Dust, surfaces, and air and participants’ fingers were measured for nicotine and children’s urine samples were analyzed for cotinine. The new residents who moved into these homes were recruited if they were nonsmokers. Dust, surfaces, and air, and new residents’ fingers were examined for nicotine in 25 former smoker and 16 former nonsmoker homes. A urine sample was collected from the youngest resident.
Results
Smoker homes’ dust, surface, and air nicotine decreased after the change of occupancy (p<.001); yet dust and surfaces showed higher contamination levels in former smoker homes than former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Nonsmoking participants’ finger nicotine was higher in former smoker homes compared to former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Finger nicotine levels among nonsmokers living in former smoker homes were significantly correlated with dust and surface nicotine and urine cotinine.
Conclusions
These findings indicate that THS accumulates in smokers’ homes and persists when smokers move out even after homes remain vacant for two months and are cleaned and prepared for new residents. When nonsmokers move into homes formerly occupied by smokers, they encounter indoor environments with THS polluted surfaces and dust. Results suggest that nonsmokers living in former smoker homes are exposed to THS in dust and on surfaces.
doi:10.1136/tc.2010.037382
PMCID: PMC3666918  PMID: 21037269
Tobacco Smoke Pollution; Secondhand Smoke; Passive Smoking; Thirdhand Smoke; Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure
14.  Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women 
Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)  2010;45(1):89-97.
This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, −0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, −0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not.
doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2010.08.006
PMCID: PMC3658459  PMID: 20843638
Korean American Women; Social Networks; Acculturation; Ecological Models of Health Behavior
15.  Gaps between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Disclosure during Outpatient Visits 
Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-risk behaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96%) were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 risk behaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 risk behaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of risk behaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions.
doi:10.1155/2013/718568
PMCID: PMC3655594  PMID: 23710357
16.  Parent/child training to increase preteens’ calcium, physical activity and bone density: A controlled trial 
PURPOSE
To test effects of parent/child training designed to increase calcium intake, bone-loading physical activity (PA), and bone density.
DESIGN
Two-group randomized controlled trial.
SETTING
Family-based intervention delivered at research center.
SUBJECTS
117 healthy children aged 10-13 years (58.1% female, 42.7% Hispanic, 40.2% White). Ninety-seven percent of participants had at least one parent graduate from high school and 37.2% had at least one parent graduate from a 4-year university.
INTERVENTION
Children and parents were randomly assigned to diet and exercise (experimental) or injury prevention (control) interventions. Children were taught in eight weekly classes how to engage in bone-loading PA and eat calcium-rich foods or avoid injuries. Parents were taught behavior management techniques to modify children’s behaviors.
MEASURES
Measures at baseline, three, nine and twelve months included 24-hour diet and PA recalls, and bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA.
ANALYSIS
ANOVA and Generalized Estimating Equations assessed group by time differences. Comparisons were conducted separately for boys and girls.
RESULTS
For boys, cross-sectional differences between experimental versus control group were achieved for 3 and 9-month calcium intake (1352 vs. 1052mg/day, 1298 vs. 970mg/day, p<0.05). For girls, marginal cross-sectional differences were achieved for high-impact PA at 12 months (p<0.10). For calcium intake, a significant group by time interaction was observed from pre to post test for the full sample (p=.008) and for girls (p=.006) but not for boys. No significant group by time differences in calcium were observed across the follow-up period. No group by time differences were observed for high impact physical activity. Among boys, longitudinal group by time differences reached significance for total hip BMD (p=.045) and femoral neck BMD (p=.033), even after adjusting for skeletal growth. Similar differential increases were observed among boys for BMC at the hip (p=.068) and total body (p=.054) regions. No significant group by time interaction effects were observed for girls at any bone site for BMD. For BMC, control girls showed a significant increase (p=.03) in spine BMC compared to intervention girls
CONCLUSION
This study demonstrated that parent/preteen training can increase calcium intake and attenuate the decline in high-impact PA. Results suggest that more powerful interventions are needed to increase activity levels and maximize bone mineral accrual during pre-adolescent years.
doi:10.4278/ajhp.08021111
PMCID: PMC3571764  PMID: 19928484
Calcium; diet; parent education; physical activity; preteens; Osteoporosis prevention; Manuscript format: research; Research purpose: intervention testing/ program evaluation; Study design: randomized trial; Outcome measure: behavioral, biometric; Setting: family; Health focus: fitness/physical activity, nutrition; Strategy: education, skill building/behavior change; Target population age: youth; Target population circumstances: geographic location
17.  Fidelity issues in secondhand smoking interventions for children 
This paper reviews methodological and theoretical fidelity of secondhand smoking (SHS) intervention studies (n=29) that target protection of children in their home. In 2005, interventions were evaluated in terms of treatment fidelity according to guidelines provided by Borrelli et al. of the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium. The degree of fidelity was evaluated based on the percentage of criteria met; the inter-rater reliability based on percent agreement across independent raters was 0.78. Analysis indicated that studies with higher treatment fidelity were more likely to obtain statistically significant results (p=.003) with the average fidelity rating of 0.74 for statistically significant studies vs. 0.50 for statistically non-significant studies. Higher treatment fidelity was also significantly associated with being a more recent investigation (year 2000 or later), an efficacy as compared to effectiveness trial, more intensive as compared to less intensive intervention, a trial in the U.S. as compared to foreign nations, and having a theoretical basis. After taking all other variables into account, only treatment fidelity was significantly related to study outcome (p=.052). Ratings of treatment fidelity were ranked and compared to previous rankings based on 342 behavioral change interventions; the rank-ordered correlation between previous and current ratings was 0.84, although median fidelity ratings were 0.10 points lower in the previous than in the present study (0.52 vs. 0.62; intraclass correlation=0.79). Improvements to the treatment fidelity evaluation guidelines were suggested, including the consideration of theoretical fidelity. Enhancing methodological and theoretical fidelity will speed identification of valid theoretical precepts that will, in turn, guide effective public health prevention programs.
doi:10.1080/14622200802443429
PMCID: PMC3533496  PMID: 19023822
18.  Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers 
Objective
To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties.
Methods
Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM).
Results
The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying, respectively, and both full models shared the significant predictors of being black(−), being Hispanic (−), peer modeling of weapon carrying/jail time(+), and school suspensions(+).
Conclusions
Results suggest that the BEM offers a generalizable conceptual model that may inform prevention strategies for youth at greatest risk of weapon carrying.
PMCID: PMC3519928  PMID: 19320622
weapon carrying; risk factors; protective factors; adolescents; drop-in centers
19.  The Reliability and Practicality of the Arkansas Method Assay of INH Adherence 
Clinical nursing research  2010;19(2):131-143.
The Arkansas Method (AM) for Isoniazid (INH) metabolite detection is a relatively inexpensive, simple, objective measure of adherence. The purpose of the study was to explore whether variations in urine sample handling and storage will produce accurate assay outcomes. Participants were a convenience sample of 28 adults and adolescents prescribed INH for Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI). Participants provided one sample to test effects of: mixing processes; durations at room temperature, in a refrigerator, or frozen; and effects of freeze/thaw cycles on AM outcomes. No manipulations had a discernible impact on outcomes with concordant positive rates from 85–100%. Concordance rates of manipulated samples didn’t appear to differ from rates of norm samples. Results suggest that urine samples can withstand a variety of manipulations in both handling and storage without affecting the accuracy of AM assay results. These findings have important implications for providers of treatment and researchers, and provide the impetus for both to examine the potential of using the AM of INH metabolite testing as a measure of medication adherence.
doi:10.1177/1054773810363473
PMCID: PMC3510760  PMID: 20435784
Arkansas Method; Tuberculosis; LTBI; Adherence; Isoniazid
20.  Secondhand Smoke Risk in Infants Discharged from an NICU: Potential for Significant Health Disparities? 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;13(11):1015-1022.
Introduction:
Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans.
Methods:
Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected.
Results:
Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02).
Conclusions:
The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr116
PMCID: PMC3430443  PMID: 21669959
21.  Sensitivity to Secondhand Smoke Exposure Predicts Future Smoking Susceptibility 
Pediatrics  2011;128(2):254-262.
OBJECTIVE:
Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in tobacco-naive youth is a strong predictor of smoking initiation. Identifying mechanisms that contribute to smoking susceptibility provide information about early targets for smoking prevention. This study investigated whether sensitivity to secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) contributes to smoking susceptibility.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:
Subjects were high-risk, ethnically diverse 8- to 13-year-old subjects who never smoked and who lived with at least 1 smoker and who participated in a longitudinal SHSe reduction intervention trial. Reactions (eg, feeling dizzy) to SHSe were assessed at baseline, and smoking susceptibility was assessed at baseline and 3 follow-up measurements over 12 months. We examined the SHSe reaction factor structure, association with demographic characteristics, and prediction of longitudinal smoking susceptibility status.
RESULTS:
Factor analysis identified “physically unpleasant” and “pleasant” reaction factors. Reported SHSe reactions did not differ across gender or family smoking history. More black preteens reported feeling relaxed and calm, and fewer reported feeling a head rush or buzz compared with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic white counterparts. Longitudinally, 8.5% of subjects tracked along the trajectory for high (versus low) smoking susceptibility. Reporting SHSe as “unpleasant or gross” predicted a 78% reduction in the probability of being assigned to the high–smoking susceptibility trajectory (odds ratio: 0.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.95]), after covariate adjustment.
CONCLUSIONS:
Assessment of SHSe sensitivity is a novel approach to the study of cigarette initiation etiology and informs prevention interventions.
doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3156
PMCID: PMC3146357  PMID: 21746728
secondhand smoke; sensitivity; smoking susceptibility; trajectories; preteens
22.  Challenges for the smoking ban in Israeli pubs and bars: analysis guided by the behavioral ecological model 
Background
The latest amendment to the ban on smoking in public places in Israel was implemented in 2007, adding pubs and bars (P&B) to the list of public places in which smoking is prohibited. However, smoking in most P&B continued. The aim of the study was to identify the theoretically plausible reasons for the partial success of a public ban on smoking in P&B settings. Explanations provided by P&B owners were interpreted as probable causal factors based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM).
Methods
Qualitative interviews were performed with 36 P&B owners in Tel-Aviv and 18 Israeli towns and cities of various population size.
Results
P&B owners reported a variety of situational factors (i.e., contingencies) and reinforcers as likely explanations of the partial failure of the legislated ban on smoking in public places, particularly P&B. The major reinforcers for non-adherence with the law were no or low frequency of inspections and low penalties from authorities. P&B owners also feared loss of customers and revenue if bans were enforced in their own establishment but not in competing establishments. Finally, owners reported social norms prevailing among some Israeli patrons supporting smoking in P&B settings, in part to express opposition to the new law.
Conclusions
Qualitative assessment can uncover probable social situations that operate to prevent greater adherence to smoking bans. The results warrant confirmation by quantitative analyses. Policies with mandated inspections and penalty requirements that are implemented in all bars without prejudice could lead to greater adherence to smoking bans. Positive reinforcing consequences that encourage adherence (such as publicity and support from non-smokers) would be more likely to generate both greater adherence to the policy and good will toward the government. Principles of behavior outlined in the BEM offer guidance for designing quantitative confirmation analyses of future bans.
doi:10.1186/2045-4015-1-28
PMCID: PMC3439387  PMID: 22913392
Smoking ban; Bars; Pubs; Behavioral ecological model; Israel
23.  Rethinking Acculturation: A Study of Alcohol Use of Korean American Adolescents in Southern California 
Contemporary drug problems  2009;36(1-2):217-244.
Given the considerable variability in drinking practices among Asian American groups, the generalizations that suggest an increase in their alcohol use associated with acculturation need to be questioned. Also, the experience of children of immigrants growing up in the United States may be much more complex than a focus on acculturation can capture. Informed by the theory of segmented assimilation, this study addresses two research questions: 1) Is acculturation associated with alcohol use of Korean American adolescents? and 2) What other social, economic, and cultural forces influence their alcohol use? Survey data collected from 202 adolescents of Korean descent in Southern California were used. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that acculturation was not a significant predictor of most measures of alcohol use, while peer influence, scholastic achievement/aspirations, and current smoking were predictive. Gender and social class were unrelated to drinking. Findings suggest focusing research on an integrative approach to understanding drinking in complex social, economic, and social contexts may be useful.
PMCID: PMC3342670  PMID: 22563133
24.  A Second Reporter Matters 
Background
Home and car smoking bans implemented by caregivers are important approaches to reducing children’s secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and attendant health risks. Such private smoking bans are usually informal and are subject to individuals’ interpretation, observation, and recall. Relying on a single reporter may lead to misclassification of bans in families.
Purpose
To determine (1) proportion of families with discordant reports of bans; (2) association between parent–child report agreement and SHS exposure; and (3) whether including a second reporter of bans improves prediction of child SHS exposure.
Methods
In each of 386 participating families a preteen and a parent reported separately on their home and car smoking bans, and agreement was determined. ANOVA, chi-square, and multiple regression were used to determine relationships between SHS exposure (measured by urine cotinine and reported exposure) and home/car smoking bans reported by preteens and parents.
Results
In 19% of families, reports disagreed for home smoking bans; 30% for car smoking bans. Families who agreed on the presence of a ban had the lowest exposure, families who agreed on the absence of a ban had the highest exposure, and intermediate exposure for those who disagreed. Parent and child reports of bans each explained significant, unique variance in child SHS exposure.
Conclusions
Due to relatively high prevalence of discordant reporting, a more accurate classification of home/car bans may result from including multiple reporters.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.020
PMCID: PMC3107008  PMID: 21496758
25.  Sensitivity to Secondhand Smoke Exposure Predicts Smoking Susceptibility in 8 to 13 Year-Old Never Smokers 
Purpose
To investigate the sensitivity to secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in preteens age 8 to 13 who have never smoked, and to determine whether SHSe sensitivity predicts smoking susceptibility.
Methods
We assessed sensitivity to SHSe using reactions commonly used for assessment of sensitivity to the first smoked cigarette (e.g., feeling dizzy), and investigated the factor structure of these reactions for the purpose of data reduction. We examined the association of each reaction measure and summary score with demographic characteristics and with smoking susceptibility, using logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression.
Results
One factor was identified that captured physical/unpleasant reactions. Older preteens and preteens with more highly educated parents reported fewer reactions to SHSe. More African American preteens reported feeling relaxed or calm compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Experiencing physical/unpleasant reactions to SHSe predicted lower risk for smoking susceptibility.
Conclusions
This was the first study to extend analytical methodology for sensitivity to active smoking to sensitivity to SHSe in youth who have never smoked. Results suggest a desensitization process with age and lower sensitivity to some reactions in preteens from more highly educated households. Preteens who have more aversive experience s with SHSe tend to be less susceptible to smoking than those who experience fewer aversive reactions. Assessment of sensitivity to SHSe is a novel approach to the study of cigarette use etiology and may contribute to better prediction of smoking initiation.
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.06.016
PMCID: PMC3052940  PMID: 21338893
preteens; secondhand smoke; reactions; sensitivity; smoking susceptibility

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