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1.  Children’s Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2014;16(7):961-975.
Introduction:
We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of indoor air nicotine (a marker of secondhand smoke) and indoor surface nicotine (a marker of thirdhand smoke), child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein by analyzing their corresponding metabolites cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronides (total NNAL) and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid.
Methods:
Data were collected at 3 home visits during a 7-day study period from a convenience sample of 24 households with a child 5 years or younger. Three child urine samples and 2 air and surface samples from the living room and the child bedroom were taken in homes of nonsmokers (n = 5) and hookah-only smokers (n = 19) comprised of daily hookah smokers (n = 8) and weekly/monthly hookah smokers (n = 11).
Results:
Nicotine levels in indoor air and on surfaces in the child bedrooms in homes of daily hookah smokers were significantly higher than in homes of nonsmokers. Uptake of nicotine, NNK, and acrolein in children living in daily hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Uptake of nicotine and NNK in children living in weekly/monthly hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes.
Conclusions:
Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of nicotine, the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK, and the ciliatoxic and cardiotoxic agent acrolein in children living in homes of hookah smokers. Our findings suggest that daily and occasional hookah use in homes present a serious, emerging threat to children’s long-term health.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu016
PMCID: PMC4072898  PMID: 24590387
3.  SORTING OUT THE COMPETING EFFECTS OF ACCULTURATION, IMMIGRANT STRESS & SOCIAL SUPPORT ON DEPRESSION: A REPORT ON KOREAN WOMEN IN CALIFORNIA 
Background
This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California.
Methods
Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N=592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. 65% of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were conducted in Korean. Analyses include descriptive reports, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modeling.
Results
Findings suggest that acculturation did not have a direct impact on depression and was not associated with social support. However, acculturation was associated with reduced immigrant stress which, in turn, was related to decreased levels of depression. Immigrant stress and social support were the principal direct influences on depression, mediating the effect for most other predictors.
Conclusions
Stressful experiences associated with immigration may induce depressive feelings. Interventions should facilitate acculturation thereby reducing immigrant stress and expand peer networks to increase social support to assuage depression.
doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181b96e9e
PMCID: PMC4444217  PMID: 19829202
Korean health; women’s health; acculturation; depression; immigrant stress; social support
4.  Healthcare access among circular and undocumented Mexican migrants: results from a pilot survey on the Mexico-US border 
Background
Temporary and unauthorized migrants may face unique obstacles to access health care services in the U.S.
Objective
This study estimated levels of health care access among Mexican migrants returning to Mexico from the U.S. and factors associated with access to health care, with emphasis on the role of modifiable, enabling factors.
Methods
We conducted a pilot probability health care survey of migrants in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico (N=186).
Results
Approximately 42% of migrants reported having used health care services in the U.S. during the past year. Only 38% had a usual source of care and approximately 11% went without needed medical care in the U.S. About 71% of migrants did not have health insurance in the U.S. Lack of health insurance and transportation limitations were significantly related to various access indicators.
Conclusion
These results have implications for future policies and programs aimed to address modifiable health care access barriers faced by these vulnerable and underserved segments of the Mexican migrant population.
doi:10.1504/IJMBS.2014.065069
PMCID: PMC4213859  PMID: 25364381
Mexican migrants; Andersen model; health care access; circular migration; unauthorized migrants
5.  Compliance with smoke-free policies in Korean bars and restaurants: A descriptive analysis in California 
Objective
Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study are: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California.
Method
Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007– 2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female).
Results
1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture).
Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking.
Conclusions
Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking was common in Korean bars in California.
PMCID: PMC4396986  PMID: 25735336
Korean; tobacco; smoking; acculturation; restaurant; bar
6.  Identifying Opportunities to Increase HIV Testing among Mexican Migrants: A Call to Step Up Efforts in Health Care and Detention Settings 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0123631.
HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current “treatment as prevention” strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123631
PMCID: PMC4393219  PMID: 25860261
7.  Developing and Selecting Auditory Warnings for a Real-Time Behavioral Intervention 
Real-time sensing and computing technologies are increasingly used in the delivery of real-time health behavior interventions. Auditory signals play a critical role in many of these interventions, impacting not only behavioral response but also treatment adherence and participant retention. Yet, few behavioral interventions that employ auditory feedback report the characteristics of sounds used and even fewer design signals specifically for their intervention. This paper describes a four-step process used in developing and selecting auditory warnings for a behavioral trial designed to reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. In step one, relevant information was gathered from ergonomic and behavioral science literature to assist a panel of research assistants in developing criteria for intervention-specific auditory feedback. In step two, multiple sounds were identified through internet searches and modified in accordance with the developed criteria, and two sounds were selected that best met those criteria. In step three, a survey was conducted among 64 persons from the primary sampling frame of the larger behavioral trial to compare the relative aversiveness of sounds, determine respondents' reported behavioral reactions to those signals, and assess participant's preference between sounds. In the final step, survey results were used to select the appropriate sound for auditory warnings. Ultimately, a single-tone pulse, 500 milliseconds (ms) in length that repeats every 270 ms for 3 cycles was chosen for the behavioral trial. The methods described herein represent one example of steps that can be followed to develop and select auditory feedback tailored for a given behavioral intervention.
doi:10.12691/ajphr-2-6-3
PMCID: PMC4347839  PMID: 25745633
Real-Time Feedback; Warning Sounds; Behavioral Intervention; Auditory Alerts; Immediate Feedback; Auditory Warning Design; Alarm Design
8.  Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle 
Background
The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent.
Methods
Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007.
Results
Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California.
Discussion
Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.
doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9774-z
PMCID: PMC3654009  PMID: 23338905
osteoporosis; milk; acculturation; Asian; Korean; women’s health
9.  Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Severity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers: A Pilot Investigation 
Background
Less is known about the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) on mental health as compared with other medical disorders.
Objective
The aims of this study were to examine the following: 1) the association of SHS exposure with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) and disruptive disorders; and 2) the association of maternal recall of a child’s SHS exposure and that child’s exposure as measured by bioassay.
Method
Sixty children had their saliva collected and assayed for cotinine when they were 4 years old and again when they were 6 years old. Phone interview data were collected to assess maternal recall of the children’s exposure to SHS at these ages. The children were assessed annually for ADHD and disruptive disorders. Repeated measures analysis of exposure level by child characteristics was performed.
Results
Greater ADHD and conduct disorder severity scores were associated with greater child smoke exposure (ADHD severity, P = .043; conduct disorder severity, P = .035). A large proportion of mothers reported that their children had no exposure to SHS, despite high levels of measured cotinine in the children’s saliva.
Conclusions
An association between SHS exposure and ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms was found. Children and parents may benefit from parent education regarding the deleterious effects of SHS.
PMCID: PMC4131741  PMID: 25133138
secondhand smoke; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; disruptive; preschool; parenting
10.  Korean American Women's Preventive Health Care Practices: Stratified Samples in California, U.S. 
Using data from a larger study, we explored the characteristics of preventive health care practices (influenza vaccination, mammogram, and pap test) among a representative sample of 1786 Korean adult American women residing in California by telephone. Three preventive health care practices were related to the goals set by Healthy People 2010. Participants with no education in the U.S., who were born in Korea, resided in the U.S. longer, and had a primary care provider were more likely than others to reach these goals. Our findings indicate that a behavioral model was suitable to explain the three preventive health care practices.
doi:10.1080/07399332.2011.603869
PMCID: PMC4119018  PMID: 22497327
11.  Sleep, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Elderly Alzheimer’s Caregivers 
Research indicates that very short or long durations of sleep and inefficient sleep, are associated with higher total cholesterol and risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This study tested the hypothesis that inefficient sleep or short/long sleep durations are associated with an elevated prevalence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a community-dwelling sample of elderly Alzheimer’s caregivers. Participants were 126 caregivers for spouses with Alzheimer’s disease who underwent in-home sleep assessment by wrist actigraphy for 72 consecutive hours. Sleep data were averaged across the 3 days/nights; nighttime sleep and daytime napping were computed. Morning fasting blood samples were collected to determine measures of blood lipids and glucose. The average of three resting blood pressure measurements was used to estimate mean resting blood pressure. Logistic regression models including covariates related to sleep and metabolic regulation indicated that nighttime sleep duration, percent sleep at night, and daytime naps were not significantly associated with odds of having diabetes (OR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.56–1.53; OR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.83–1.03; OR, 1.75; 95%CI, 0.74–4.11, respectively), dyslipidemia (OR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.57–1.20; OR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.92–1.07; OR, 0.64; 95%CI: 0.33–1.24, respectively), or hypertension (OR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.62–1.52; OR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.93–1.11; OR, 1.10; 95%CI, 0.44–2.74, respectively). When categorical and combined sleep parameters were examined, there were no significant associations with any of the metabolic conditions (all p>0.05). The current study suggests that in an elderly sample of Alzheimer’s caregivers, nighttime sleep duration, nighttime sleep efficiency and daytime naps are not significantly associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, or hypertension. As several of the associations demonstrated clinically relevant magnitudes of the associations, larger studies to more fully test these hypotheses are warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.archger.2013.02.008
PMCID: PMC3696346  PMID: 23522093
Sleep; type 2 diabetes; hypertension; dyslipidemia; caregivers
12.  Smoking Restrictions in the Homes of Children With Cancer 
American journal of health behavior  2013;37(4):10.5993/AJHB.37.4.2.
Objectives:
To examine smoking restrictions in households of children with cancer and their effect on biological measures of children’s secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe).
Methods:
A sample of 135 parents of nonsmoking children with cancer who lived with a smoker completed structured interviews.
Results:
Approximately 43% of families prohibited smoking in the home. Children living in homes that prohibited smoking had median cotinine levels that were 71% and 52% lower than did those from homes with no and partial restrictions. Conclusions: Parents should be directed to completely ban all smoking from the home and car to best protect their children from SHSe.
doi:10.5993/AJHB.37.4.2
PMCID: PMC3854697  PMID: 23985225
secondhand smoke exposure; household smoking bans; pediatric cancer
13.  Intervention to Reduce Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Children with Cancer: A Controlled Trial 
Psycho-oncology  2012;22(5):1104-1111.
Objective
This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of parent-based behavioral counseling for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among children with cancer. It also examined predictors of smoking and SHSe outcomes.
Methods
Participants were 135 parents or guardians of non-smoking children with cancer, <18 yrs, at least 30 days post-diagnosis, living with at least one adult smoker. Parents were randomized to either a standard care control group or an intervention consisting of six counseling sessions delivered over three months. Parent-reported smoking and child SHSe levels were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Children provided urine samples for cotinine analyses.
Results
Reductions in parent-reported smoking and exposure were observed in both the intervention and control conditions. There was a significantly greater reduction in parent-reported smoking and child SHSe at 3 months for the intervention group compared to the control group. Child SHSe was significantly lower at 12 months relative to baseline in both groups. Children’s cotinine levels did not show significant change over time in either group. Exposure outcomes were influenced by the number of smokers at home, smoking status of the parent participating in the trial, and the child’s environment (home vs. hospital) the day before the assessment.
Conclusions
Children’s SHSe can be reduced by advising parents to protect their child from SHSe, combined with routine reporting of their child’s exposure and cotinine testing, when delivered in the context of the pediatric cancer setting. More intensive interventions may be required to achieve greater reductions in SHSe.
doi:10.1002/pon.3117
PMCID: PMC3491144  PMID: 22684982
cancer; oncology; secondhand smoke exposure; intervention; cotinine
14.  Baby’s Breath II protocol development and design: A secondhand smoke exposure prevention program targeting infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit 
Contemporary clinical trials  2013;35(1):97-105.
Background
Over one-third of all children live with at least one parent who smokes cigarettes, which is associated with compromised child health. The impact of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in medically fragile infants born prematurely is likely to be much higher. The Baby’s Breath II study tests whether a hospital-initiated, motivational-enhancement program will result in less SHSe relative to conventional care in high-risk, low birthweight (LBW) infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The design and protocol for the ongoing BBII trial is described.
Methods/design
Eligible participants are: (1) primary caregivers (typically mothers) of NICU infants who were born at LBW (<2500 g) or ventilated for more than 12 h; and (2) who smoke or live with at least one smoker. This randomized controlled trial has two conditions: Motivational interviewing plus incentives (MI+) and conventional care (CC). MI+ participants receive two hospital-based and two home-based counseling sessions, as well as incentives (i.e., prize-based draws) for (a) intervention attendance and (b) biochemical validation (i.e., urine cotinine dipstick) indicative of low or no infant SHSe. Participants in the control group receive conventional education-based care. Assessments are completed at baseline, mid-point, and 1- and 4-months post-intervention.
Discussion
This study is the first to determine the efficacy of a brief intervention for reducing SHSe among high-risk, LBW infants discharged from a NICU, with the potential for saving lives and healthcare costs. Strengths, limitations and challenges to the conduct of this trial are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2013.02.012
PMCID: PMC3731125  PMID: 23466754
Secondhand smoke; Environmental tobacco smoke; Motivational interviewing; Contingency management
15.  The Role of Parenting in Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Latino Adolescents 
Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San Diego-Tijuana border. Logistic regression was used to test parenting behaviors’ impact. Parenting was protective against alcohol use, but not related to tobacco use. Substance using peers affected both alcohol and tobacco use. Alcohol prevention efforts among Latino adolescents should target parenting behaviors.
doi:10.1080/1067828X.2012.730359
PMCID: PMC3579539  PMID: 23439845
adolescents; alcohol; tobacco; Latinos; parental influence
16.  Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86391.
Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (THS) – the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker) similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS). In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086391
PMCID: PMC3906039  PMID: 24489722
17.  Latino Parenting Practices: A Comparison of Parent and Child Reports of Parenting Practices and the Association with Gateway Drug Use 
Journal of ethnicity in substance abuse  2011;10(1):10.1080/15332640.2011.547800.
Parent and adolescent self-reports are the most common sources for measuring parenting practices. This study’s purpose was to compare how parent and adolescent reports of parenting behaviors differentially predict adolescent gateway drug use. The sample consisted of 252 Latino adolescent-parent dyads. After controlling for potential confounding influences, only adolescents’ reports about their parents’ parenting behaviors were significant and explained 38% of the variance in gateway drug use. Practitioners may recommend to parents seeking parenting advice that they solicit feedback from their adolescent to ensure parenting efforts are received in the manner they were intended.
doi:10.1080/15332640.2011.547800
PMCID: PMC3880251  PMID: 21409705
adolescents; gateway drugs; Latino; parenting
18.  An Adaptive Physical Activity Intervention for Overweight Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82901.
Background
Physical activity (PA) interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible.
Objective
To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention.
Methods
Participants (N = 20) were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1) static intervention (SI) or 2) adaptive intervention (AI). Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9±9.2 years, 35% non-white) in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data.
Results
A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001) and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p = .017). The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74).
Conclusions
The adaptive intervention outperformed the static intervention for increasing PA. The adaptive goal and feedback algorithm is a “behavior change technology” that could be incorporated into mHealth technologies and scaled to reach large populations.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01793064
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082901
PMCID: PMC3857300  PMID: 24349392
19.  Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California 
Journal of family violence  2012;27(8):801-811.
This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation.
doi:10.1007/s10896-012-9471-z
PMCID: PMC3640577  PMID: 23645971
intimate partner violence; family violence; Korean; immigration stress
20.  Beliefs About the Health Effects of “Thirdhand” Smoke and Home Smoking Bans 
Pediatrics  2009;123(1):e74-e79.
OBJECTIVE
There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Children are uniquely susceptible to thirdhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to assess health beliefs of adults regarding thirdhand smoke exposure of children and whether smokers and nonsmokers differ in those beliefs. We hypothesized that beliefs about thirdhand smoke would be associated with household smoking bans.
METHODS
Data were collected by a national random-digit-dial telephone survey from September to November 2005. The sample was weighted by race and gender within Census region on the basis of US Census data. The study questions assessed the level of agreement with statements that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of children.
RESULTS
Of 2000 eligible respondents contacted, 1510 (87%) completed surveys, 1478 (97.9%) answered all questions pertinent to this analysis, and 273 (18.9%) were smokers. Overall, 95.4% of nonsmokers versus 84.1% of smokers agreed that secondhand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2% of nonsmokers versus 43.3% of smokers agreed that thirdhand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoking in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers: 88.4% vs 26.7%. In multivariate logistic regression, after controlling for certain variables, belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children remained independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home. Belief that secondhand smoke harms the health of children was not independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home and car.
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that beliefs about the health effects of thirdhand smoke are independently associated with home smoking bans. Emphasizing that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children may be an important element in encouraging home smoking bans.
doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2184
PMCID: PMC3784302  PMID: 19117850
smoking; tobacco; pediatrics; family practice; parent; smoking cessation; secondhand smoke; environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco control
21.  Promoting Smoke-Free Homes: A Novel Behavioral Intervention Using Real-Time Audio-Visual Feedback on Airborne Particle Levels 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73251.
Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073251
PMCID: PMC3751871  PMID: 24009742
22.  Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:753.
Background
High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA.
Methods/Design
A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants’ online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on primary and secondary outcomes will be analyzed using general linear modeling (GLM), or generalized linear modeling if the assumptions for GLM cannot be met.
Discussion
Results will contribute to greater understanding of how to conceptualize and implement social networks to support long-term PA. Establishing social networks for PA across multiple life settings could contribute to cultural norms that sustain active living.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01142804
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-753
PMCID: PMC3844372  PMID: 23945138
Social networks; Social environment; Social support; Built environment; Walking; Exercise; Accelerometers; Social media; Internet; Sustainability
23.  A TWO-WAY ROAD: RATES OF HIV INFECTION AND BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS AMONG DEPORTED MEXICAN LABOR MIGRANTS 
AIDS and Behavior  2012;16(6):1630-1640.
A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N=693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23% and 0.80%, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3%) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0%), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1%), casual partners (25.7%), and sex workers (8.6%), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico.
doi:10.1007/s10461-012-0196-z
PMCID: PMC3402603  PMID: 22562390
HIV; risk behaviors; Mexican migrants; deportation
24.  Residential smoking restrictions are not associated with reduced child SHS exposure in a baseline sample of low-income, urban African Americans 
Health  2010;2(11):1264-1271.
Second hand smoke exposure (SHSe) relates to many chronic and acute illnesses. Low income African American (AA) maternal smokers and their children have disproportionately higher tobacco-use and child SHSe-related morbidity and mortality than other populations. While public health officials promote residential smoking restrictions to reduce SHSe and promote smoking cessation, little is known about the impact of restrictions in changing smoking behavior and SHSe in this population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between residential smoking restrictions, maternal smoking, and young children’s SHSe in the context of other factors known to influence low income AA mothers’ smoking behavior. For this study, we used cross-sectional, baseline data from 307 AA maternal smokers’ pre-treatment interviews completed as part of a subsequent behavioral counseling trial to reduce their young (< 4 years old) children’s SHSe. Residential smoking restriction was dichotomized as 0 = no restrictions and 1 = some restrictions. Child urine cotinine provided a biomarker of SHSe. Mothers reported cigarettes/day smoked, cigarettes/day exposed to child, and intention to quit. Multivariate regressions modeled effects of restriction as the primary predictor of smoking and exposure outcomes. Maternal smoking patterns such as cigarettes per day (β = 0.52, p < 0.001) and years smoked (β = −0.11; p = 0.03) along with presence of additional smokers in the home (β = 0.10; p = 0.04), but not residential restriction (β = −0.09, p = 0.10), predicted reported SHSe. Restriction did not relate to baby cotinine or maternal intention to quit. Thus, residential smoking restrictions may contribute to efforts to reduce children’s SHSe and promote maternal smoking change; but alone, may not constitute a sufficient intervention to protect children. Multi-level intervention approaches that include SHSe-reduction residential smoking policies plus support and cessation assistance for smokers may be a necessary approach to smoke-free home adoption and adherence.
doi:10.4236/health.2010.211188
PMCID: PMC3715960  PMID: 23875066
Home Smoking Policy; Second Hand Smoke; Underserved Populations
25.  Smoking-Related Weight Concerns Among Underserved, Black Maternal Smokers 
Objective
To expand understanding of a smoking cessation barrier for women, weight concerns, in a medically underserved population.
Methods
Baseline weight concerns were examined among 235 low-income, black maternal smokers enrolled in a smoking trial. Logistic regression evaluated factors related to weight concerns.
Results
Higher BMI (OR 3.35, P<.001), intention to quit (OR 2.12, P=.02), more previous quit attempts (OR 1.14, P=.03), and less support for quitting (OR 0.81, P=.05) predicted weight concerns.
Conclusions
This is the first study to delineate factors predicting weight concerns in this population, thus expanding our understanding of a key cessation barrier and informing future cessation strategies in a population known to bear increased risk of tobacco-related disease.
PMCID: PMC3715964  PMID: 19320618
weight concerns; smoking cessation; maternal; underserved; black

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