Time spent in sedentary activities (such as watching television) has previously been associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Little is known about associations with lipoprotein subfractions. Using television and computer screen time in hours per day as a measure of sedentary time, we examined the association of screen time with lipoprotein subfractions.
Data were used from men and women forming the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study population. Mixed linear models specified lipoprotein measures as the outcome, and screen time as the predictor for fourteen lipoprotein subfraction measures, and included age, smoking status, pedigree, and fat, carbohydrate daily alcohol and energy intake as covariates. Analyses were run separately for men (n = 623) and women (n = 671). A step-down Bonferroni correction was applied to results. The analysis was repeated for significant results (p < .05), additionally controlling for body mass index (BMI) and moderate and vigorous physical activity.
Linear models indicated that screen time was associated with five lipoprotein parameters in women: the concentration of large VLDL particles (p = .01), LDL particle number (p = .01), concentration of small LDL particles (p = .04), the concentration of large HDL particles (p = .04), and HDL diameter (p = .02). All associations remained after controlling for moderate or vigorous physical activity and BMI.
We show that sedentary time is associated with lipoprotein measures, markers of cardiometabolic disease, independently of physical activity and BMI, in women but not men.
sedentary time; diet; fat intake; lipoprotein size; BMI; exercise; television
Age, sex, hypertension and dietary sodium are proposed to affect plasma and urinary catecholamines. Yet no prior study has examined the simultaneous effects of these factors within the same study population, so results may have been confounded by factors not determined. We investigate, for the first time, the impact of simultaneously determined predictors of plasma and urinary catecholamines, and the relationship of catecholamines with the diagnosis of hypertension. Hypertensive and normotensive subjects (n=308) were studied off antihypertensives in liberal and low sodium balance. Twenty-four hour urinary catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) were measured. Plasma catecholamines were measured supine after overnight fast. Repeated measures multivariate linear regression models examined effect of sex, race, age, body mass index, dietary salt (liberal salt vs. low salt), hypertension status, and mean arterial pressure on plasma and urinary catecholamines. Logistic regression determined the relationship of catecholamines with diagnosis of hypertension. Dietary sodium restriction and increasing age predicted increased plasma and urinary norepinephrine, with sodium restriction having greatest effect. Female sex predicted lower urinary and plasma epinephrine. Neither plasma nor urinary catecholamines predicted the diagnosis of hypertension. In summary, specific demographic factors variably impact catecholamines and should be considered when assessing catecholamines in research and clinical settings.
hypertension; catecholamines; epinephrine; norepinephrine; dietary sodium
How interactions of an individual’s genetic background and environmental factors, such as dietary salt intake, result in age-associated blood pressure elevation is largely unknown. Lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase that mediates epigenetic regulation and modification of gene transcription. We have shown previously that hypertensive African-American minor allele carriers of the LSD1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs587168) display blood pressure salt sensitivity. Our goal was to further examine the effects of LSD1 genotype variants on interactions between dietary salt intake, age, and blood pressure. We found that LSD1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7548692) predisposes to increasing salt sensitivity during aging in normotensive Caucasian subjects. Using a LSD1 heterozygous knockout mouse model, we compared blood pressure values on low (0.02 % Na+) vs. high (1.6 % Na+) salt intake. Our results demonstrate significantly increased blood pressure salt sensitivity in LSD1-deficient compared to wild-type animals with age, confirming our findings of salt sensitivity in humans. Elevated blood pressure in LSD1+/− mice is associated with total plasma volume expansion and altered renal Na+ excretion. In summary, our human and animal studies demonstrate that LSD1 is a genetic factor that interacts with dietary salt intake modifying age-associated blood pressure increases and salt sensitivity through alteration of renal Na+ handling.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9480-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Age-associated blood pressure regulation; Dietary salt; Epigenetic regulation; LSD1
Lipoprotein subclass concentrations are modifiable markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Fenofibrate is known to show beneficial effects on lipoprotein subclasses, but little is known about the role of genetics in mediating the responses of lipoprotein subclasses to fenofibrate. A recent genomewide association study (GWAS) associated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with lipoprotein measures, and validated these associations in two independent populations. We used this information to construct genetic risk scores (GRSs) for fasting lipoprotein measures at baseline (pre-fenofibrate), and aimed to examine whether these GRSs also associated with the responses of lipoproteins to fenofibrate. Fourteen lipoprotein subclass measures were assayed in 817 men and women before and after a three week fenofibrate trial. We set significance at a Bonferroni corrected alpha <0.05 (p < 0.004). Twelve subclass measures changed with fenofibrate administration (each p = 0.003 to <0.0001). Mixed linear models which controlled for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, pedigree and study-center, revealed that GRSs were associated with eight baseline lipoprotein measures (p < 0.004), however no GRS was associated with fenofibrate response. These results suggest that the mechanisms for changes in lipoprotein subclass concentrations with fenofibrate treatment are not mediated by the genetic risk for fasting levels.
pharmacogenetics; candidate gene study; lipoprotein; fenofibrate; NMR; GOLDN; genetic risk score; particle size; LDL size; HDL size
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to LDL alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify loci influencing baseline NHDL and its postprandial lipemic (PPL) response. We carried out GWAS in 4,241 participants of European descent. Our discovery cohort included 928 subjects from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Our replication cohorts included 3,313 subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study and Family Heart Study (FamHS). A linear mixed model using the kinship matrix was used for association tests. The best association signal was found in a tri-genic region at RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT for baseline NHDL (lead SNP rs6544903, discovery p = 7e-7, MAF = 2%; validation p = 6e-4 at 0.1 kb upstream neighboring SNP rs3768725, and 5e-4 at 0.7 kb downstream neighboring SNP rs6733143, MAF = 10%). The lead and neighboring SNPs were not perfect surrogate proxies to each other (D′ = 1, r2 = 0.003) but they seemed to be partially dependent (likelihood ration test p = 0.04). Other suggestive loci (discovery p < 1e-6) included LOC100419812 and LOC100288337 for baseline NHDL, and LOC100420502 and CDH13 for NHDL PPL response that were not replicated (p > 0.01). The current and first GWAS of NHDL yielded an interesting common variant in RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT influencing baseline NHDL levels. Another common variant in CDH13 for NHDL response to dietary high fat intake challenge was also suggested. Further validations for both loci from large independent studies, especially interventional studies, are warranted.
Specific constellations of lipoprotein particle features, reflected as differences in mean lipoprotein particle diameters, are associated with risk of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The associations of lipid profiles with disease risk differ by race/ethnicity, the reason for this is not clear. We aimed to examine whether there were additional genetic differences between racial / ethnic groups on lipoprotein profile.
Methods and results
Genotypes were assessed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Association analysis was conducted on fasting mean particle diameters using linear models, adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. Replication of associations reaching P<1.97 * 10−05 (the level at which we achieved at least 80% power to replicate SNP-phenotype associations) was conducted in the Caucasian population of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; N=2430). Variants which replicated across both Caucasian populations were subsequently tested for association in the African-American (N=1594), Chinese (N=758) and Hispanic (N=1422) populations of MESA. Variants in the APOB gene region were significantly associated with mean VLDL diameter in GOLDN, and in the Caucasian and Hispanic populations of MESA, while variation in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene was associated with mean HDL diameter in both Caucasians populations only.
Our findings suggest the genetic underpinnings of mean lipoprotein diameter differ by race/ethnicity. As lipoprotein diameters are modifiable, this may lead new strategies to modify lipoprotein profiles during the reduction of IR that are sensitive to race / ethnicity.
Lipoprotein size; race / ethnicity; ApoB; Hepatic Lipase; NMR
Abnormal aldosterone physiology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases. Single aldosterone measurements capture only a limited range of aldosterone physiology. New methods of characterizing aldosterone physiology may provide a more comprehensive understanding of its relationship with cardio-metabolic disease. We evaluated whether novel indices of aldosterone responses to dietary sodium modulation, the Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI for serum and SAUSSI for urine), could predict cardio-metabolic risk factors. We performed cross-sectional analyses on 539 subjects studied on liberal (LIB) and restricted (RES) sodium diets with serum and urinary aldosterone measurements. SASSI and SAUSSI were calculated as the ratio of aldosterone on LIB (maximally suppressed aldosterone) to aldosterone on RES (stimulated aldosterone) diets, and associated with risk factors using adjusted regression models. Cardio-metabolic risk factors associated with either impaired suppression of aldosterone on LIB diet, or impaired stimulation on RES diet, or both; in all of these individual cases, these risk factors associated with higher SASSI or SAUSSI. In the context of abnormalities that comprise the metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was a strong positive association between the number of MetS components (0–4) and both SASSI and SAUSSI (P<0.0001) that was independent of known aldosterone secretagogues (angiotensin II, corticotropin, potassium). SASSI and SAUSSI exhibited a high sensitivity in detecting normal individuals with zero MetS components (86% for SASSI and 83% for SAUSSI). Assessing the physiologic range of aldosterone responses may provide greater insights into adrenal pathophysiology. Dysregulated aldosterone physiology may contribute to, and/or result from, early cardio-metabolic abnormalities.
Aldosterone; Metabolic Sydrome; Renin; Adrenal; Physiology
Sixteen nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy lipoprotein measurements of more than 1,000 subjects of GOLDN study, at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h after a postprandial fat (PPL) challenge at visits 2 and 4, before and after a 3 weeks Fenofibrate (FF) treatment, were included in 6 time-independent multivariate factor analyses. Their top 1,541 unique SNPs were assessed for association with GOLDN NMR-particles and classical lipids. Several SNPs with −log10
p > 7.3 and MAF ≥ 0.10, mostly intergenic associated with NMR-single traits near genes FAM84B (8q24.21), CRIPT (2p21), ACOXL (2q13), BCL2L11 (2q13), PCDH10 (4q28.3), NXPH1 (7p22), and SLC24A4 (14q32.12) in association with NMR-LDLs; HOMER1 (5q14.2), KIT (4q11–q12), VSNL1 (2p24.3), QPRT (16p11.2), SYNPR (3p14.2), NXPH1 (7p22), NELL1 (11p15.1), and RUNX3 (1p36) with NMR-HDLs; and DOK5-CBLN4-MC3R (20q13), NELL1 (11p15.1), STXBP6 (14q12), APOB (2p24-p23), GPR133 (12q24.33), FAM84B (8q24.21) and NR5A2 (1q32.1) in association with NMR-VLDLs particles. NMR single traits associations produced 75 % of 114 significant candidates, 7 % belonged to classical lipids and 18 % overlapped, and 16 % matched for time of discovery between NMR- and classical traits. Five proxy genes, (ACOXL, FAM84B, NXPH1, STK40 and VAPA) showed pleiotropic effects. While tagged for significant associations in our study and with some extra evidence from the literature, candidates as CBNL4, FAM84B, NXPH1, SLC24A4 remain unclear for their functional relation to lipid metabolism. Although GOLDN study is one of the largest in studying PPL and FF treatment effects, the relatively small samples (over 700–1,000 subjects) in association tests appeals for a replication of such a study. Thus, further investigation is needed.
Nuclear magnetic resonance particles; Lipoproteins; Fenofibrate; Postprandial challenge; Genome-wide association
CYP7A1 encodes cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase an enzyme crucial to cholesterol homeostasis. Its transcriptional activity is down-regulated by fenofibrate. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of CYP7A1 polymorphisms on lipid changes in response to fenofibrate. We examined associations of three tagging single nuclear polymorphisms (SNP) (i6782C>T, m204T>G, 3U12536A>C) at CYP7A1 with triglyceride (TG) and HDL-C responses to a 3-week treatment with fenofibrate 160 mg/d in 864 US White participants from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. The m204T>G variant significantly associated TG and HDL-C responses to fenofibrate. Individual homozygous for the common T allele of m204T>G SNP displayed both the greater reduction of TG (−32% for TT, −28% for GT, −25% for GG, P = 0.004) and an increase of HDL-C response compared to non-carriers (4.1% for TT, 3.4% for GT, 1.2% for GG, P = 0.01). Conversely, individuals homozygous for the minor allele of i6782C>T showed greater increase of HDL-C response compared to non-carriers (2.8% CC, 4.5% for CT, 5.8% for TT, P=0.02) albeit no significant effect on TG response. Our data suggest that common variants at CYP7A1 locus modulate the TG lowering and HDL-C raising effects of fenofibrate, and contribute to the interindividual variation of the drug responses.
CYP7A1; polymorphism; TG response; fenofibrate
Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ≥7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during a randomized transition between high and low Na+ diet.
A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt-sensitivity revealed three variants that associated with salt-sensitivity, two in SLC4A5 (P <0.001), and one in GRK4 (P = 0.020). Of these, two SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These two SNPs had P values of 1.0×10−4 and 3.1×10−4 with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for BMI and age, (P = 8.9×10−5 and 2.6×10−4 and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Further, the association of these SNPS with salt-sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt-sensitivity [rs7571842 (P=1.2×10−5); rs1017783 (P=1.1×10−4)]. In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt-sensitivity of BP in two separate Caucasian populations.
Genetics-human; Genetics-association studies; Cardiovascular disease; Hypertension (Kidney); Blood Pressure; Sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter; Salt-sensitivity; Hypertension; Genetics
Prior evidence suggests a link between inflammation and hypertension. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in animal studies to play an important role in angiotensin II (ANGII) mediated hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of IL-6 and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in human hypertension.
Data from 385 hypertensives and 196 normotensives are included in this report. Blood pressure and laboratory evaluation were performed on liberal and low sodium diets. IL-6 response to an ANGII infusion was evaluated to assess the effect of acute RAS activation.
Hypertensives had higher baseline IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared with normotensives on both diets. IL-6 increased in response to ANGII in hypertensives and normotensives (28% in hypertensives, 31% in normotensives, p = < 0.001 for change from baseline). In the setting of RAS activation by a low salt diet, multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, BMI, gender, race and hypertension status demonstrated an independent positive association of PRA with CRP (beta = 0.199, p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in IL-6 or CRP levels between liberal and low sodium diets.
These findings confirm an association between hypertension and inflammation and provide human data supporting previous evidence from animal studies that IL-6 plays a role in ANGII mediated hypertension. Notably, compared to levels on a liberal sodium diet, neither IL-6 or CRP were higher with activation of the RAS by a low salt diet indicating that a low sodium diet is not inflammatory despite increased RAS activity.
hypertension; inflammation; sodium; angiotensin; CRP; IL-6
A shift towards overall larger very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and smaller low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) diameters occurs in insulin resistance (IR), which reflects shifts in the distribution of the subfraction concentrations. Fenofibrate, indicated for hypertriglyceridemia, simultaneously reduces IR and shifts in lipoprotein diameter. Individual responses to fenofibrate vary, and we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic differences that could contribute to such differences.
Association analysis was conducted between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Affymetrix 6.0 array and fasting particle diameter responses to a 12-week fenofibrate trial, in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. Linear models were conducted, which adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. The top three SNPs associated with each fraction were examined subsequently for associations with changes in subfraction concentrations.
SNPs in AHCYL2 and CD36 genes reached, or closely approached, genome-wide levels of significance with VLDL and HDL diameter responses to fenofibrate, respectively (P=4 × 10−9 and 8 × 10−8). SNPs in AHCYL2 were associated with a decrease in the concentration of the large VLDL subfraction only (P = 0.002). SNPs associated with HDL diameter change were not associated with a single subfraction concentration change (P > 0.05) indicating small shifts across all subfractions.
We report novel associations between lipoprotein diameter responses to fenofibrate and the AHCYL2 and CD36 genes. Previous associations of these genes with IR emphasize the role of IR in mediating lipoprotein response to fenofibrate.
AHCYL2; CD36; fenofibrate; inflammation; insulin resistance; insulin signaling; lipoprotein diameter; methylation; PPARγ; subclass
Fenofibrate therapy reduces serum triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and thus addresses the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our hypothesis is that genetic factors contribute to the variability of lipid response to fenofibrate differently in subjects with MetS and without MetS.
We investigated the association in 25 candidate genes with lipid responses to a 3-weeks trial on fenofibrate in subjects with and without MetS. We employed growth curve mixed models to generate the response phenotypes to fenofibrate in TG, HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and examined the genetic associations accounting for family dependencies.
After correcting for multiple testing (p<0.05) and accounting for significant differences in the association effect sizes between subjects with and without MetS (p<0.05), variants of APOA5 (rs662799) and APOE (rs429358) were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C responses in MetS subjects, while APOA4 (rs675)was associated with TG response in non-MetS subjects. There was also suggestive evidence that MetS may interact with APOA4 (p=0.017), APOA5 (p=0.06), and APOE (p=0.09) to the variation to lipid responses.
Genetic effects that contributed to the variability of lipid responses to fenofibrate may differ in subjects with and without MetS. This research may provide guidance for more personalized and effective therapies.
Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) plays a central role in epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-dependent Na+ transport in the distal nephron. We hypothesized that SGK1 gene variants may contribute to the effect of dietary salt intake on BP in humans with hypertension, and consequentially influence renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system activity. Our study population included 421 hypertensive Caucasian participants of the HyperPath group who had completed a dietary salt protocol with measurement of BP and RAA system activity. Three SGK1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HapMap CEU population captured the genetic variation in the SGK1 region. Assuming an additive genetic model, two SNPs (rs2758151 and rs9402571) were associated with BP and plasma renin activity (PRA) effects of dietary salt intake. Major alleles were associated with higher systolic BP on high salt and decreased PRA on low salt. In contrast, low salt neutralized genotype differences. Similar, non-significant trends were observed in a normotensive population (N=152). Genotype was also associated with two salt-sensitive subtypes of hypertension. SGK1 genetic variants are associated with salt sensitivity of BP and PRA in human hypertension. Genotype status at these SGK1 variants may identify individuals prone to salt-sensitive hypertension.
SGK1; polymorphism; renin; salt sensitivity
Extreme obesity is associated with health and cardiovascular disease risks. Although gastric bypass surgery induces rapid weight loss and ameliorates many of these risks in the short term, long-term outcomes are uncertain.
To examine the association of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with weight loss, diabetes mellitus, and other health risks 6 years after surgery.
Design, Setting, and Participants
A prospective Utah-based study conducted between July 2000 and June 2011 of 1156 severely obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥35) participants aged 18–72 years (82% women; mean BMI 45.9; 95% CI, 31.2–60.6) who sought and received RYGB surgery (n=418), sought but did not have surgery (n=417; control group 1), or were randomly selected from a population-based sample not seeking weight loss surgery (n=321; control group 2).
Main Outcome Measures
Weight loss, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and health-related quality of life were compared between participants having RYGB surgery and control participants using propensity score adjustment.
Six years after surgery, patients who received RYGB surgery (with 92.6% follow-up) lost 27.7% (95% CI, 26.6%–28.9%) of their initial body weight compared with 0.2% (95% CI, -1.1% to 1.4%) gain in control group 1 and 0% (95% CI, −1.2 to 1.2%) in control group 2. Weight loss maintenance was superior in patients who received RYGB surgery, with 94% (95% CI, 92%–96%) and 76% (95% CI, 72%–81%) of patients receiving RYGB surgery maintaining at least 20% weight loss 2 and 6 years after surgery, respectively. Diabetes remission rates 6 years after surgery were 62% (95% CI, 49%–75%) in the RYGB surgery group, 8% (95% CI, 0%–16%) in control group 1, and 6% (95% CI, 0%–13%) in control group 2, with remission odds ratios (ORs) of 16.5 (95% CI, 4.7–57.6; P<.001) vs control group 1 and 21.5 (95% CI, 5.4–85.6; P<.001) vs control group 2. The incidence of diabetes throughout the course of the study was reduced after RYGB surgery (2%; 95% CI, 0%–4%; versus 17%; 95% CI, 10%–24%; OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04–0.34 compared with control group 1 and 15%; 95% CI, 9%–21%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06–0.67 compared with control group 2; both P<.001). The numbers of participants with bariatric surgery-related hospitalizations were 33 (7.9%), 13 (3.9%), and 6 (2.0%) for RYGB surgery group and 2 control groups, respectively.
Among severely obese patients, compared with nonsurgical control patients, the use of RYGB surgery was associated with higher rates of diabetes remission and lower risk of cardiovascular and other health outcomes over 6 years.
Traditional beta-quantification of plasma lipoproteins by ultracentrifugation separates triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) from higher density lipoproteins. The cholesterol in the TGRL fraction is referred to as measured very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) recognizing that other TGRL may be present. The measured VLDL-C to total plasma triglyceride (VLDL-C/TG) has long been considered an index of average TGRL composition with abnormally high VLDL-C/TG ratios (≥0.30 with TG > 150 mg/dL) indicative of atherogenic remnant accumulation (type III hyperlipidemia). However, virtually no reports are available which examine potential associations between CAD and VLDL-C/TG at the lower end of the spectrum.
Methods and Results
We performed ultracentrifugation in 1170 cases with premature-onset, familial CAD and 1759 population-based controls and examined the VLDL-C/TG ratio as an index of TGRL composition. As expected, we found very high CAD risk associated with severe type III hyperlipidemia (OR 10.5, p = 0.02). Unexpectedly, however, we found a robust, graded, and independent association between CAD risk and lower than average VLDL-C/TG ratios (p <0.0001 as ordered categories or as a continuous variable). Among those in the lowest VLDL-C/TG category (a ratio <0.12), CAD risk was clearly increased (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.9-6.9) and remained significantly elevated in various subgroups including those with triglycerides below 200 mg/dl, in males and females separately, as well as among those with no traditional CAD risk factors (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.5- 22). Significant compositional differences by case status were confirmed in a subset whose samples were re-spun with measurement of lipids and apolipoprotein B (apo B) in each subfraction.
We found a strong, graded, independent, and robust association between CAD and lower VLDL-C/TG ratios. We consider this a novel, hypothesis-generating observation which will hopefully generate additional future studies to provide confirmation and further insight into potential mechanisms.
plasma triglycerides; VLDL; lipids; ultracentrifugation; type III hyperlipidemia; dysbetalipoproteinemia; coronary artery disease; HDL cholesterol
Hypertension represents a complex heritable disease in which environmental factors may directly affect gene function via epigenetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary salt influences the activity of a histone modifying enzyme, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD-1), which in turn is associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP).
Animal and human studies were performed. Salt-sensitivity of LSD-1 expression was assessed in wild-type and LSD-1 heterozygote knockout (LSD-1+/−) mice. Clinical relevance was tested by multivariate associations between single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LSD-1 gene and salt-sensitivity of BP, with control of dietary sodium, in a primary African-American hypertensive cohort and two replication hypertensive cohorts (Caucasian and Mexican-American).
LSD1 expression was modified by dietary salt in wild-type mice with lower levels associated with liberal salt intake. LSD-1+/− mice expressed lower LSD-1 protein levels than wild-type mice in kidney tissue. Similar to LSD-1+/− mice, African-American minor allele carriers of two LSD-1 SNPs displayed greater change in systolic BP in response to change from low to liberal salt diet (rs671357, p=0.01; rs587168, p=0.005). This association was replicated in the Hispanic (rs587168, p=0.04) but not the Caucasian cohort. Exploratory analyses demonstrated decreased serum aldosterone concentrations in African-American minor allele carriers similar to findings in the LSD-1+/− mice, decreased alpha-EnaC expression in LSD-1+/− mice, and impaired renovascular responsiveness to salt loading in minor allele carriers.
The results of this translational research study support a role for LSD1 in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension.
Hypertension; Salt-sensitivity; LSD1; Genetics; Epigenetic
Vitamin D and serum lipid levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine if vitamin D (25OHD) interacts at established lipid loci potentially explaining additional variance in lipids.
1060 individuals from Utah families were used to screen 14 loci for SNPs potentially interacting with dietary 25OHD on lipid levels. Identified putative interactions were evaluated for 1) greater effect size in subsamples with winter measures, 2) replication in an independent sample, and 3) lack of gene-environment interaction for other correlated dietary factors. Maximum likelihood models were used to evaluate interactions. The replicate sample consisted of 2890 individuals from the Family Heart Study. Putative 25OHD receptor binding site modifying SNPs were identified and allele-specific, 25OHD-dependent APOA5 promoter activity examined using luciferase expression assays. An additional sample with serum 25OHD measures was analyzed.
An rs3135506-25OHD interaction influencing HDL-C was identified. The rs3135506 minor allele was more strongly associated with low HDL-C in individuals with low winter dietary 25OHD in initial and replicate samples (p=0.0003 Utah, p=0.002 Family Heart); correlated dietary factors did not explain the interaction. SNP rs10750097 was identified as a putative causative polymorphism, was associated with 25OHD-dependent changes in APOA5 promoter activity in HEP3B and HEK293 cells (p<0.01), and showed similar interactions to rs3135506 in family cohorts. Linear interactions were not significant in samples with serum 25OHD measures; however, genotype-specific differences were seen at deficient 25OHD levels.
A 25OHD receptor binding site modifying APOA5 promoter polymorphism is associated with lower HDL-C in 25OHD deficient individuals.
HDL CHOLESTEROL; TRIGLYCERIDE; VITAMIN D; APOLIPOPROTEIN A5; GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK; CAUSATIVE VARIANT
Insulin resistance (IR) is a complex disorder caused by an interplay of both genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies identified a significant interaction between body mass index (BMI) and the rs1800795 polymorphism of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene that influences both IR and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with obese individuals homozygous for the C allele demonstrating the highest level of IR and greatest risk for T2DM. Replication of a gene-environment interaction is important to confirm the validity of the initial finding and extends the generalizability of the results to other populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to replicate this gene-environment interaction on IR in a hypertensive population and perform a meta-analysis with prior published results.
Material and Methods
The replication analysis was performed using Caucasian individuals with hypertension (HTN) from the HyperPATH cohort (N=311), genotyped for rs1800795. Phenotype studies were conducted after participants consumed two diets: high sodium (HS) (200mmol/day) and low sodium (LS) (10mmol/day) for 7 days each. Measurements for plasma glucose, insulin, and IL-6 were obtained after 8 hours of fasting. IR was characterized by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR).
In HyperPATH, BMI was a significant effect modifier of the relationship between rs1800795 and HOMA-IR; higher BMI was associated with higher HOMA-IR among homozygote CC individuals when compared to major allele G carriers (p=0.003). Further, the meta-analysis in 1028 individuals confirmed the result demonstrating the same significant interaction between rs1800795 and BMI on HOMA-IR (p=1.05×10−6).
This rare replication of a gene-environment interaction extends the generalizability of the results to HTN while highlighting this polymorphism as a marker of IR in obese individuals.
Interleukin-6 gene; Hypertension; Obesity; Insulin Resistance
Despite evidence in support of anti-inflammatory and triglyceride-lowering effects of fenofibrate, little is known about genetic determinants of the observed heterogeneity in treatment response. This study provides the first genome-wide examination of fenofibrate effects on systemic inflammation.
Biomarkers of inflammation were measured in participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN, n=1092) before and after a 3-week daily treatment with 160 mg of fenofibrate. Two inflammatory patterns (hsCRP-IL6 and MCP1-TNF-α) were derived using principal component analysis. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip and phenotypes were assessed using mixed linear models, adjusted for age, sex, study center, and ancestry as fixed effects and pedigree as a random effect.
Before fenofibrate treatment, the strongest evidence for association was observed for polymorphisms near or within the IL2RA gene with the hsCRP-IL6 pattern (rs7911500, P=5×10−9 and rs12722605, P=5×10−8). Associations of the MCP1-TNF-α pattern with loci in several biologically plausible genes (CYP4F8 (rs3764563), APBB1IP (rs1775246), COL13A1 (rs2683572), and COMMD10 (rs1396485)) approached genome-wide significance (P=3×10−7, 5×10−7, 6×10−7, and 7×10−7 respectively) before fenofibrate treatment. After fenofibrate treatment, the rs12722605 locus in IL2RA was also associated with the MCP1-TNF-α pattern (P=3×10−7). The analyses of individual biomarker response to fenofibrate did not yield genome-wide significant results, but the rs6517147 locus near the immunologically relevant IFNAR2 gene was suggestively associated with IL6 (P=7×10−7).
We have identified several novel biologically relevant loci associated with systemic inflammation before and after fenofibrate treatment.
fenofibrate; inflammation; genome-wide association study
Variants in the gene encoding the γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1G) are associated with both Mendelian and quantitative effects on blood pressure. Here, in four cohorts of 1611 white European families comprising a total of 8199 individuals, we undertook staged testing of candidate SNPs for SCNN1G (supplemented with imputation based on data from the 1000 Genomes Project) followed by a meta-analysis in all families of the strongest candidate. We also examined relationships between the genotypes and relevant intermediate renal phenotypes as well as expression of SCNN1G in human kidneys. We found that an intronic SNP of SCNN1G (rs13331086) was significantly associated with age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted blood pressure in each of the four populations (P < 0.05). In an inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis of this SNP in all four populations each additional minor allele copy was associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure and 0.52 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (SE = 0.33, P = 0.002 for SBP; SE = 0.21, P = 0.011 for DBP). The same allele was also associated with higher 12-h overnight urinary potassium excretion (P = 0.04), consistent with increased epithelial sodium channel activity. Renal samples from hypertensive subjects showed a non-significant (P = 0.07) 1.7-fold higher expression of SCNN1G compared with normotensive controls. These data provide genetic and phenotypic evidence in support of a role for a common genetic variant of SCNN1G in blood pressure determination.
blood pressure; genetics; meta-analysis; risk factors; cardiovascular diseases
A recent large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide studies has identified 95 loci, 59 of them novel, as statistically significant predictors of blood lipid traits; we tested whether the same loci explain the observed heterogeneity in response to lipid-lowering therapy with fenofibrate. Using data from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN, n = 861) we fit linear mixed models with the genetic markers as predictors and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations as outcomes. For all four traits, we analyzed both baseline levels and changes in response to treatment with fenofibrate. For the markers that were significantly associated with fenofibrate response, we fit additional models evaluating potential epistatic interactions. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. Statistically significant associations were observed between the rs964184 polymorphism near APOA1 (P-value≤0.0001) and fenofibrate response for HDL and triglycerides. The association was replicated in the Pharmacogenetics of Hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics study (HyperTG, n = 267). Suggestive associations with fenofibrate response were observed for markers in or near PDE3A, MOSC1, FLJ36070, CETP, the APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2, and CILP2. Finally, we present strong evidence for epistasis (P-value for interaction = 0.0006 in GOLDN, 0.05 in HyperTG) between rs10401969 near CILP2 and rs4420638 in the APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2 cluster with total cholesterol response to fenofibrate. In conclusion, we present evidence linking several novel and biologically relevant genetic polymorphisms to lipid lowering drug response, as well as suggesting novel gene-gene interactions in fenofibrate pharmacogenetics.
Trans fatty acids (TFA) lower HDL and increase triglyceride concentrations while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower triglycerides and may decrease HDL concentrations. The effect of the interaction between trans fat and PUFA on lipids is uncertain.
Men and women (n = 1032) in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes were measured with gas chromatography while data on potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires. To test the interaction between total erythrocyte PUFA (ePUFA) and TFA (eTFA) on lipid concentrations we distributed eTFA into tertiles and dichotomized ePUFA at the median concentration.
For the 1st, 2nd and 3rd tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for HDL were 46.2±1.1, 46.3±1.1 and 45.5±1.0 mg/dL among those with low ePUFA, respectively, while they were 50.0±1.1, 46.9±1.1 and 44.7±1.1 mg/dL among those with high ePUFA, respectively (P for interaction = 0.01). For the 1st, 2nd and 3rd tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for triglycerides were 178.6±11.3, 144.7±10.9 and 140.8±10.6, respectively, among those with low ePUFA, while they were 133.8±11.3, 145.7±10.9 and 149.3±11.5, respectively, among those with high ePUFA (P for interaction = 0.005). Results for VLDL were similar to those for triglycerides. No significant interactions were observed for LDL or total cholesterol.
The relation between trans fat and HDL, VLDL and triglycerides may depend on PUFA. The benefit of avoiding trans fat may be greater among individuals with higher PUFA intake. Supplementation with PUFA among individuals with relatively high trans fat intake may have limited benefits on lipid profiles.
Objective and methods
A loss-of-function cytosine (C) for thymidine (T) transition at nucleotide 8590 of CYP4A11 has been associated with increased blood pressure in humans. We tested the hypothesis that CYP4A11 T8590C genotype is associated with salt sensitivity in the International Hypertensive Pathotype cohort.
CYP4A11 T8590C genotype was associated with hypertension in whites. Among normotensive individuals, CYP4A11 T8590C genotype was associated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) during both high and low salt diets, such that there was no relationship between genotype and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Among hypertensive individuals, CYP4A11 T8590C genotype did not associate with MAP during high salt intake, whereas MAP decreased with increasing number of C alleles during salt restriction. Consequently, among hypertensive individuals, change in MAP with salt restriction was greatest in individuals homozygous for the C allele (−10.9 ± 9.9, −11.1 ± 12.3, and −18.8 ± 12.0 mmHg in TT, CT, and CC groups, respectively, P = 0.02). In both normotensive and hypertensive individuals, individuals homozygous for the C allele exhibited an attenuated increase in renal blood flow during high salt. CYP4A11 genotype did not affect pressor responses to Angiotensin II in normotensive or hypertensive individuals.
The loss-of-function CYP4A11 8590C allele is associated with a diagnosis of hypertension and, in normotensive individuals, with higher blood pressure regardless of salt intake. Among hypertensive individuals, the C allele is associated with salt-sensitive blood pressure. Impaired renal vasodilation during high salt intake may contribute to salt sensitivity. Studies are needed to determine whether CYP4A11 T8590C genotype predicts responses to medications that affect sodium homeostasis in hypertensive individuals.
blood pressure; CYP4A11; dietary salt intake; hypertension; renal blood flow; salt sensitivity
The renin gene has been previously reported to be associated with essential hypertension in a variety of ethnic groups. However, no studies have systematically evaluated the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing coverage of the entire renin gene and hypertension risk. To evaluate the association between renin gene variation and hypertension we investigated data on HyperPath cohort with 570 hypertensive and 222 normotensive Caucasian subjects. Six tagging SNPs and resultant haplotypes were tested for associations with hypertension risk, followed by mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and the change in MAP in response to angiotensin II infusion (AngII ΔMAP). The A allele of SNP rs6693954 and the haplotype containing rs6696954A were significantly associated with higher risk for hypertension (OR=1.98, P=0.0001; OR=1.63 P=0.0005, respectively). The same haplotype block was also associated with altered PRA levels and blunted AngII ΔMAP (global P value=0.02, 0.047, respectively). Our results confirm that polymorphisms in the REN are associated with increased risk for hypertension in an independent cohort, and that the underlying mechanism may reside in the interaction of renin activity and vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II.
Renin; SNP; haplotype; blood pressure and Hypertension