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1.  Patterns of Change in ACGME-Accredited Residency Programs and Positions: Implication for the Adequacy of GME Positions and Supply of Physicians in the United States 
Abstract
Background
Recent studies suggest that the supply of primary care physicians and generalist physicians in other specialties may be inadequate to meet the needs of the US population. Data on the numbers and types of physicians-in-training, such as those collected by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), can be used to help understand variables affecting this supply.
Objective
We assessed trends in the number and type of medical school graduates entering accredited residencies, and the impact those trends could have on the future physician workforce.
Methods
Since 2004, the ACGME has published annually its data on accredited institutions, programs, and residents to help the graduate medical education community understand major trends in residency education, and to help guide graduate medical education policy. We present key results and trends for the period between academic years 2003–2004 and 2012–2013.
Results
The data show that increases in trainees in accredited programs are not uniform across specialties, or the types of medical school from which trainees graduated. In the past 10 years, the growth in residents entering training that culminates in initial board certification (“pipeline” specialties) was 13.0%, the number of trainees entering subspecialty education increased 39.9%. In the past 5 years, there has been a 25.8% increase in the number of osteopathic physicians entering allopathic programs.
Conclusions
These trends portend challenges in absorbing the increasing numbers of allopathic and osteopathic graduates, and US international graduates in accredited programs. The increasing trend in subspecialization appears at odds with the current understanding of the need for generalist physicians.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-14-00140.1
PMCID: PMC4054773  PMID: 24949178
2.  Effects of Potential Federal Funding Cuts on Graduate Medical Education: Results of a Survey of Designated Institutional Officials 
Background
Proposed reductions in federal funding for physician education may affect the United States' ability to produce the number of physicians needed to provide care.
Objective
Using a survey similar to that used by the ACGME in 2011, we assessed designated institutional officials' (DIOs) perceptions of the impact of potential GME funding reductions.
Method
In August 2013, we sent a survey link to all DIOs of ACGME-accredited institutions (N  =  678). A 9-item survey asked how future federal funding would affect the number of residency programs in their institutions under 4 different funding scenarios: stable funding, and reductions of 10%, 33%, and 50%. We also asked about changes in the number of residency positions during the last 2 years.
Results
The response rate was 47.9% (325 of 678 DIOs); respondents represent 58.9% of accredited institutions with more than 1 program. Most respondents reported no change or an increase under the stable funding scenario. Under a 33% funding reduction, an estimated 17 379 (14.8% of all current) positions would be lost, and a 50% reduction would result in a loss of 33 562 positions (28.6%). Primary care specialties (eg, family medicine, internal medicine) would be most affected under the greatest funding reductions.
Conclusions
The findings of the 2013 survey are consistent with 2011 data, with DIOs projecting significant reductions in programs and positions under more severe budget cuts. DIO comments highlighted reduced optimism (compared to data obtained in 2011) about the effect of funding cuts and concerns about the impact of reductions on patient care and health care personnel at teaching institutions.
doi:10.4300/JGME-06-01-40
PMCID: PMC3963787  PMID: 24701338
3.  Residency Programs' Evaluations of the Competencies: Data Provided to the ACGME About Types of Assessments Used by Programs 
Background
In 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project began to focus on resident performance in the 6 competencies of patient care, medical knowledge, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal communication skills, and professionalism. Beginning in 2007, the ACGME began collecting information on how programs assess these competencies. This report provides information on the nature and extent of those assessments.
Methods
Using data collected by the ACGME for site visits, we use descriptive statistics and percentages to describe the number and type of methods and assessors accredited programs (n  =  4417) report using to assess the competencies. Observed differences among specialties, methodologies, and assessors are tested with analysis of variance procedures.
Results
Almost all (>97%) of programs report assessing all of the competencies and using multiple methods and multiple assessors. Similar assessment methods and evaluator types were consistently used across the 6 competencies. However, there were some differences in the use of patient and family as assessors: Primary care and ambulatory specialties used these to a greater extent than other specialties.
Conclusion
Residency programs are emphasizing the competencies in their evaluation of residents. Understanding the scope of evaluation methodologies that programs use in resident assessment is important for both the profession and the public, so that together we may monitor continuing improvement in US graduate medical education.
doi:10.4300/JGME-02-04-30
PMCID: PMC3010956  PMID: 22132294
5.  The Impact of ACGME Work-Hour Reforms on the Operative Experience of Fellows in Surgical Subspecialty Programs 
Background
In July 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced a set of regulations that mandated a reduction in the number of hours that medical residents can work. These requirements have generated controversy among medical educators, with some expressing concern that reducing resident hours may limit clinical exposure and competency, particularly in surgical specialties.
Objective
This study examines the impact of duty hour restrictions on resident operative experience in residents in 2 surgical subspecialties since the implementation of the ACGME duty hour limits.
Method
We examined operative log data for vascular surgery and pediatric surgery, using the academic year immediately preceding the duty hour restrictions, 2002 to 2003, as a baseline for comparison to subsequent academic years through 2006 to 2007 for vascular surgery and 2007 to 2008 for pediatric surgery.
Results
Graduating fellows in pediatric surgery showed no change in their total operative volume following duty hour restrictions. The pediatric-defined category of neonate procedures showed an increase following duty hour restrictions. Graduating fellows in vascular surgery showed an increase in total major procedures as surgeon. The vascular-defined categories of endovascular-diagnostic, endovascular-therapeutic, and endovascular-graft procedures also increased.
Conclusions
The reduction of duty hours has not resulted in a decrease in operative volume as some have predicted. Operative volume in pediatric surgery remained mainly unchanged, whereas operative volume in vascular surgery increased. We explore possible explanations for the observed findings.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00174.1
PMCID: PMC3186271  PMID: 22379533
6.  Tracking Residents Through Multiple Residency Programs: A Different Approach for Measuring Residents' Rates of Continuing Graduate Medical Education in ACGME-Accredited Programs 
Background
Increased focus on the number and type of physicians delivering health care in the United States necessitates a better understanding of changes in graduate medical education (GME). Data collected by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) allow longitudinal tracking of residents, revealing the number and type of residents who continue GME following completion of an initial residency. We examined trends in the percent of graduates pursuing additional clinical education following graduation from ACGME-accredited pipeline specialty programs (specialties leading to initial board certification).
Methods
Using data collected annually by the ACGME, we tracked residents graduating from ACGME-accredited pipeline specialty programs between academic year (AY) 2002–2003 and AY 2006–2007 and those pursuing additional ACGME-accredited training within 2 years. We examined changes in the number of graduates and the percent of graduates continuing GME by specialty, by type of medical school, and overall.
Results
The number of pipeline specialty graduates increased by 1171 (5.3%) between AY 2002–2003 and AY 2006–2007. During the same period, the number of graduates pursuing additional GME increased by 1059 (16.7%). The overall rate of continuing GME increased each year, from 28.5% (6331/22229) in AY 2002–2003 to 31.6% (7390/23400) in AY 2006–2007. Rates differed by specialty and for US medical school graduates (26.4% [3896/14752] in AY 2002–2003 to 31.6% [4718/14941] in AY 2006–2007) versus international medical graduates (35.2% [2118/6023] to 33.8% [2246/6647]).
Conclusion
The number of graduates and the rate of continuing GME increased from AY 2002–2003 to AY 2006–2007. Our findings show a recent increase in the rate of continued training for US medical school graduates compared to international medical graduates. Our results differ from previously reported rates of subspecialization in the literature. Tracking individual residents through residency and fellowship programs provides a better understanding of residents' pathways to practice.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00105.1
PMCID: PMC3010950  PMID: 22132288
7.  The ACGME Resident Survey Aggregate Reports: An Analysis and Assessment of Overall Program Compliance 
Background
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) uses a 29-question Resident Survey for yearly residency program assessments. This article describes methodology for aggregating Resident Survey data into 5 discrete areas of program performance for use in the accreditation process. This article also describes methodology for setting thresholds that may assist Residency Review Committees in identifying programs with potential compliance problems.
Methods
A team of ACGME staff and Residency Review Committee chairpersons reviewed the survey for content and proposed thresholds (through a modified Angoff procedure) that would indicate problematic program functioning.
Results
Interrater agreement was high for the 5 content areas and for the threshold values (percentage of noncompliant residents), indicating that programs above these thresholds may warrant follow-up by the accrediting organization. Comparison of the Angoff procedure and the actual distribution of the data revealed that the Angoff thresholds were extremely similar to 1 standard deviation above the content area mean.
Conclusion
Data from the ACGME Resident Survey may be aggregated into internally consistent and consensually valid areas that may help Residency Review Committees make more targeted and specific judgments about program compliance.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-09-00062.1
PMCID: PMC2931264  PMID: 21976001

Results 1-7 (7)