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1.  PROPOFOL-FENTANYL VERSUS PROPOFOL ALONE FOR LUMBAR PUNCTURE SEDATION IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: PROPOFOL DOSING AND ADVERSE EVENTS 
Objective
We sought to determine whether the combination of propofol and fentanyl results in lower propofol doses and fewer adverse cardiopulmonary events than propofol and placebo for lumbar puncture (LP) in children with acute hematologic malignancies.
Design
Randomized, controlled, double blind, crossover study.
Setting
Pediatric Sedation Program
Patients
Children with acute leukemia or lymphoma receiving sedation for LP.
Interventions
Each patient received two sedations in random order, one with propofol/placebo and one with propofol/fentanyl. The study investigator and patient/parent were blinded to placebo or fentanyl. Data collected included patient age and diagnosis, propofol dose and adverse events. Adverse events included oxygen saturation < 94%, airway obstruction, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia (< 5% mean for age). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to assess probability of adverse events and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar’s tests were used for paired comparisons.
Measurements and Main Results
Twenty-two patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients were male and 8 were female. Each patient was studied twice for a total of 44 sedations. The median age was 5.0 years (range 2.2–17.2 years). All procedures were successfully completed. The median total dose of propofol was 5.05 mg/kg (range 2.4–10.2 mg/kg) for propofol/placebo versus 3.00 mg/kg (range 1.4–10.5 mg/kg) for propofol/fentanyl (p < 0.001). Twelve adverse events occurred in 11 of 22 patients (50.0%) propofol/placebo compared to 6 of 22 (18.2%) propofol/fentanyl (p= 0.02). The most common adverse event was hypotension.
Conclusions
The combination of propofol and fentanyl versus propofol alone for LP sedation in children with acute hematologic malignancies resulted in lower propofol doses and fewer adverse events.
doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31818e3ad3
PMCID: PMC3076743  PMID: 18838923
propofol; fentanyl; pediatric oncology; procedural sedation
2.  Respiratory Depression in Young Prader Willi Syndrome Patients following Clonidine Provocation for Growth Hormone Secretion Testing 
Objectives. To determine the sedative and respiratory effects of clonidine when used to evaluate growth hormone (GH) secretion in children with Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS). Methods. The study prospectively evaluated children with PWS who received clonidine (0.15 mg/m2) to assess GH responsiveness. Patients were studied up to four times over three years. Vital signs, oxygen saturation, and sedation level were recorded at baseline and every five minutes following clonidine. Changes between baseline and post-clonidine were evaluated using a repeated measurement analysis. Results. Sixty studies were performed on 17 patients, mean age 30.4 ± 15.0 months. The mean ± SD dose of clonidine was 0.074 ± 0.027 mg (5.3 ± 1.72 mcg/kg). All patients achieved a sedation score of 4 to 5 (drowsy to asleep). Mean declines in respiratory rate (7.5 ± 6.1 breaths/min; P < .001), and oxygen saturation (2.2 ± 2.0%; P < .001) occurred following clonidine. Five patients (29%) experienced oxygen saturations ≤94% on nine occasions. Three oxygen desaturations were accompanied by partial airway obstruction. Conclusions. Clonidine doses to assess GH secretion often exceed doses used for sedation and result in significant respiratory depression in some children with PWS. There was no association between oxygen desaturation and BMI.
doi:10.1155/2010/103742
PMCID: PMC2846681  PMID: 20368793

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