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1.  Foreign-body aspiration in the adult: Presentation and management 
Nonasphyxiating foreign-body aspiration in adults can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are nonspecific and chest x-rays may be normal due to organic composition of the foreign bodies. The diagnosis is often made via flexible bronchoscopy; however, debate remains as to whether rigid or flexible bronchoscopy is the optimal method of extraction. The authors describe a patient who was initially referred for assessment of a calcified left mainstem bronchus mass identified only on computed tomography scan of the thorax. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was discovered to have a bone fragment wedged in the bronchus for a duration of 22 years, which was successfully removed via rigid bronchoscope.
PMCID: PMC3917820  PMID: 24137576
Aspiration; Bronchoscopy; Corticosteroid; Foreign body
2.  Clinical and Immunologic Features of an Atypical Intracranial Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Infection Compared with Those of Pulmonary MAC Infections▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2008;15(10):1580-1589.
Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may cause chronic pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy elderly persons but rarely invade parts of the body outside of the lungs in immunocompetent hosts. We present a case of an isolated intracranial MAC infection in an apparently immunocompetent individual and review previous reports. We studied the T-cell and monocyte responses in healthy volunteers, individuals with a pulmonary MAC infection, and one individual with an isolated intracranial MAC infection. Genomic DNA from the individual with the brain MAC infection was studied for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) receptor mutations. Individuals with localized pulmonary MAC infections showed increased activation of monocytes and enhanced monocyte and T-cell tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in response to lipopolysaccharide and MAC antigens but defects in T-cell IFN-γ secretion. The individual with an intracranial MAC infection showed a lack of monocyte activation and deficiencies in both monocyte and T-cell TNF-α production and monocyte interleukin-12 (IL-12) production but had preserved T-cell IFN-γ production. Mutations or deletions in the IFN-γ receptor were not detected in the individual with the intracranial MAC infection. Our data suggest that distinct immune defects characterize two different manifestations of MAC infection. A relative defect in IFN-γ production in response to MAC may predispose an individual to localized but partially controlled lung disease, whereas defects leading to reduced IL-12 and TNF-α production may allow the dissemination of MAC. Further studies delineating the potential role of TNF-α in limiting the spread of MAC outside the lung are warranted.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00173-08
PMCID: PMC2565932  PMID: 18701648
3.  Pleuroparenchymal lung disease secondary to nonoccupational exposure to vermiculite 
An unusual case of pleuroparenchymal lung disease caused by the inhalation of vermiculite dust, presumably containing asbestos fibers is described. The uniqueness of the case lies in the very indirect nature of exposure – the wife of a factory owner, rather than a worker exposed to asbestos, whose factory manufactured vermiculite. The present case illustrates the importance of taking careful occupational histories of all household members when presented with a patient whose chest radiograph exhibits features consistent with asbestos exposure.
PMCID: PMC2676838  PMID: 17464381
Asbestosis; Pleural disease; Second-hand exposure; Vermiculite
4.  Review of oral appliances for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing 
Between 1982 and 2006, there were 89 distinct publications dealing with oral appliance therapy involving a total of 3,027 patients, which reported results of sleep studies performed with and without the appliance. These studies, which constitute a very heterogeneous group in terms of methodology and patient population, are reviewed and the results summarized. This review focused on the following outcomes: sleep apnea (i.e. reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index or respiratory disturbance index), ability of oral appliances to reduce snoring, effect of oral appliances on daytime function, comparison of oral appliances with other treatments (continuous positive airway pressure and surgery), side effects, dental changes (overbite and overjet), and long-term compliance. We found that the success rate, defined as the ability of the oral appliances to reduce apnea/hypopnea index to less than 10, is 54%. The response rate, defined as at least 50% reduction in the initial apnea/hypopnea index (although it still remained above 10), is 21%. When only the results of randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled studies are considered, the success and response rates are 50% and 14%, respectively. Snoring was reduced by 45%. In the studies comparing oral appliances to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), an appliance reduced initial AHI by 42%, CPAP reduced it by 75%, and UPPP by 30%. The majority of patients prefer using oral appliance than CPAP. Use of oral appliances improves daytime function somewhat; the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) dropped from 11.2 to 7.8 in 854 patients. A summary of the follow-up compliance data shows that at 30 months, 56–68% of patients continue to use oral appliance. Side effects are relatively minor but frequent. The most common ones are excessive salivation and teeth discomfort. Efficacy and side effects depend on the type of appliance, degree of protrusion, vertical opening, and other settings. We conclude that oral appliances, although not as effective as CPAP in reducing sleep apnea, snoring, and improving daytime function, have a definite role in the treatment of snoring and sleep apnea.
doi:10.1007/s11325-006-0084-8
PMCID: PMC1794626  PMID: 17136406
Continuous positive airway pressure; Sleep apnea; Oral appliance
5.  Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a risk factor for hypertension: population study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2000;320(7233):479-482.
Objective
To assess whether sleep apnoea syndrome is an independent risk factor for hypertension.
Design
Population study.
Setting
Sleep clinic in Toronto.
Participants
2677 adults, aged 20-85 years, referred to the sleep clinic with suspected sleep apnoea syndrome.
Outcome measures
Medical history, demographic data, morning and evening blood pressure, and whole night polysomnography.
Results
Blood pressure and number of patients with hypertension increased linearly with severity of sleep apnoea, as shown by the apnoea-hypopnoea index. Multiple regression analysis of blood pressure levels of all patients not taking antihypertensives showed that apnoea was a significant predictor of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for age, body mass index, and sex. Multiple logistic regression showed that each additional apnoeic event per hour of sleep increased the odds of hypertension by about 1%, whereas each 10% decrease in nocturnal oxygen saturation increased the odds by 13%.
Conclusion
Sleep apnoea syndrome is profoundly associated with hypertension independent of all relevant risk factors.
PMCID: PMC27290  PMID: 10678860

Results 1-5 (5)