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author:("hos, Arno W")
2.  Clinical epidemiology of heart failure 
Heart  2007;93(9):1137-1146.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.025270
PMCID: PMC1955040  PMID: 17699180
3.  Added value of a physician‐and‐nurse‐directed heart failure clinic: results from the Deventer–Alkmaar heart failure study 
Heart  2006;93(7):819-825.
Aim
To determine whether an intensive intervention at a heart failure (HF) clinic by a combination of a clinician and a cardiovascular nurse, both trained in HF, reduces the incidence of hospitalisation for worsening HF and/or all‐cause mortality (primary end point) and improves functional status (including left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and quality of life) in patients with NYHA class III or IV.
Setting
Two regional teaching hospitals in The Netherlands.
Methods
240 patients were randomly allocated to the 1‐year intervention (n = 118) or usual care (n = 122). The intervention consisted of 9 scheduled patient contacts—at day 3 by telephone, and at weeks 1, 3, 5, 7 and at months 3, 6, 9 and 12 by a visit—to a combined, intensive physician‐and‐nurse‐directed HF outpatient clinic, starting within a week after hospital discharge from the hospital or referral from the outpatient clinic. Verbal and written comprehensive education, optimisation of treatment, easy access to the clinic, recommendations for exercise and rest, and advice for symptom monitoring and self‐care were provided. Usual care included outpatient visits initialised by individual cardiologists in the cardiology departments involved and applying the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology.
Results
During the 12‐month study period, the number of admissions for worsening HF and/or all‐cause deaths in the intervention group was lower than in the control group (23 vs 47; relative risk (RR) 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.81; p = 0.001). There was an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the intervention group (plus 2.6%) compared with the usual care group (minus 3.1%; p = 0.004). Patients in the intervention group were hospitalised for a total of 359 days compared with 644 days for those in the usual care group. Beneficial effects were also observed on NYHA classification, prescription of spironolactone, maximally reached dose of β‐blockers, quality of life, self‐care behaviour and healthcare costs.
Conclusion
A heart failure clinic involving an intensive intervention by both a clinician and a cardiovascular nurse substantially reduces hospitalisations for worsening HF and/or all‐cause mortality and improves functional status, while decreasing healthcare costs, even in a country with a primary‐care‐based healthcare system.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.095810
PMCID: PMC1994472  PMID: 17065182
4.  Resting Heart Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, but Not for Exacerbations or Pneumonia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105152.
Background
Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non-fatal pulmonary endpoints.
Methods
A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed.
Results
During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42–59). The major causes of death were cardiovascular and respiratory. The relative risk of all-cause mortality increased with 21% for every 10 beats/minute increase in heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.21 [1.07–1.36], p = 0.002). The incidence of major non-fatal pulmonary events was 145/1000 py (120–168). The risk of a non-fatal pulmonary complication increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96–1.18], p = 0.208).
Conclusions
Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105152
PMCID: PMC4144884  PMID: 25157876
5.  The changing incidence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Indonesia: a 45-year registry-based analysis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):412.
Background
Increases in human population size, dengue vector-density and human mobility cause rapid spread of dengue virus in Indonesia. We investigated the changes in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence in Indonesia over a 45-year period and determined age-specific trends in annual DHF incidence.
Methods
Using an on-going nationwide dengue surveillance program starting in 1968, we evaluated all DHF cases and related deaths longitudinally up to 2013. Population demographics were used to calculate annual incidence and case fatality ratios (CFRs). Age-specific data on DHF available from 1993 onwards were used to assess trends in DHF age-distribution. Time-dependency of DHF incidence and CFRs was assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage trend test.
Results
The annual DHF incidence increased from 0.05/100,000 in 1968 to ~ 35-40/100,000 in 2013, with superimposed epidemics demonstrating a similar increasing trend with the highest epidemic occurring in 2010 (85.70/100,000; p < 0.01). The CFR declined from 41% in 1968 to 0.73% in 2013 (p < 0.01). Mean age of DHF cases increased during the observation period. Highest incidence of DHF was observed among children aged 5 to 14 years up to 1998, but declined thereafter (p < 0.01). In those aged 15 years or over, DHF incidence increased (p < 0.01) and surpassed that of 5 to 14 year olds from 1999 onwards.
Conclusions
Incidence of DHF over the past 45 years in Indonesia increased rapidly with peak incidence shifting from young children to older age groups. The shifting age pattern should have consequences for targeted surveillance and prevention.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-412) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-412
PMCID: PMC4122763  PMID: 25064368
Dengue haemorrhagic fever; Epidemiology; Incidence; Age; Indonesia
6.  Towards tailoring of self-management for patients with chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a protocol for an individual patient data meta-analysis 
BMJ Open  2014;4(5):e005220.
Introduction
Self-management interventions in patients with chronic conditions have received increasing attention over the past few years, yet the meta-analyses encountered considerable heterogeneity in results. This suggests that the effectiveness of self-management interventions must be assessed in the context of which components are responsible for eliciting the effect and in which subgroups of patients the intervention works best. The aim of the present study is to identify condition-transcending determinants of success of self-management interventions in two parallel individual patient data meta-analyses of self-management trials in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods and analysis
Investigators of 53 randomised trials (32 in CHF and 21 in COPD) will be requested to share their de-identified individual patient data. Data will be analysed using random effects models, taking clustering within studies into account. Effect modification by age, sex, disease severity, symptom status, comorbid conditions and level of education will be assessed. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings.
Ethics and dissemination
The de-identified individual patient data are used only for the purpose for which they were originally collected and for which ethical approval has been obtained by the original investigators. Knowledge on the effective ingredients of self-management programmes and identification of subgroups of patients in which those interventions are most effective will guide the development of evidence-based personalised self-management interventions for patients with CHF and COPD as well as with other chronic diseases.
Trial registration number
PROSPERO: CRD42013004698.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005220
PMCID: PMC4039847  PMID: 24860002
Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis; Self-Management; Chronic Disease; Chronic Heart Failure; COPD
9.  Strategy to recognize and initiate treatment of chronic heart failure in primary care (STRETCH): a cluster randomized trial 
Background
Most patients with heart failure are diagnosed and managed in primary care, however, underdiagnosis and undertreatment are common. We assessed whether implementation of a diagnostic-therapeutic strategy improves functionality, health-related quality of life, and uptake of heart failure medication in primary care.
Methods/Design
A selective screening study followed by a single-blind cluster randomized trial in primary care. The study population consists of patients aged 65 years or over who presented themselves to the general practitioner in the previous 12 months with shortness of breath on exertion. Patients already known with established heart failure, confirmed by echocardiography, are excluded. Diagnostic investigations include history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, and serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Only participants with an abnormal electrocardiogram or an N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level exceeding the exclusionary cutpoint for non-acute onset heart failure (> 15 pmol/L (≈ 125 pg/ml)) will undergo open-access echocardiography. The diagnosis of heart failure (with reduced or preserved ejection fraction) is established by an expert panel consisting of two cardiologists and a general practitioner, according to the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
Patients with newly established heart failure are allocated to either the 'care as usual’ group or the 'intervention’ group. Randomization is at the level of the general practitioner. In the intervention group general practitioners receive a single half-day training in heart failure management and the use of a structured up-titration scheme. All participants fill out quality of life questionnaires at baseline and after six months of follow-up. A six-minute walking test will be performed in patients with heart failure. Information on medication and hospitalization rates is extracted from the electronic medical files of the general practitioners.
Discussion
This study will provide information on the prevalence of unrecognized heart failure in elderly with shortness of breath on exertion, and the randomized comparison will reveal whether management based on a half-day training of general practitioners in the practical application of an up-titration scheme results in improvements in functionality, health-related quality of life, and uptake of heart failure medication in heart failure patients compared to care as usual.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01202006
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-1
PMCID: PMC3898002  PMID: 24400643
Heart failure; Diagnosis; Treatment; Elderly; Primary care; Cluster randomized trial
10.  Drug development for exceptionally rare metabolic diseases: challenging but not impossible 
Background
We studied to what extent the level of scientific knowledge on exceptionally rare metabolic inherited diseases and their potential orphan medicinal products is associated with sponsors deciding to apply for an orphan designation at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA).
Methods
All metabolic diseases with a genetic cause and prevalence of less than 10 patients per 1 million of the population were selected from the ‘Orphanet database of Rare diseases’. The outcome of interest was the application for an orphan designation at FDA or EMA. The level of publicly available knowledge of the disease and drug candidate before an orphan designation application was defined as whether the physiological function corresponding with the pathologic gene and initiation of the pathophysiological pathway was known, whether an appropriate animal study was identified for the disease, whether preclinical proof of concept was ascertained and the availability of data in humans. Other determinants included in the study were metabolic disease class, the prevalence of the disease, prognosis and time of first description of the disease in the literature. Univariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of an orphan designation application were calculated for each of these determinants. In addition, a multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted (Forward LR).
Results
In total, 166 rare metabolic genetic diseases were identified and included in the analysis. For only 42 (25%) of the diseases an orphan designation application was submitted at either FDA or EMA before January 2012. The multivariate analysis identified preclinical proof of concept of a potential medicinal product as major knowledge related determinant associated with an orphan designation application (RRadj 3.9, 95% CI 1.9-8.3) and confirmed that prevalence of the disease is also associated with filing an application for an orphan designation (RRadj 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.4).
Conclusion
For only one out of four known exceptionally rare metabolic inherited diseases sponsors applied for an orphan designation at FDA or EMA. These applications were found to be associated with the prevalence of the rare disease and the level of available scientific knowledge on the proof of concept linking possible drug candidates to the disease of interest.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-179
PMCID: PMC3843583  PMID: 24237580
Rare disease; Orphan medicinal product; Inherited metabolic disease; Prevalence; Preclinical proof of concept
11.  Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(10):e1001531.
Loes C. M. Bertens and colleagues survey the published diagnostic research literature for use of expert panels to define the reference standard, characterize components and missing information, and recommend elements that should be reported in diagnostic studies.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard.
Methods and Findings
PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies.
Conclusions
Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Before any disease or condition can be treated, a correct diagnosis of the condition has to be made. Faced with a patient with medical problems and no diagnosis, a doctor will ask the patient about their symptoms and medical history and generally will examine the patient. On the basis of this questioning and examination, the clinician will form an initial impression of the possible conditions the patient may have, usually with a most likely diagnosis in mind. To support or reject the most likely diagnosis and to exclude the other possible diagnoses, the clinician will then order a series of tests and diagnostic procedures. These may include laboratory tests (such as the measurement of blood sugar levels), imaging procedures (such as an MRI scan), or functional tests (such as spirometry, which tests lung function). Finally, the clinician will use all the data s/he has collected to reach a firm diagnosis and will recommend a program of treatment or observation for the patient.
Why Was This Study Done?
Researchers are continually looking for new, improved diagnostic tests and multivariable diagnostic models—combinations of tests and characteristics that point to a diagnosis. Diagnostic research, which assesses the accuracy of new tests and models, requires that each patient involved in a diagnostic study has a final correct diagnosis. Unfortunately, for most conditions, there is no single, error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard for diagnosis. If an imperfect reference standard is used, errors in the final disease classification may bias the results of the diagnostic study and may lead to a new test being adopted that is actually less accurate than existing tests. One widely used solution to the lack of a reference standard is “panel diagnosis” in which two or more experts assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis for each patient in a diagnostic study. However, there is currently no formal guidance available on the conduct and reporting of panel diagnosis. Here, the researchers undertake a systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify research on a given topic) to provide an overview of the methodology and reporting of panel diagnosis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 81 published diagnostic studies that used panel diagnosis as a reference standard. 37% of these studies reported on psychiatric diseases, 21% reported on cardiovascular diseases, and 12% reported on respiratory diseases. Most of the studies (64%) were designed to assess the accuracy of one or more diagnostic test. Notably, one or more critical piece of information on methodology was missing in 83% of the studies. Specifically, information on the constitution of the panel was missing in a quarter of the studies and information on the decision-making process (whether, for example, a diagnosis was reached by discussion among panel members or by combining individual panel member's assessments) was incomplete in more than two-thirds of the studies. In three-quarters of the studies for which information was available, the panel consisted of only two or three members; different fields of expertise were represented in the panels in nearly two-thirds of the studies. In a third of the studies for which information was available, panel members made their diagnoses without access to the results of the test being assessed. Finally, the reproducibility of the decision-making process was assessed in a fifth of the studies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the methodology of panel diagnosis varies substantially among diagnostic studies and that reporting of this methodology is often unclear or absent. Both the methodology and reporting of panel diagnosis could, therefore, be improved substantially. Based on their findings, the researchers provide a checklist and flow chart to help guide the conduct and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. For example, they suggest that, when designing a study that uses panel diagnosis as the reference standard, the number and background of panel members should be considered, and they provide a list of options that should be considered when planning the decision-making process. Although more research into each of the options identified by the researchers is needed, their recommendations provide a starting point for the development of formal guidelines on the methodology and reporting of panel diagnosis for use as a reference standard in diagnostic research.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001531.
Wikipedia has a page on medical diagnosis (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The Equator Network is an international initiative that seeks to improve the reliability and value of medical research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies; its website includes information on a wide range of reporting guidelines, including the STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD), an initiative that aims to improve the accuracy and completeness of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001531
PMCID: PMC3797139  PMID: 24143138
12.  Development and validation of a model to predict the risk of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Purpose
Prediction models for exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are scarce. Our aim was to develop and validate a new model to predict exacerbations in patients with COPD.
Patients and methods
The derivation cohort consisted of patients aged 65 years or over, with a COPD diagnosis, who were followed up over 24 months. The external validation cohort consisted of another cohort of COPD patients, aged 50 years or over. Exacerbations of COPD were defined as symptomatic deterioration requiring pulsed oral steroid use or hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis including backward selection and shrinkage were used to develop the final model and to adjust for overfitting. The adjusted regression coefficients were applied in the validation cohort to assess calibration of the predictions and calculate changes in discrimination applying C-statistics.
Results
The derivation and validation cohort consisted of 240 and 793 patients with COPD, of whom 29% and 28%, respectively, experienced an exacerbation during follow-up. The final model included four easily assessable variables: exacerbations in the previous year, pack years of smoking, level of obstruction, and history of vascular disease, with a C-statistic of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69–0.82). Predictions were well calibrated in the validation cohort, with a small loss in discrimination potential (C-statistic 0.66 [95% CI 0.61–0.71]).
Conclusion
Our newly developed prediction model can help clinicians to predict the risk of future exacerbations in individual patients with COPD, including those with mild disease.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S49609
PMCID: PMC3797610  PMID: 24143086
exacerbation of COPD; risk prediction; external validation; vascular disease
13.  The impact of the HEART risk score in the early assessment of patients with acute chest pain: design of a stepped wedge, cluster randomised trial 
Background
Chest pain remains a diagnostic challenge: physicians do not want to miss an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but, they also wish to avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic procedures. In approximately 75% of the patients presenting with chest pain at the emergency department (ED) there is no underlying cardiac cause. Therefore, diagnostic strategies focus on identifying patients in whom an ACS can be safely ruled out based on findings from history, physical examination and early cardiac marker measurement. The HEART score, a clinical prediction rule, was developed to provide the clinician with a simple, early and reliable predictor of cardiac risk. We set out to quantify the impact of the use of the HEART score in daily practice on patient outcomes and costs.
Methods/Design
We designed a prospective, multi-centre, stepped wedge, cluster randomised trial. Our aim is to include a total of 6600 unselected chest pain patients presenting at the ED in 10 Dutch hospitals during an 11-month period. All clusters (i.e. hospitals) start with a period of ‘usual care’ and are randomised in their timing when to switch to ‘intervention care’. The latter involves the calculation of the HEART score in each patient to guide clinical decision; notably reassurance and discharge of patients with low scores and intensive monitoring and early intervention in patients with high HEART scores. Primary outcome is occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including acute myocardial infarction, revascularisation or death within 6 weeks after presentation. Secondary outcomes include occurrence of MACE in low-risk patients, quality of life, use of health care resources and costs.
Discussion
Stepped wedge designs are increasingly used to evaluate the real-life effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions because of the following potential advantages: (a) each hospital has both a usual care and an intervention period, therefore, outcomes can be compared within and across hospitals; (b) each hospital will have an intervention period which enhances participation in case of a promising intervention; (c) all hospitals generate data about potential implementation problems. This large impact trial will generate evidence whether the anticipated benefits (in terms of safety and cost-effectiveness) of using the HEART score will indeed be achieved in real-life clinical practice.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov 80-82310-97-12154.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-77
PMCID: PMC3849098  PMID: 24070098
HEART score; Chest pain; Clinical prediction rule; Risk score implementation; Impact; Stepped wedge design; Cluster randomised trial
14.  Regulatory Scientific Advice on Non-Inferiority Drug Trials 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74818.
The active-controlled trial with a non-inferiority design has gained popularity in recent years. However, non-inferiority trials present some methodological challenges, especially in determining the non-inferiority margin. Regulatory guidelines provide some general statements on how a non-inferiority trial should be conducted. Moreover, in a scientific advice procedure, regulators give companies the opportunity to discuss critical trial issues prior to the start of the trial. The aim of this study was to identify potential issues that may benefit from more explicit guidance by regulators. To achieve this, we collected and analyzed questions about non-inferiority trials posed by applicants for scientific advice in Europe in 2008 and 2009, as well as the responses given by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In our analysis we included 156 final letters of advice from 2008 and 2009, addressed to 94 different applicants (manufacturers). Our analysis yielded two major findings: (1) applicants frequently asked questions ‘whether’ and ‘how’ to conduct a non-inferiority trial, 26% and 74%, respectively, and (2) the EMA regulators seem mainly concerned about the choice of the non-inferiority margin in non-inferiority trials (36% of total regulatory answers). In 40% of the answers, the EMA recommended using a stricter margin, and in 10% of the answers regarding non-inferiority margins, the EMA questioned the justification of the proposed non-inferiority margin.
We conclude that there are still difficulties in selecting the appropriate methodology for non-inferiority trials. Straightforward and harmonized guidance regarding non-inferiority trials is required, for example on whether it is necessary to conduct such a trial and how the non-inferiority margin is determined. It is unlikely that regulatory guidelines can cover all therapeutic areas; therefore, in some cases regulatory scientific advice may be used as an opportunity for tailored advice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074818
PMCID: PMC3764030  PMID: 24040346
15.  Accuracy of symptoms, signs, and C-reactive protein for early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
The British Journal of General Practice  2012;62(602):e632-e638.
Background
Guidelines recommend detection of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but evidence on the diagnostic work-up for COPD only concerns advanced and established COPD.
Aim
To quantify the accuracy of symptoms and signs for early COPD, and the added value of C-reactive protein (CRP), in primary care patients presenting with cough.
Design and setting
Cross-sectional diagnostic study of 73 primary care practices in the Netherlands
Method
Four hundred primary care patients (182 males, mean age 63 years) older than 50 years, presenting with persistent cough (>14 days) without established COPD participated, of whom 382 completed the study. They underwent a systematic diagnostic work-up of symptoms, signs, conventional laboratory CRP level, and hospital lung functions tests, including body plethysmography, and an expert panel decided whether COPD was present (reference test). The independent value of all items was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results
According to the expert panel, 118 patients had COPD (30%). Symptoms and signs with independent diagnostic value were age, sex, current smoking, smoking more than 20 pack-years, cardiovascular comorbidity, wheezing complaints, diminished breath sounds, and wheezing on auscultation. Combining these items resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC area) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval = 0.74 to 0.83) after internal validation. The proportion of subjects with elevated CRP was higher in those with early COPD, but CRP added no relevant diagnostic information above symptoms and signs.
Conclusion
In subjects presenting with persistent cough, the CRP level has no added value for detection of early COPD.
doi:10.3399/bjgp12X654605
PMCID: PMC3426602  PMID: 22947584
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; C-reactive protein; diagnosis; general practice
16.  β-Blockers and All-Cause Mortality in Adults with Episodes of Acute Bronchitis: An Observational Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67122.
Background
Recent observational studies suggest that β-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed whether β-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis.
Methods
An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates.
Results
The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7) years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD) follow up period of 7.7 (2.5) years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio of cardioselective β-blocker use for mortality was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–0.77), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.75–1.36) for non-selective ones. Some other cardiovascular drugs also reduced the risk of mortality, with adjusted HRs of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46–0.79) for calcium channel blockers, 0.88 (95% CI 0.73–1.06) for ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.31–0.57) for statins, respectively.
Conclusion
Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective β-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067122
PMCID: PMC3686763  PMID: 23840599
17.  Phase IV non-inferiority trials and additional claims of benefit 
Background
Non-inferiority (NI) trials in drug research are used to demonstrate that a new treatment is not less effective than an active comparator. Since phase IV trials typically aim at informing a clinical decision, the value of a phase IV non-inferiority trial hinges also on its clinical relevance. In such trials, clinical relevance would refer to the added benefit claims of a specific drug, apart from efficacy, relative to its comparator drug in the trial.
Methods
In this study, we reviewed 41 phase IV trials and extracted information on whether the authors mentioned any additional benefit beyond the NI (efficacy) claim of the drug and whether the additional benefit was proven in the trial. We checked whether the additional claim was based on descriptions only or on formal statistical analyses.
Results
Our results showed that 22 out of the 41 NI trials mentioned additional benefit of the test drug and most of these claims were related to the safety profile. Of all the post-authorization NI trials that claimed additional benefit, 10 out of 22 NI trials used formal statistical analyses to show additional benefit, and only one included a sample size calculation for the additional benefit prior to the trial.
Conclusion
We conclude that there is room for improvement in terms of designing phase IV NI trials with added benefit claims and in proving these additional claims.
doi:10.1186/1471-2288-13-70
PMCID: PMC3679839  PMID: 23721202
Non-inferiority; Post-authorization; Ethics; Additional benefit; Clinical relevance
18.  Number of Patients Studied Prior to Approval of New Medicines: A Database Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(3):e1001407.
In an evaluation of medicines approved by the European Medicines Agency 2000 to 2010, Ruben Duijnhoven and colleagues find that the number of patients evaluated for medicines approved for chronic use are inadequate for evaluation of safety or long-term efficacy.
Background
At the time of approval of a new medicine, there are few long-term data on the medicine's benefit–risk balance. Clinical trials are designed to demonstrate efficacy, but have major limitations with regard to safety in terms of patient exposure and length of follow-up. This study of the number of patients who had been administered medicines at the time of medicine approval by the European Medicines Agency aimed to determine the total number of patients studied, as well as the number of patients studied long term for chronic medication use, compared with the International Conference on Harmonisation's E1 guideline recommendations.
Methods and Findings
All medicines containing new molecular entities approved between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study, including orphan medicines as a separate category. The total number of patients studied before approval was extracted (main outcome). In addition, the number of patients with long-term use (6 or 12 mo) was determined for chronic medication. 200 unique new medicines were identified: 161 standard and 39 orphan medicines. The median total number of patients studied before approval was 1,708 (interquartile range [IQR] 968–3,195) for standard medicines and 438 (IQR 132–915) for orphan medicines. On average, chronic medication was studied in a larger number of patients (median 2,338, IQR 1,462–4,135) than medication for intermediate (878, IQR 513–1,559) or short-term use (1,315, IQR 609–2,420). Safety and efficacy of chronic use was studied in fewer than 1,000 patients for at least 6 and 12 mo in 46.4% and 58.3% of new medicines, respectively. Among the 84 medicines intended for chronic use, 68 (82.1%) met the guideline recommendations for 6-mo use (at least 300 participants studied for 6 mo and at least 1,000 participants studied for any length of time), whereas 67 (79.8%) of the medicines met the criteria for 12-mo patient exposure (at least 100 participants studied for 12 mo).
Conclusions
For medicines intended for chronic use, the number of patients studied before marketing is insufficient to evaluate safety and long-term efficacy. Both safety and efficacy require continued study after approval. New epidemiologic tools and legislative actions necessitate a review of the requirements for the number of patients studied prior to approval, particularly for chronic use, and adequate use of post-marketing studies.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Before any new medicine is marketed for the treatment of a human disease, it has to go through extensive laboratory and clinical research. In the laboratory, scientists investigate the causes of diseases, identify potential new treatments, and test these interventions in disease models, some of which involve animals. The safety and efficacy of potential new interventions is then investigated in a series of clinical trials—studies in which the new treatment is tested in selected groups of patients under strictly controlled conditions, first to determine whether the drug is tolerated by humans and then to assess its efficacy. Finally, the results of these trials are reviewed by the government body responsible for drug approval; in the US, this body is the Food and Drug Administration, and in the European Union, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is responsible for the scientific evaluation and approval of new medicines.
Why Was This Study Done?
Clinical trials are primarily designed to test the efficacy—the ability to produce the desired therapeutic effect—of new medicines. The number of patients needed to establish efficacy determines the size of a clinical trial, and the indications for which efficacy must be shown determine the trial's duration. However, identifying adverse effects of drugs generally requires the drug to be taken by more patients than are required to show efficacy, so the information about adverse effects is often relatively limited at the end of clinical testing. Consequently, when new medicines are approved, their benefit–risk ratios are often poorly defined, even though physicians need this information to decide which treatment to recommend to their patients. For the evaluation of risk or adverse effects of medicines being developed for chronic (long-term) treatment of non-life-threatening diseases, current guidelines recommend that at least 1,000–1,500 patients are exposed to the new drug and that 300 and 100 patients use the drug for six and twelve months, respectively, before approval. But are these guidelines being followed? In this database analysis, the researchers use data collected by the EMA to determine how many patients are exposed to new medicines before approval in the European Union and how many are exposed for extended periods of time to medicines intended for chronic use.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Using the European Commission's Community Register of Medicinal Products, the researchers identified 161 standard medicines and 39 orphan medicines (medicines to treat or prevent rare life-threatening diseases) that contained new active substances and that were approved in the European Union between 2000 and 2010. They extracted information on the total number of patients studied and on the number exposed to the medicines for six months and twelve months before approval of each medicine from EMA's European public assessment reports. The average number of patients studied before approval was 1,708 for standard medicines and 438 for orphan medicines (marketing approval is easier to obtain for orphan medicines than for standard medicines to encourage drug companies to develop medicines that might otherwise be unprofitable). On average, medicines for chronic use (for example, asthma medications) were studied in more patients (2,338) than those for intermediate use such as anticancer drugs (878), or short-term use such as antibiotics (1,315). The safety and efficacy of chronic use was studied in fewer than 1,000 patients for at least six and twelve months in 46.4% and 58.4% of new medicines, respectively. Finally, among the 84 medicines intended for chronic use, 72 were studied in at least 300 patients for six months, and 70 were studied in at least 100 patients for twelve months.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that although the number of patients studied before approval is sufficient to determine the short-term efficacy of new medicines, it is insufficient to determine safety or long-term efficacy. Any move by drug approval bodies to require pharmaceutical companies to increase the total number of patients exposed to a drug, or the number exposed for extended periods of time to drugs intended for chronic use, would inevitably delay the entry of new products into the market, which likely would be unacceptable to patients and healthcare providers. Nevertheless, the researchers suggest that a reevaluation of the study size and long-term data requirements that need to be met for the approval of new medicines, particularly those designed for long-term use, is merited. They also stress the need for continued study of both the safety and efficacy of new medicines after approval and the importance of post-marketing studies that actively examine safety issues.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001407.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides information about all aspects of the scientific evaluation and approval of new medicines in the European Union; its European public assessment reports are publicly available
The European Commission's Community Register of Medicinal Products is a publicly searchable database of medicinal products approved for human use in the European Union
The US Food and Drug Administration provides information about drug approval in the US for consumers and for health professionals
The US National Institutes of Health provides information (including personal stories) about clinical trials
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001407
PMCID: PMC3601954  PMID: 23526887
19.  Serum extracellular vesicle protein levels are associated with acute coronary syndrome 
Aims:
Biomarkers are essential in the early detection of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Serum extracellular vesicles are small vesicles in the plasma containing protein and RNA and have been shown to be involved in ACS-related processes like apoptosis and coagulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that serum extracellular vesicle protein levels are associated with ACS.
Methods and results:
Three serum extracellular vesicle proteins potentially associated with ACS were identified with differential Q-proteomics and were evaluated in 471 frozen serum samples of ACS-suspected patients presenting to the emergency department (30% of whom had an ACS). Protein levels were measured after vesicle isolation using ExoQuick. Mean serum extracellular vesicle concentration of the different proteins was compared between ACS and non-ACS patients. Selected proteins were tested in a univariate logistic regression model, as well as in a multivariate model to adjust for cardiovascular risk factors. A separate analysis was performed in men and women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, polygenic immunoglobulin receptor, (pIgR; OR 1.630, p=0.026), cystatin C (OR 1.641, p=0.021), and complement factor C5a (C5a, OR 1.495, p=0.025) were significantly associated with ACS, while total vesicle protein concentration was borderline significant. The association of the individual proteins with ACS was markedly stronger in men.
Conclusions:
These data show that serum extracellular vesicle pIgR, cystatin C, and C5a concentrations are independently associated with ACS and that there are pronounced gender differences. These observations should be validated in a large, prospective study to assess the potential role of vesicle content in the evaluation of patients suspected of having an ACS.
doi:10.1177/2048872612471212
PMCID: PMC3760575  PMID: 24062934
ACS; acute coronary syndrome; biomarker; extracellular vesicle; protein
21.  Early assessment of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency department: the potential diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2012;4(11):1176-1185.
Previous studies investigating the role of circulating microRNAs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were based on small patient numbers, performed no comparison with established markers of cardiac injury and did not have appropriate controls. We determined the potential diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs as novel early biomarkers in 332 suspected ACS patients on presentation to the emergency department (ED) in a prospective single-centre study including cardiac miRNAs (miR-1, -208a and -499), miR-21 and miR-146a. Levels of all miRs studied were significantly increased in 106 patients diagnosed with ACS, even in patients with initially negative high-sensitive (hs) troponin or symptom onset <3 h. MiR-1, miR-499 and miR-21 significantly increased the diagnostic value in all suspected ACS patients when added to hs-troponin T (AUC 0.90). These three miRs were strong predictors of ACS independent of clinical co-variates including patient history and cardiovascular risk factors. Interestingly, the combination of these three miRs resulted in a significantly higher AUC of 0.94 than hs-troponin T (0.89). Circulating microRNAs hold great potential as novel early biomarkers for the management of suspected ACS patients.
doi:10.1002/emmm.201201749
PMCID: PMC3494874  PMID: 23023917
acute coronary syndrome; circulating microRNA; miR-1; miR-21; miR-499
22.  Triage of frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance in primary care (TREE). a clustered randomized diagnostic study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:385.
Background
Exercise reduced tolerance and breathlessness are common in the elderly and can result in substantial loss in functionality and health related quality of life. Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common underlying causes, but can be difficult to disentangle due to overlap in symptomatology. In addition, other potential causes such as obesity, anaemia, renal dysfunction and thyroid disorders may be involved.
We aim to assess whether screening of frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance leads to high detection rates of HF, COPD, or alternative diagnoses, and whether detection of these diseases would result in changes in patient management and increase in both functionality and quality of life.
Methods/Design
A cluster randomized diagnostic trial. Primary care practices are randomized to the diagnostic-treatment strategy (screening) or care as usual.
Patient population: Frail (defined as having three or more chronic or vitality threatening diseases and/or receiving five or more drugs chronically during the last year) community-dwelling persons aged 65 years and older selected from the electronic medical files of the participating general practitioners. Those with reduced exercise tolerance or moderate to severe dyspnoea (≥2 score on the Medical Research Counsel dyspnoea scale) are included in the study.
The diagnostic screening in the intervention group includes history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, spirometry, blood tests, and echocardiography. Subsequently, participants with new diagnoses will be managed according to clinical guidelines. Participants in the control arm receive care as usual. All participants fill out health status and other relevant questionnaires at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up.
Discussion
This study will generate information on the yield of screening for previously unrecognized HF, COPD and other chronic diseases in frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance and/or exercise induced dyspnoea. The cluster randomized comparison will reveal whether this yield will result in subsequent improvements in functional health and/or health related quality of life.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01148719
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-385
PMCID: PMC3407748  PMID: 22640176
Reduced exercise tolerance; Dyspnoea; Breathlessness; Heart failure; COPD; Frail; Elderly; Screening
23.  "GOLD or lower limit of normal definition? a comparison with expert-based diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a prospective cohort-study" 
Respiratory Research  2012;13(1):13.
Background
The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines COPD as a fixed post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below 0.7. Age-dependent cut-off values below the lower fifth percentile (LLN) of this ratio derived from the general population have been proposed as an alternative. We wanted to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic capability of the GOLD and LLN definition when compared to an expert-based diagnosis.
Methods
In a prospective cohort study, 405 patients aged ≥ 65 years with a general practitioner's diagnosis of COPD were recruited and followed up for 4.5 (median; quartiles 3.9; 5.1) years. Prevalence rates of COPD according to GOLD and three LLN definitions and diagnostic performance measurements were calculated. The reference standard was the diagnosis of COPD of an expert panel that used all available diagnostic information, including spirometry and bodyplethysmography.
Results
Compared to the expert panel diagnosis, 'GOLD-COPD' misclassified 69 (28%) patients, and the three LLNs misclassified 114 (46%), 96 (39%), and 98 (40%) patients, respectively. The GOLD classification led to more false positives, the LLNs to more false negative diagnoses. The main predictors beyond the FEV1/FVC ratio for an expert diagnosis of COPD were the FEV1 % predicted, and the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC). Adding FEV1 and RV/TLC to GOLD or LLN improved the diagnostic accuracy, resulting in a significant reduction of up to 50% of the number of misdiagnoses. The expert diagnosis of COPD better predicts exacerbations, hospitalizations and mortality than GOLD or LLN.
Conclusions
GOLD criteria over-diagnose COPD, while LLN definitions under-diagnose COPD in elderly patients as compared to an expert panel diagnosis. Incorporating FEV1 and RV/TLC into the GOLD-COPD or LLN-based definition brings both definitions closer to expert panel diagnosis of COPD, and to daily clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-13-13
PMCID: PMC3299632  PMID: 22309369
COPD diagnosis; lower limit of normal; GOLD; validation

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