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1.  Incidence of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;311(7006):691-692.
PMCID: PMC2551472  PMID: 7549669
2.  Pneumocystis pneumonia. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6949):272.
PMCID: PMC2540733  PMID: 8069160
5.  Do Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites evolve during continuous passage? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(6):609-611.
Aim: To examine three lineages of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain in terms of performance in the dye test, culture, and gene expression.
Methods: Historical data (culture growth and performance in the dye test) from three lineages of RH strain tachyzoites (B, J, and Q) that had been continuously cultured in HeLa cells was assessed. Tachyzoite harvests obtained during continuous cell culture were retrieved from liquid nitrogen and cultured in HeLa cells, providing mRNA that was extracted and used to study gene expression using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis at different stages of lineage adaptation to continuous culture.
Results: The B and Q lineages consistently produced tachyzoites that were successfully used in the dye test and their gene expression was stable after multiple passages. The J lineage had unpredictable growth, tachyzoites unsuitable for use in the dye test, and changing gene expression with multiple passage.
Conclusion: This study has explained some anomalies in the performance of different stocks of T gondii, and suggests that lineages that are still evolving in cell culture should be avoided.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2003.013763
PMCID: PMC1770330  PMID: 15166265
random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis; RH strain; Toxoplasma gondii; continuous cell culture; gene expression
6.  Pseudohyperkalaemia and infectious mononucleosis. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1980;56(656):435-436.
Pseudohyperkalaemia is described from a patient with infectious mononucleosis. The in vitro release of potassium was associated with clotting and all the blood cells may have been involved.
PMCID: PMC2425722  PMID: 7413547
7.  Morphoea and Borrelia burgdorferi: results from the Scottish Highlands in the context of the world literature 
Molecular Pathology  2002;55(6):374-378.
Aims: Previous studies investigating the link between infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and morphoea have produced conflicting results. Often, these studies have been undertaken in patients from different regions or countries, and using methods of varying sensitivity for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi infection. This study aimed to establish whether a relation could be demonstrated in the Highlands of Scotland, an area with endemic Lyme disease, with the use of a sensitive method for detecting the organism.
Methods: The study was performed on biopsies of lesional skin taken from 16 patients from the Highlands of Scotland with typical clinical features of morphoea. After histological confirmation of the diagnosis, a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers to a unique conserved region of the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin gene was performed on DNA extracts from each biopsy. A literature search was also performed for comparable studies.
Results: None of the 16 patients had documented clinical evidence of previous infection with B burgdorferi. DNA was successfully extracted from 14 of the 16 cases but all of these were negative using PCR for B burgdorferi specific DNA, despite successful amplification of appropriate positive controls in every test. The results were compared with those of other documented studies.
Conclusions: Examination of the literature suggests that there is a strong geographical relation between B burgdorferi and morphoea. These results, in which no such association was found, indicate that morphoea may not be associated with the subspecies of B burgdorferi found in the Highlands of Scotland.
PMCID: PMC1187274  PMID: 12456775
morphoea; Borrelia burgdorferi; polymerase chain reaction
8.  Immunoblotting can help the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis 
Molecular Pathology  2000;53(3):155-158.
Aims—To determine whether IgG immunoblotting can improve the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.
Methods—Samples of serum were tested from patients with ocular lesions that could be caused by toxoplasmosis. All such samples from Scotland and Northern Ireland are usually referred to the Scottish Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory. From questionnaires filled out by the clinicians, two groups of sera were identified: ocular toxoplasmosis (active and quiescent), n = 54 (group 1); and eye disease as a result of other causes, n = 36 (group 2). Control groups were made up of sera from patients with no eye disease and a normal dye test result (≤ 125 IU/ml), n = 16 (group 3); and toxoplasma seronegative, cytomegalovirus (CMV) positive, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive sera (group 4), n = 18.
Results—Immunoblots with an active pattern could be identified (IgG antibodies against at least four antigens with molecular weight of 6, 20, 22, 23, 25, and 36 kDa). Significantly more of this pattern was found in group 1 (33 of 54; 61.1%) compared with group 2 (nine of 36; 25%) or group 3 (six of 16; 37.5%). Within group 1, significantly more sera with an active pattern had dye test results ≥ 65 IU/ml compared with those without. More sera from patients < 30 years of age were found with the active pattern in group 1 compared with group 2. No group 4 sera had active immunoblot patterns.
Conclusions—The immunoblot result adds more support to the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is difficult, immunoblots are particularly indicated; if negative, other causes of eye disease should be sought.
PMCID: PMC1186923  PMID: 10897336
ocular toxoplasmosis; IgG immunoblotting; dye test
9.  Identification of different Borrelia burgdorferi genomic groups from Scottish ticks 
Molecular Pathology  2000;53(2):94-98.
Aim—To characterise 12 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates cultured from ticks collected in the Highlands of Scotland.
Methods—Three molecular methods were used: an outer surface membrane protein A (OSP A) gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to give different molecular weight products with different genomic groups, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene PCRs using genomic group specific primers.
Results—All of the molecular methods used were quick and easy to perform and capable of differentiating between the different genomic groups of B burgdorferi sensu lato. All 12 tick isolates were characterised successfully with each method: five were characterised as B afzelii and seven were characterised as B burgdorferi sensu stricto. RAPD also identified differences within these genomic groups.
Conclusions—From this study, it is now known that at least two different B burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups are present in the Highlands of Scotland: B afzelii and B burgdorferi sensu stricto. This information can now be used to develop appropriate serological tests, which should improve the diagnosis and management of patients with Lyme disease in Scotland. The molecular methods chosen were found to be useful typing tools and will allow rapid identification of any future isolates.
PMCID: PMC1186912  PMID: 10889909
Borrelia burgdorferi; randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis; ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction
11.  Improved diagnosis of reactivated toxoplasmosis. 
Molecular Pathology  1998;51(2):105-109.
AIMS: To identify antigens detected by western blotting in primary Toxoplasma gondii infection and determine their role in diagnosis of reactivated toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Twenty three immunocompromised patients were tested by IgG western blotting. Patients were grouped retrospectively. Group 1 comprised 15 human immunodeficiency (HIV)/AIDS patients and included: group 1A (six patients with clinical and/or serological evidence of reactivation), group 1B (five patients with clinical evidence only), and group 1C (four asymptomatic patients). Group 2 comprised eight non-HIV/AIDS immunocompromised patients with clinical and/or serological evidence of reactivation. Immunocompetent patients (n = 23) with primary toxoplasmosis were a control group used to determine the progression of the antigens detected. RESULTS: In primary toxoplasmosis, antibodies against 6, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 29, and 36 kDa antigens predominated. Detection of four or more of the 6, 20, 22, 23, 25, and 36 kDa antigens was considered to be western blot positive. In two group 1A patients, western blotting indicated past infection. During reactivation, this reverted to being western blot positive. Three other group 1A patients were western blot positive. In three of five group 1B patients, western blot positive results improved serological diagnosis of reactivated toxoplasmosis (p < 0.05). In two of five group 1B patients and all four group 1C patients, western blot indicated past infection. In group 2, two of eight patients reverted from a pattern of past infection to western blot positive. Five other patients from group 2 were western blot positive. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of some low molecular weight antigens is diagnostic of reactivated toxoplasmosis. These antigens can be detected even with normal dye test titres and their detection improves the diagnosis of reactivated toxoplasmosis. They might be the result of the release of bradyzoites from ruptured tissue cysts.
PMCID: PMC395619  PMID: 9713595
13.  Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6967):1515.
PMCID: PMC2541601  PMID: 7804073
14.  Congenital toxoplasmosis. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;305(6854):651-652.
PMCID: PMC1883334  PMID: 1393101
16.  Alpha-interferon responses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected meningitis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1987;40(1):83-86.
Cerebrospinal fluid from 100 patients with clinically diagnosed meningitis was examined for alpha-interferon. In the laboratory four patient groups were identified: bacterial meningitis (n = 12), viral meningitis (n = 15), normal cerebrospinal fluid (n = 57) and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (n = 16). A further 14 patients with cerebrospinal fluid shunts but no abnormality in the cerebrospinal fluid provided a control group for alpha-interferon determinations. The group with viral meningitis and the group with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid had significantly higher alpha-interferon concentrations (p less than 0.001) when compared with those of the three other groups. This assay had great predictive value in determining those patients with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid who did not have a bacterial cause of meningitis. As the groups with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and viral meningitis had a similar spread in alpha-interferon values it is likely that both reflect viral infection of the central nervous system.
PMCID: PMC1140834  PMID: 3818974
17.  Practice Research: Is the serological diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis always necessary? 
Clinical and serological data from 100 patients who had a Downey lymphocytosis of ≥ 40% of all white cells were assessed over three years. All had clinical evidence of infectious mononucleosis, suggesting that Downey lymphocytosis of ≥ 40% is specific for the illness.
PMCID: PMC1549386  PMID: 6414623
18.  Assessing bone marrow cellularity. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1983;36(7):835-836.
PMCID: PMC498402  PMID: 6345595
19.  Marrow cellularity and polycythaemia. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1983;36(7):836-837.
PMCID: PMC498403  PMID: 6863576
25.  Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. 
British Medical Journal  1980;280(6230):1538-1539.
PMCID: PMC1601639  PMID: 6248161

Results 1-25 (43)