PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-14 (14)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Diagnostic Value of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis versus Body Mass Index for Detection of Obesity among Students 
Purpose
Obesity is a common nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweightness and obesity using both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI).
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 288 healthy college students were selected. Socio-economic status questionnaires were completed and subjects’ anthropometric features were measured by a trained nurse. BMI was calculated and body fat mass (BFM) and body fat percent (BF%) were obtained using BIA method by hand-to-hand Omron BF-500 set.
Results
Mean age of the subjects was 21.1±1.7 years. Based on BMI, 2.6% of males and 2.2% of females were obese while 15.7% and 9.6% were diagnosed to be overweight respectively. The correlation between BMI values and BFM were 0.883 and 0.908 in males and females respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, BF% had a significant correlation with BMI in both males and females (P<0.001).
Conclusion
Our survey demonstrated a lower prevalence of obesity and overweightness in college students compared with Iranian general population, especially in females. Additionally, BIA method was shown to be closely correlated with and as much valuable as BMI in regard to detection of obesity.
PMCID: PMC3289197  PMID: 22375221
Body Mass Index; Bioelectrical Impedance; Obesity; Students; Body Fat
2.  Risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Shiraz, southern Iran 
AIM: To determine the prevalence and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a healthy general population in relation to demographic, lifestyle and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz, southern Iran.
METHODS: A total of 1978 subjects aged > 35 years who referred to Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and who completed a questionnaire consisting of 27 questions for GERD in relation to demographic, lifestyle and health-seeking behaviors were included in this study for a period of five months. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined.
RESULTS: The prevalence of GERD was 15.4%, which was higher in females (17.3%), in rural areas (19.8%), and in illiterate subjects (21.5%) and those with a mean age of 50.25 years. The prevalence was significantly lower in subjects having fried food (14.8%), and fruit and vegetables (14.6%). More symptoms were noticed in subjects consuming pickles (22.1%), taking aspirin (21%) and in subjects with psychological distresses (27.2%) and headaches (22%). The correlation was statistically significant between GERD and halitosis (18.3%), dyspepsia (30.6%), anxiety (19.5%), nightmares (23.9%) and restlessness (18.5%). Their health seeking behavior showed that there was a significant restriction of diet (20%), consumption of herbal medicine (19%), using over-the-counter drugs (29.9%) and consulting with physicians (24.8%). Presence of GERD symptoms was also significantly related to a previous family history of the disease (22.3%).
CONCLUSION: GERD is more common in females, rural and illiterate subjects and correlated with consumption of pickles, occurrence of headache, psychological distress, dyspepsia, halitosis, anxiety, nightmare and restlessness, and a family history of GERD and aspirin intake, but the correlation was negative with consumption of fat and fiber intake.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i41.5486
PMCID: PMC4171284  PMID: 17907293
Reflux; Risk factors; Prevalence; Southern Iran
3.  The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran 
Abstract:
Background:
Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface.
Results:
The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001).
Conclusions:
Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the implementation of appropriate preventive measures.
doi:10.5249/jivr.v6i2.318
PMCID: PMC4009171  PMID: 24121452
Road traffic crashes; Injury; Mortality; Environmental factors; Iran
4.  Interventional Revascularization of Coronary Artery Lesions in Diabetic Patients; In-hospital and One Year Follow up 
Background
Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease accompanied by several micro- and macro vascular complications. Several modalities are available for interventional revascularization of coronary artery lesions, but their efficacy in diabetic patients is studied only in few patients.
Materials and Method
This study evaluated major in- hospital complications and clinical outcome after one year in 200 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous Coronary Intervention from 2007 to 2009.
Results
Our findings showed comparable single and 2 vessel stenting, regarding major adverse cardiovascular event in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. In connection with long term and in hospital outcome, no statistically significant difference was found between one and two vessel stenting when drug eluting stent was used in diabetic patients.
Conclusion
The use of drug eluting stent in single or two vessel disease of diabetic patients is technically satisfactory and clinically safe and can substitute for coronary artery bypass grafting.
PMCID: PMC3987412  PMID: 24757604
Diabetes mellitus; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Revascularization; Coronary Artery Disease
5.  Burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents of Fars province: analysis of Iran’s 20-year trends 
Epidemiology and Health  2014;36:e2014032.
OBJECTIVES:
Transportation injuries are among the top ten causes of burden of disease in all age groups worldwide. The burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents in Iran is higher than the world average and that of other developing countries. The aims of this study were to investigate the burden of transportation injuries in children and adolescents in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013, and to report the burden of these kinds of injuries in children and adolescents in Iran from 1990 to 2010.
METHODS:
The number of deaths due to transportation injuries and the location of fatal injuries in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed using data from the Fars Forensic Medicine Organization. The 20-year trend in the burden of transportation injuries in Iran was analyzed using data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.
RESULTS:
Similarly to the long-term trend in Iran, the burden of transportation injuries among the male population of Fars province was generally higher than in females. Most fatal accident injuries occurred on roads (males: n=4151, 61.51%; females: n=1182, 65.95%) and in urban areas (males: n=1994, 29.54%; females: n=473, 26.40%).
CONCLUSIONS:
Considering that children and adolescents are high risk groups for transportation injuries, adopting an effective comprehensive multi-sectoral approach, including enacting and enforcing appropriate laws and regulations, developing general knowledge, and facilitating the availability of Personal protective equipment, could be helpful for reducing the burden of these injuries.
doi:10.4178/epih/e2014032
PMCID: PMC4300829  PMID: 25420953
Transportation injuries; Burden of diseases; Child; Adolescent
6.  Traffic accidents in Iran, a decade of progress but still challenges ahead 
Iran has had incremental incidence of traffic accident mortality since introduction of mechanization about a century ago. But the newest data from Iran show decrease in the absolute number of deaths, death per 10,000 vehicles and death per 100, 000 populations. Despite its huge impact on health and economy, research in the field of traffic crashes is still scant and there are still deficiencies in problem oriented research on traffic accidents. Actual cooperation of policy makers, executive bodies and academician could build platform for intersectoral discussion of different aspects of traffic accidents and could reduce burden of traffic accidents.
PMCID: PMC4301220  PMID: 25664297
Traffic accidents; Burden of Disease; Accident Mortality
7.  The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25) 
Background:
It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet.
Objectives:
The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects.
Methods:
The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results:
The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P < 0.001), BMI (P < 0.001), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and leptin (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001) and adiponectin (P = 0.031).
Conclusions:
The 6 isocaloric meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet.
PMCID: PMC4058484  PMID: 24936481
Obesity; Meal; Leptin; Adiponectin
8.  Hospital Mortality Associated with Stroke in Southern Iran 
Background: Unlike the western hemisphere, information about stroke epidemiology in southern Iran is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the main epidemiological characteristics of patients with stroke and its mortality rate in southern Iran.
Methods: A retrospective, single-center, hospital-based longitudinal study was performed at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th editions, for the period between 2001 and 2010. Demographics including age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and discharge destinations were analyzed in association with mortality.
Results: 16351 patients with a mean age of 63.4 years (95% CI: 63.1, 63.6) were included in this analysis. Men were slightly predominant (53.6% vs. 46.4%). Forty-seven percent of the total sample was older than 65,17% were younger than 45, and 2.6% were children younger than 18. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days (95% CI: 6.2, 6.4). Among all types of strokes, the overall hospital mortality was 20.5%. Multiple logistic regression revealed significantly higher in-hospital mortality in women and children (P<0.001) but not in patients with low socioeconomic status or from rural areas. During the study period, the mortality proportions increased from 17.8% to 22.2%.
Conclusion: In comparison to western countries, a larger proportion of our patients were young adults and the mortality rate was higher.
PMCID: PMC3838983  PMID: 24293785
Stroke; Cerebrovascular disease; Cerebrovascular accident; Mortality; Sex
9.  Dependence of the Geriatric Depression on Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in Elderly Population 
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;8(2):92-96.
Objective
Malnutrition and depression are highly prevalent in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. The aims of the current study were to determine the association between malnutrition and depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in free living elderly.
Method
In this cross-sectional study, 337 elderly subjects (193 females) were selected using cluster sampling. Depressive symptoms and nutritional status were determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores questionnaires, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured all in standard situations. Chi squared test and t-test were used when necessary. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for linear relations between variables.
Results
Of all the total subjects, 43.62% were depressed; and of whom, 48.01% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. GDS had a significant negative dependence with the MNA for the entire sample (r=-0.58, p <0.0001). However, there was no significant correlation between age and GDS or MNA scores. Moreover, the mean GDS scores differed significantly between men and women (p <0.05), and women were more depressed than men (27.9% vs. 15%, respectively). The elderly subjects living in urban areas were more depressed than those living in rural areas (39.46% vs. 3.85% respectively).
Conclusion
The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of depression and malnutrition among old subjects. Moreover, depression was associated with worsening of nutritional status. The mechanism of this association needs further study.
PMCID: PMC3796300  PMID: 24130608
Depression; geriatric; anthropometric indices; elderly; care and nutrition
10.  Increased Guillain-Barre syndrome admissions in Shiraz, southern Iran 
Iranian Journal of Neurology  2013;12(1):15-18.
Background
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy usually after an incident. This study was performed to investigate the basic epidemiologic features of GBS in south of Iran.
Methods
We studied consecutive patients with GBS in Nemazi Hospital of Shiraz, southern Iran. Demographic characteristics of the subjects, i.e. age, sex, and length of hospital stay were extracted. Information regarding yearly admissions for the entire hospital was also gathered. The prevalence of GBS per 10,000 hospital admissions was calculated and stratified by sex and year. Yearly prevalence was compared using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
From January 2000 to December 2009, 389 (232 males and 157 females) patients with GBS were admitted in our center. The mean age of patients was 29.8 ± 23.0 years and their mean length of hospital stay was 12.9 ± 11.6 days. The overall mortality rate was 6%. The ratio of admissions due to GBS to the total admissions was significantly higher in 2009, the year of an influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic.
Conclusion
There appears to be an increase in the incidence of GBS in Shiraz. This is in parallel with the increasing trend of some other autoimmune diseases.
PMCID: PMC3829276  PMID: 24250891
Guillain-Barre Syndrome; Epidemiology; Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype; Pandemics; Periodicity
11.  Pepsinogen I and II, Gastrin and Cag A Serum Levels in Shiraz 
BACKGROUND
Despite the similar rate of HP infection, the rate of gastric cancer (GC) differs in different regions of the country. There are conflicting reports for using a panel of serologic tests such as pepsinogens I, II (PG I and PG II), and gastrin for population screening. We designed this study to assess healthy appearing adults in Shiraz, southern Iran in order to evaluate the correlation of these serological tests with demographics and lifestyle in a region with a low rate of gastric malignancy.
METHODS
In a population-based study, 846 out of 1978 subjects who were selected by cluster random sampling based on postal code division in Shiraz agreed to participate in the present study. A questionnaire that included age, gender, weight and height, lifestyle such as physical activity, smoking and the use of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was completed. A blood sample was taken after overnight fasting for measurements of PG I, PG II and Cag A status by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Gastrin level was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).
RESULTS
The study included 305 men and 541 women. Their mean age was 50.53+11.4 (range: 35-99 years). The level of PG I was significantly more in males than females (116.6±57.1 vs. 103.1±55.8, p < 0.001), lower in older age groups (p = 0.01), and rural compared with urban residents (110.3+55.7 vs. 100.2+58.1, p = 0.02). The serum level of PG II was less in obese subjects (p = 0.5). There was no significant correlation between PG I, PG II, smoking, NSAID use and activity. Gastrin level were not correlated with any of the demographic characteristics. The level of Cag A was significantly different between males and females (30.5±37 vs. 37.7±41.7, p < 0.001), more in older subjects (p = 0.007) and non smokers (p = 0.001). The serum levels of PG I and PG I/PG II ratio decreased significantly in subjects with positive Cag A serology (p < 0.05). The ratio of PG I/PG II was lower than 3 in 35 (4.1%) subjects.
CONCLUSION
In this area, the PG I/PG II ratio is less than 3 in 4% of subjects of which most are positive for Cag A serology and older than 50. We recommend comparison of these findings with high GC mortality regions.
PMCID: PMC4154912  PMID: 25197540
Pepsinogen I , II; Cag A; Population study; Southern Iran
12.  Irritable bowel syndrome in adults over 35 years in Shiraz, southern Iran: prevalence and associated factors 
BACKGROUND:
The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran.
METHODS:
From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS.
RESULTS:
The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1%) but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%). The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and consumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers.
PMCID: PMC3214304  PMID: 22091232
Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Prevalence; Demography; Life Style; Health Behavior
13.  Frequency of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Major Beta-Thalassemias in Southern Iran 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(3):308-312.
Objective
The thalassemias are among the most common genetic disorders worldwide, occurring more frequently in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to determined frequency of sensory-neural hearing loss in major ß- thalassemias transfusion dependent patients in south of Iran.
Methods
A cross sectional study on 308 cases of major beta-thalassemia patients referring to Thalassemia Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2006–2007 years. The diagnosis of ß- thalassemia major was based on clinical history, complete blood count and hemoglobine electrophoresis. Clinical data such as serum ferritin level, deferoxamine (DFO) dose, mean daily doses of DFO (mg/kg) and audiometric variables was recorded.
Findings
Out of 308 cases, 283 (96.5%) had normal hearing and 10 (3.5%) sensorineural hearing loss. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding mean age, weight, age at the first blood transfusion, age at the first DFO infusion.
Conclusion
We found the lowest incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in a large population of patients suffered from major thalassemia who received DFO. We show that DFO is not ototoxic at a low dose. When considering all related literature, as a whole there has been much critical misrepresentation about DFO ototoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3446050  PMID: 23056722
Thalassemia; Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Blood Transfusion; Deferoxamine; Ferritin
14.  Prevalence of Post-tonsillectomy Bleeding as Day-case Surgery with Combination Method; Cold Dissection Tonsillectomy and Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(2):187-192.
Objective
Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage remains an important factor in determining the safety of performing tonsillectomy as a day case procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of day case tonsillectomy by using combination method, cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis.
Methods
A prospective randomized clinical study conducted on the patients who had undergone day case tonsillectomy (DCT). There were two groups (DCT and control group) each group consisting of 150 cases. Tonsillectomy was performed by using combination method; cold dissection and hemostasis was achieved by ligation of vessels with bipolar electerocautery.
Findings
We found 3 cases of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in DCT group and 4 cases in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of post-operative hemorrhage between the two groups.
Conclusion
The findings suggest the safety of the combination of cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis as day case tonsillectomy.
PMCID: PMC3446030  PMID: 23056702
Tonsillectomy; Day Case Surgery; Bipolar Diathermy; Bleeding

Results 1-14 (14)