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1.  Diagnostic Value of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis versus Body Mass Index for Detection of Obesity among Students 
Obesity is a common nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweightness and obesity using both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI).
In this cross-sectional study, 288 healthy college students were selected. Socio-economic status questionnaires were completed and subjects’ anthropometric features were measured by a trained nurse. BMI was calculated and body fat mass (BFM) and body fat percent (BF%) were obtained using BIA method by hand-to-hand Omron BF-500 set.
Mean age of the subjects was 21.1±1.7 years. Based on BMI, 2.6% of males and 2.2% of females were obese while 15.7% and 9.6% were diagnosed to be overweight respectively. The correlation between BMI values and BFM were 0.883 and 0.908 in males and females respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, BF% had a significant correlation with BMI in both males and females (P<0.001).
Our survey demonstrated a lower prevalence of obesity and overweightness in college students compared with Iranian general population, especially in females. Additionally, BIA method was shown to be closely correlated with and as much valuable as BMI in regard to detection of obesity.
PMCID: PMC3289197  PMID: 22375221
Body Mass Index; Bioelectrical Impedance; Obesity; Students; Body Fat
2.  Hospital Mortality Associated with Stroke in Southern Iran 
Background: Unlike the western hemisphere, information about stroke epidemiology in southern Iran is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the main epidemiological characteristics of patients with stroke and its mortality rate in southern Iran.
Methods: A retrospective, single-center, hospital-based longitudinal study was performed at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th editions, for the period between 2001 and 2010. Demographics including age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and discharge destinations were analyzed in association with mortality.
Results: 16351 patients with a mean age of 63.4 years (95% CI: 63.1, 63.6) were included in this analysis. Men were slightly predominant (53.6% vs. 46.4%). Forty-seven percent of the total sample was older than 65,17% were younger than 45, and 2.6% were children younger than 18. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days (95% CI: 6.2, 6.4). Among all types of strokes, the overall hospital mortality was 20.5%. Multiple logistic regression revealed significantly higher in-hospital mortality in women and children (P<0.001) but not in patients with low socioeconomic status or from rural areas. During the study period, the mortality proportions increased from 17.8% to 22.2%.
Conclusion: In comparison to western countries, a larger proportion of our patients were young adults and the mortality rate was higher.
PMCID: PMC3838983  PMID: 24293785
Stroke; Cerebrovascular disease; Cerebrovascular accident; Mortality; Sex
3.  Dependence of the Geriatric Depression on Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in Elderly Population 
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;8(2):92-96.
Malnutrition and depression are highly prevalent in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. The aims of the current study were to determine the association between malnutrition and depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in free living elderly.
In this cross-sectional study, 337 elderly subjects (193 females) were selected using cluster sampling. Depressive symptoms and nutritional status were determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores questionnaires, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured all in standard situations. Chi squared test and t-test were used when necessary. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for linear relations between variables.
Of all the total subjects, 43.62% were depressed; and of whom, 48.01% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. GDS had a significant negative dependence with the MNA for the entire sample (r=-0.58, p <0.0001). However, there was no significant correlation between age and GDS or MNA scores. Moreover, the mean GDS scores differed significantly between men and women (p <0.05), and women were more depressed than men (27.9% vs. 15%, respectively). The elderly subjects living in urban areas were more depressed than those living in rural areas (39.46% vs. 3.85% respectively).
The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of depression and malnutrition among old subjects. Moreover, depression was associated with worsening of nutritional status. The mechanism of this association needs further study.
PMCID: PMC3796300  PMID: 24130608
Depression; geriatric; anthropometric indices; elderly; care and nutrition
4.  Increased Guillain-Barre syndrome admissions in Shiraz, southern Iran 
Iranian Journal of Neurology  2013;12(1):15-18.
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy usually after an incident. This study was performed to investigate the basic epidemiologic features of GBS in south of Iran.
We studied consecutive patients with GBS in Nemazi Hospital of Shiraz, southern Iran. Demographic characteristics of the subjects, i.e. age, sex, and length of hospital stay were extracted. Information regarding yearly admissions for the entire hospital was also gathered. The prevalence of GBS per 10,000 hospital admissions was calculated and stratified by sex and year. Yearly prevalence was compared using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
From January 2000 to December 2009, 389 (232 males and 157 females) patients with GBS were admitted in our center. The mean age of patients was 29.8 ± 23.0 years and their mean length of hospital stay was 12.9 ± 11.6 days. The overall mortality rate was 6%. The ratio of admissions due to GBS to the total admissions was significantly higher in 2009, the year of an influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic.
There appears to be an increase in the incidence of GBS in Shiraz. This is in parallel with the increasing trend of some other autoimmune diseases.
PMCID: PMC3829276  PMID: 24250891
Guillain-Barre Syndrome; Epidemiology; Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype; Pandemics; Periodicity
5.  Irritable bowel syndrome in adults over 35 years in Shiraz, southern Iran: prevalence and associated factors 
The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran.
From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS.
The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1%) but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%). The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity.
In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and consumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers.
PMCID: PMC3214304  PMID: 22091232
Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Prevalence; Demography; Life Style; Health Behavior
6.  Frequency of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Major Beta-Thalassemias in Southern Iran 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(3):308-312.
The thalassemias are among the most common genetic disorders worldwide, occurring more frequently in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to determined frequency of sensory-neural hearing loss in major ß- thalassemias transfusion dependent patients in south of Iran.
A cross sectional study on 308 cases of major beta-thalassemia patients referring to Thalassemia Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2006–2007 years. The diagnosis of ß- thalassemia major was based on clinical history, complete blood count and hemoglobine electrophoresis. Clinical data such as serum ferritin level, deferoxamine (DFO) dose, mean daily doses of DFO (mg/kg) and audiometric variables was recorded.
Out of 308 cases, 283 (96.5%) had normal hearing and 10 (3.5%) sensorineural hearing loss. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding mean age, weight, age at the first blood transfusion, age at the first DFO infusion.
We found the lowest incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in a large population of patients suffered from major thalassemia who received DFO. We show that DFO is not ototoxic at a low dose. When considering all related literature, as a whole there has been much critical misrepresentation about DFO ototoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3446050  PMID: 23056722
Thalassemia; Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Blood Transfusion; Deferoxamine; Ferritin
7.  Prevalence of Post-tonsillectomy Bleeding as Day-case Surgery with Combination Method; Cold Dissection Tonsillectomy and Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(2):187-192.
Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage remains an important factor in determining the safety of performing tonsillectomy as a day case procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of day case tonsillectomy by using combination method, cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis.
A prospective randomized clinical study conducted on the patients who had undergone day case tonsillectomy (DCT). There were two groups (DCT and control group) each group consisting of 150 cases. Tonsillectomy was performed by using combination method; cold dissection and hemostasis was achieved by ligation of vessels with bipolar electerocautery.
We found 3 cases of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in DCT group and 4 cases in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of post-operative hemorrhage between the two groups.
The findings suggest the safety of the combination of cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis as day case tonsillectomy.
PMCID: PMC3446030  PMID: 23056702
Tonsillectomy; Day Case Surgery; Bipolar Diathermy; Bleeding

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