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1.  Sedation during bronchoscopy: data from a nationwide sedation and monitoring survey 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2016;16:113.
There is limited knowledge on practice patterns in procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA), the use of propofol, and monitoring during flexible bronchoscopy (FB). The purpose of this study was to assess the current practice patterns of FBs and to focus on the use of propofol, the education of the proceduralist, and the involvement of anaesthesiologists during FB.
An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 299 pulmonologists. Only respondents who were active physicians in adult respiratory medicine performing FB were subsequently analysed.
The response rate was 78 % and 27,149 FB in the previous 12 months were analysed. The overall sedation-related morbidity rate was 0.02 % and mortality was 7/100’000 FB. Sedation was used in 95 % of bronchoscopies. The main drugs used for PSA were propofol (77 %) and midazolam (46 %). In 84 % of PSAs propofol was used without the attendance of an anaesthesiologist. The use of propofol was associated with high volume bronchoscopists (p < 0.010) and career-young pulmonologists (p < 0.001). While monitoring vital parameters has become standard practice, pulmonologists reported a very low rate of systematic basic education and training in the field of PSA (50 %).
In Switzerland, PSA during FB is mostly performed with propofol without the attendance of an anaesthesiologist and the use of this drug is expected to increase in the future. While monitoring standards are very high there is need for policies to improve education, systematic training, and support for pulmonologists for PSA during FB.
PMCID: PMC4974777  PMID: 27495824
Bronchoscopy; Propofol; Sedation; Education; Midazolam; Survey
2.  Feasibility of breath monitoring in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy under propofol sedation: A single-center pilot study 
AIM: To determine whether a newly developed respiratory rate monitor can practically and accurately monitor ventilation under propofol sedation in combination with standard monitoring.
METHODS: Patients [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification I-III] scheduled for elective colonoscopy under propofol sedation were monitored with a new device that measures the respiratory rate based on humidity in expired air. Patients with clinically significant cardiac disorders or pulmonary disease and patients requiring emergency procedures were excluded from study participation. All of the patients also received standard monitoring with pulse oximetry. This was a single-center study conducted in a community hospital in Switzerland. After obtaining written informed consent from all subjects, 76 patients (51 females and 25 males) were monitored during colonoscopy under propofol sedation. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of any respiratory event (apnea or hypopnea). Apnea was defined as the cessation of breathing for a minimum of 10 s. Significant apnea was defined as the cessation of breathing for more than 30 s. Hypopnea was defined as a reduction in the respiratory rate below 6/min for a minimum of 10 s. Any cases of significant apnea triggered interventions by the endoscopy team. The interventions included withholding propofol, verbal stimulation of the patients, and increased oxygen supplementation or the chin lift maneuver. A secondary endpoint was the correlation of apnea or hypopnea with hypoxemia (measured as a decrease in SaO2 of at least 5% from baseline or less than 90%).
RESULTS: At least one respiratory event was detected in thirty-seven patients (48.7%). In total, there were 73 respiratory events, ranging from one to six events in a single patient. Significant apnea (> 30 s) occurred in five patients (6%). Only one episode of apnea led to a relative SaO2 reduction (from 98% to 93%) after a 50 s lag time. No event requiring assisted ventilation was recorded. Our analysis revealed that the total propofol dose was an independent risk factor for respiratory events (P = 0.01). Artifacts developed with the same frequency with the new device as with conventional pulse oximetry. Compared with pulse oximetry alone, this new monitoring device detected more respiratory events and may provide earlier warning of impending respiratory abnormalities.
CONCLUSION: Apnea commonly occurs during endoscopy under sedation and may precede hypoxemia. We recommend this respiration rate monitor as an alternative to capnography to aid in detecting ventilatory problems.
PMCID: PMC3952164  PMID: 24634712
Apnea; Colonoscopy; Conscious sedation; Deep sedation; Propofol; Pulse oximetry; Respiratory monitoring
3.  Carbon dioxide accumulation during analgosedated colonoscopy: Comparison of propofol and midazolam 
AIM: To characterize the profiles of alveolar hypoventilation during colonoscopies performed under sedoanalgesia with a combination of alfentanil and either midazolam or propofol.
METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy were randomly assigned to sedation with either propofol or midazolam in an open-labeled design using a titration scheme. All patients received 4 μg/kg per body weight alfentanil for analgesia and 3 L of supplemental oxygen. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured by pulse oximetry (POX), and capnography (PcCO2) was continuously measured using a combined dedicated sensor at the ear lobe. Instances of apnea resulting in measures such as stimulation of the patient, a chin lift, a mask maneuver, or withholding of sedation were recorded. PcCO2 values (as a parameter of sedation-induced hypoventilation) were compared between groups at the following distinct time points: baseline, maximal rise, termination of the procedure and 5 min after termination of the procedure. The number of patients in both study groups who regained baseline PcCO2 values (± 1.5 mmHg) five minutes after the procedure was determined.
RESULTS: A total of 97 patients entered this study. The data from 14 patients were subsequently excluded for clinical procedure-related reasons or for technical problems. Therefore, 83 patients (mean age 62 ± 13 years) were successfully randomized to receive propofol (n = 42) or midazolam (n = 41) for sedation. Most of the patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II [16 (38%) in the midazolam group and 15 (32%) in the propofol group] and ASA III [14 (33%) and 13 (32%) in the midazolam and propofol groups, respectively]. A mean dose of 5 (4-7) mg of IV midazolam and 131 (70-260) mg of IV propofol was used during the procedure in the corresponding study arms. The mean SpO2 at baseline (%) was 99 ± 1 for the midazolam group and 99 ± 1 for the propofol group. No cases of hypoxemia (SpO2 < 85%) or apnea were recorded. However, an increase in PcCO2 that indicated alveolar hypoventilation occurred in both groups after administration of the first drug and was not detected with pulse oximetry alone. The mean interval between the initiation of sedation and the time when the PcCO2 value increased to more than 2 mmHg was 2.8 ± 1.3 min for midazolam and 2.8 ± 1.1 min for propofol. The mean maximal rise was similar for both drugs: 8.6 ± 3.7 mmHg for midazolam and 7.4 ± 3.2 mmHg for propofol. Five minutes after the end of the procedure, the mean difference from the baseline values was significantly lower for the propofol treatment compared with midazolam (0.9 ± 3.0 mmHg vs 4.3 ± 3.7 mmHg, P = 0.0000169), and significantly more patients in the propofol group had regained their baseline value ± 1.5 mmHg (32 of 41 vs 12 of 42, P = 0.0004).
CONCLUSION: A significantly higher number of patients sedated with propofol had normalized PcCO2 values five minutes after sedation when compared with patients sedated with midazolam.
PMCID: PMC3471107  PMID: 23082055
Colonoscopy; Deep sedation; Propofol; Hypoventilation; Blood gas monitoring; Transcutaneous

Results 1-3 (3)