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1.  NAPCRG! My, How You've Grown! 
Canadian Family Physician  1988;34:245-249.
PMCID: PMC2218752  PMID: 21253039
3.  Physicians and advocacy 
PMCID: PMC1197145  PMID: 16157713
12.  Studying family practice 
PMCID: PMC1269485  PMID: 2766161
13.  Refusing to Keep the Secret 
PMCID: PMC2280395  PMID: 21248962
19.  A Study of Health Maintenance Protocols in Family Practice 
Canadian Family Physician  1985;31:47-54.
A series of color-coded health maintenance protocols for four age groupings were introduced into a community health centre. In a pilot study of the 16-49 year age range, levels of recording before introduction of the protocols were below 50% in all categories, except “blood pressure” “coping skills” and “sexuality/contraception”. After one year, it was not possible to assess changes in recording of screening maneuvers reliably due to the short study period and major changes in staffing that coincidentally occurred during the study period. Further studies should use stable solo practices and a much longer follow up period.
PMCID: PMC2327337  PMID: 21279143
Health maintenance; screening; prevention
20.  Author Has Something to Add 
PMCID: PMC2153570  PMID: 21278958
21.  Follow up of Stress Management Groups in Family Practice 
Canadian Family Physician  1983;29:473-480.
Ninety-six registrants (70 females, 26 males, mean age 36.4) were trained in seven standard autogenic training groups for management of stress-related disorders by a family physician in a community health centre. Comparisons were made before and after six training weeks, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire about physical and psychological symptoms, drug, tobacco and alcohol use. As in a previous study, state and trait anxiety scores and symptoms related to stress were decreased in a majority of subjects. Effects were maintained in a subgroup followed for 12 months. Problems of data collection over time in clinical settings and of establishing the impact of health education measures are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2153791  PMID: 21283343
22.  Uncovering the Benefits of Participatory Research: Implications of a Realist Review for Health Research and Practice 
The Milbank Quarterly  2012;90(2):311-346.
Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes.
Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis.
From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR partnerships but were contingent on key aspects of context.
We used a realist approach to embrace the heterogeneity and complexity of the PR literature. This theory-driven synthesis identified mechanisms by which PR may add value to the research process. Using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, our review confirmed findings from previous PR reviews, documented and explained some negative outcomes, and generated new insights into the benefits of PR regarding conflicts and negotiation between stakeholders, program sustainability and advancement, unanticipated project activity, and the generation of systemic change.
PMCID: PMC3460206  PMID: 22709390
Participatory research; action research; realist review; systematic review; partnership synergy theory; community-based participatory research
23.  Family doctor as scholar 
Canadian Family Physician  2012;58(8):829.
PMCID: PMC3418975  PMID: 22893329
24.  Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review 
Participatory Research (PR) entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness), or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers). Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships.
We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research) and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods.
The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs) were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies), comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods.
The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.
PMCID: PMC3072934  PMID: 21418604
25.  Readers respond to articles about health care in Gaza 
PMCID: PMC2679840  PMID: 19433826

Results 1-25 (40)