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1.  Host Defense Proteins Derived from Human Saliva Bind to Staphylococcus aureus 
Infection and Immunity  2013;81(4):1364-1373.
Proteins in human saliva are thought to modulate bacterial colonization of the oral cavity. Yet, information is sparse on how salivary proteins interact with systemic pathogens that transiently or permanently colonize the oral environment. Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that frequently colonizes the oral cavity and can cause respiratory disease in hospitalized patients at risk. Here, we investigated salivary protein binding to this organism upon exposure to saliva as a first step toward understanding the mechanism by which the organism can colonize the oral cavity of vulnerable patients. By using fluorescently labeled saliva and proteomic techniques, we demonstrated selective binding of major salivary components by S. aureus to include DMBT1gp-340, mucin-7, secretory component, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, S100-A9, and lysozyme C. Biofilm-grown S. aureus strains bound fewer salivary components than in the planctonic state, particularly less salivary immunoglobulins. A corresponding adhesive component on the S. aureus surface responsible for binding salivary immunoglobulins was identified as staphylococcal protein A (SpA). However, SpA did not mediate binding of nonimmunoglobulin components, including mucin-7, indicating the involvement of additional bacterial surface adhesive components. These findings demonstrate that a limited number of salivary proteins, many of which are associated with various aspects of host defense, selectively bind to S. aureus and lead us to propose a possible role of saliva in colonization of the human mouth by this pathogen.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00825-12
PMCID: PMC3639616  PMID: 23403559
2.  Genetic relationships between Candida albicans strains isolated from dental plaque, trachea, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients 
Journal of Oral Microbiology  2011;3:10.3402/jom.v3i0.6362.
Candida albicans often resides in the oral cavity of healthy humans as a harmless commensal organism. This opportunistic fungus can cause significant disease in critically ill patients, such as those undergoing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) having compromised local airway defense mechanisms. The goal of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-patient genetic relationship between strains of C. albicans recovered from dental plaque, tracheal secretions, and the lower airway by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing methods were used to determine the genetic relatedness of the C. albicans strains, including electrophoretic karyotyping (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of the genome using SfiI (REAG-S) and BssHII (REAG-B). The C. albicans isolates from dental plaque and tracheo-bronchial sites from the same patient were genetically indistinguishable and retained over time, whereas strains from different patients usually separated into different genotypes. Among the three methods, REAG-B proved to be the most discriminatory method to differentiate isolates. The finding of genetically similar strains from the oral and tracheo-bronchial sites from the same patient supports the notion that the oral cavity may serve as an important source for C. albicans spread to the trachea and lung of mechanically ventilated patients.
doi:10.3402/jom.v3i0.6362
PMCID: PMC3124833  PMID: 21731911
yeast; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); molecular epidemiology; mechanical ventilation; oral cavity
3.  Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria 
An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression.
doi:10.1016/j.job.2013.06.004
PMCID: PMC3974197  PMID: 24707190
Saliva; microbial adhesion; biofilm; oral diseases
4.  Washout resistance of fast-setting pozzolan cement under various root canal irrigants 
Objectives
Fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem, Maruchi) was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various root canal irrigants on the washout of Endocem in comparison to the previously marketed mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot; Dentsply) in a furcal perforation model.
Materials and Methods
ProRoot and Endocem were placed into acrylic molds on moist Oasis. Each mold was then immediately exposed to either physiologic saline, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) under gentle shaking for five minutes. Washout testing was performed by scoring scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.
Results
Endocem exhibited higher washout resistance compared to ProRoot, especially in the NaOCl group.
Conclusions
These results suggest that Endocem can be considered a useful repair material for furcal perforation, especially in a single-visit scenario.
doi:10.5395/rde.2013.38.4.248
PMCID: PMC3843037  PMID: 24303361
Fast-setting; Furcal; Mineral trioxide aggregate; Perforation; Pozzolan; Washout
5.  Genetic Relationships between Respiratory Pathogens Isolated from Dental Plaque and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation 
Background
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Recent studies suggest that dental plaque biofilms serve as a reservoir for respiratory pathogens. The goal of this study was to determine the genetic relationship between strains of respiratory pathogens first isolated from the oral cavity and later isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the same patient undergoing mechanical ventilation with suspected VAP.
Methods
Plaque and tracheal secretion samples were obtained on the day of hospital admission and every other day thereafter until discharge from the intensive care unit from 100 patients who underwent mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for 30 patients with suspected VAP. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used to determine the genetic relatedness of strains obtained from oral, tracheal, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples.
Results
Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and enteric species recovered from plaque from most patients were indistinguishable from isolates recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (i.e., had >95% similarity of pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns). Nearly one-half of the Pseudomonas strains showed identical genetic profiles between patients, which suggested a common environmental source of infection.
Conclusions
Respiratory pathogens isolated from the lung are often genetically indistinguishable from strains of the same species isolated from the oral cavity in patients who receive mechanical ventilation who are admitted to the hospital from the community. Thus, dental plaque serves as an important reservoir for respiratory pathogens in patients who undergo mechanical ventilation.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00123123
doi:10.1086/593193
PMCID: PMC3582026  PMID: 18991508

Results 1-5 (5)