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2.  Intracranial Aneurysms 
British Medical Journal  1973;2(5857):30-35.
A reappraisal of case histories of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms emphasized the importance of clinically recognizing severe spasm that contraindicates early angiography and large cerebral haematomas that require immediate evacuation. Observation from the day of haemorrhage is important; most recurrent episodes with cerebral signs in the first 10 days were due to spasm; haemorrhage was more common during the following two weeks. In many attacks the signs were not sufficiently distinctive for diagnosis of spasm or haematoma.
PMCID: PMC1588998  PMID: 4695696
PMCID: PMC497107  PMID: 18861109
9.  Blockade of CD49d (alpha4 integrin) on intrapulmonary but not circulating leukocytes inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(12):3083-3092.
Immunized mice after inhalation of specific antigen have the following characteristic features of human asthma: airway eosinophilia, mucus and Th2 cytokine release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. A model of late-phase allergic pulmonary inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice was used to address the role of the alpha4 integrin (CD49d) in mediating the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Local, intrapulmonary blockade of CD49d by intranasal administration of CD49d mAb inhibited all signs of lung inflammation, IL-4 and IL-5 release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In contrast, CD49d blockade on circulating leukocytes by intraperitoneal CD49d mAb treatment only prevented the airway eosinophilia. In this asthma model, a CD49d-positive intrapulmonary leukocyte distinct from the eosinophil is the key effector cell of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.
PMCID: PMC508521  PMID: 9399955
10.  Group B streptococci (GBS) injure lung endothelium in vitro: GBS invasion and GBS-induced eicosanoid production is greater with microvascular than with pulmonary artery cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(1):271-279.
Neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis and pneumonia cause lung endothelial cell injury. GBS invasion of the lung endothelium may be a mechanism for injury and the release of vasoactive eicosanoids. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) and lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMvEC) were isolated from neonatal piglets and were characterized as endothelial on the basis of morphology, uptake of acyl low-density lipoprotein, factor VIII staining, and formation of tube-like structures on Matrigel. PAEC and LMvEC monolayers were infected with COH-1 (parent GBS strain), isogenic mutants of COH-1 devoid of capsular sialic acid or all capsular polysaccharide, or a noninvasive Escherichia coli strain, DH5 alpha. Intracellular GBS were assayed by plate counting of colony-forming units resistant to incubation with extracellular antibiotics. All GBS strains invaded LMvEC significantly more than PAEC, showing that the site of lung endothelial cell origin influences invasion. DH5 alpha was not invasive in either cell type. Both isogenic mutants invaded PAEC and LMvEC more than COH-1 did, showing that GBS capsular polysaccharide attenuates invasion. Live GBS caused both LMvEC and PAEC injury as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release; heat-killed GBS and DH5 alpha caused no significant injury. Supernatants from PAEC and LMvEC were assayed by radioimmunoassay for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1 alpha), and the thromboxane metabolite thromoxane B2. At 4 h, live COH-1 caused no significant increases in eicosanoids from both PAEC and LMvEC. At 16 h, live COH-1, but not heat-killed COH-1, caused a significant increase in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha greater than PGE2 from LMvEC, but not PAEC. We conclude that live GBS injure and invade the lung microvascular endothelium and induce release of prostacyclin and PGE2. We postulate that GBS invasion and injury of the lung microvasculature contribute to the pathogenesis of GBS disease.
PMCID: PMC172988  PMID: 7806366
11.  Relative contribution of leukotriene B4 to the neutrophil chemotactic activity produced by the resident human alveolar macrophage. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1987;80(4):1114-1124.
Human alveolar macrophages release chemotactic activity for neutrophils, providing a role for alveolar macrophages in regulating inflammation in the lung. As alveolar macrophages produce large amounts of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a chemotactically active lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid, we investigated the contribution of LTB4 to the total neutrophil chemotactic activity produced by these cells. Normal human alveolar macrophages were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers and incubated either with the calcium ionophore A23187 for 1 h, or with opsonized zymosan particles or latex beads for 3 h. Nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA), a relatively specific lipoxygenase inhibitor, blocked the release of neutrophil chemotactic activity after all three stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. This correlated with blockade of LTB4 production as measured by high performance liquid chromatography using freshly isolated alveolar macrophages, as well as blockade of [3H]LTB4 production by macrophages prelabeled with [3H]arachidonate. Molecular sieve chromatography using Sephadex G-50 confirmed that essentially all of the chemotactic activity in the stimulated macrophage supernatants co-eluted with authentic [3H]LTB4, and that NDGA completely blocked the chemotactic activity in the eluting fractions. Readdition of authentic LTB4 (1 X 10(-7) M) to the NDGA-blocked macrophage supernatants restored the chemotactic activity in the supernatants. The macrophage supernatants did not contain platelet-activating factor-like activity, as measured by the stimulation of [3H]serotonin release from rabbit platelets, and by high performance liquid chromatography. NDGA did not change the protein-secretion profiles of fresh alveolar macrophages, or of macrophages prelabeled with [35S]methionine. The complement (C) components C5adesarg were not detected in any of the supernatants by radioimmunoassay. Concentration of the supernatants by positive pressure filtration (5,000-D membrane) did not augment chemotactic activity in the stimulated supernatants or uncover chemotactic activity in the NDGA-blocked supernatants. As with the 3-h studies, when alveolar macrophages were incubated overnight with opsonized zymosan, all of the increase in chemotactic activity could also be blocked by NDGA. These data indicate that LTB4 is the predominant neutrophil chemotactic factor secreted by the normal resident human alveolar macrophage in response to two major types of stimuli, calcium fluxes across the cell membrane and the phagocytosis of opsonized particulates.
PMCID: PMC442354  PMID: 2821074
12.  Natural history of cerebral angiomas. 
British Medical Journal  1967;4(5579):571-574.
PMCID: PMC1749301  PMID: 6060113
15.  Gonadotropic Activity of Anterior Pituitary 
British Medical Journal  1938;1(4037):1094-1097.
PMCID: PMC2086520  PMID: 20781466
16.  A cultivar-specific interaction between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and subterranean clover is controlled by nodM, other bacterial cultivar specificity genes, and a single recessive host gene. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(9):2791-2799.
Insertion mutagenesis identified two negatively acting gene loci which restrict the ability of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 to infect the homologous host Trifolium subterraneum cv. Woogenellup. One locus was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis as the nodM gene, while the other locus, designated csn-1 (cultivar-specific nodulation), is not located on the symbiosis plasmid. The presence of these cultivar specificity loci could be suppressed by the introduction of the nodT gene from ANU843, a related R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain. Other nod genes, present in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (including nodX) and R. meliloti, were capable of complementing R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 for nodulation on cultivar Woogenellup. Nodulation studies conducted with F2 seedlings from a cross between cultivar Geraldton and cultivar Woogenellup indicated that a single recessive gene, designated rwt1, is responsible for the Nod- association between strain TA1 and cultivar Woogenellup. Parallels can be drawn between this association and gene-for-gene systems common in interactions between plants and biotrophic pathogens.
PMCID: PMC207859  PMID: 1673458
17.  Stimulation of neutrophil oxygen-dependent metabolism by human leukocytic pyrogen. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1979;64(4):996-1002.
The ability of highly purified human leukocytic pyrogen (LP) to stimulate neutrophil oxygen-dependent metabolism was studied. Human peripheral blood neutrophils exposed to leukocytic pyrogen in vitro demonstrated an increase in the percentage of neutrophils reducing nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye and a marked stimulation of superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. LP stimulation of neutrophil oxygen-dependent metabolism was dose and time dependent. Procedures that destroyed the pyrogenicity of LP also abolished the effects on neutrophil metabolism. Neutrophil hexose monophosphate shunt activity was also stimulated by LP. In a rabbit model, the effect of in vivo LP on neutrophil superoxide generation was also studied. There was a consistent increase in the percent and absolute number of NBT positive neutrophils. Peak stimulation of neutrophil metabolism occurred after defervescence suggesting several possible mechanisms. The observations reported here may, in part, explain the nonspecificity of the NBT test in febrile, noninfected patients and provide further understanding of neutrophil physiology during acute inflammation.
PMCID: PMC372208  PMID: 90061

Results 1-18 (18)