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author:("hembra, R M")
1.  Immunolocalisation studies on six matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in synovia from patients with osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. 
OBJECTIVE--To assess the likely importance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in the arthritic process. METHODS--Synovial samples from seven joints with rheumatoid arthritis and three osteoarthritic joints were analysed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Using specific human antisera, we documented the frequencies and distributions of collagenase, stromelysins 1 and 2, matrilysin, gelatinases A and B, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. RESULTS--Stromelysin 1 was found in all synovia, bound to extracellular matrix, within cells, or both, indicating stromelysin synthesis. Matrilysin was present in only one active inflammatory synovium, and focal synthesis of collagenase and gelatinase A was seen in four synovia. Stromelysin 2 and TIMP-2 were not observed, but TIMP-1 synthesis was seen in five synovia, and in two active synovia the distribution of TIMP-1 positive cells was more widespread than that of MMPs. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of stromelysin 1 in all synovia clearly implicates this enzyme in joint damage. Collagenase, gelatinase A and matrilysin may also have a role in rheumatoid arthritis, but are not significant in osteoarthritis. However, marked regional variations were found in the synthesis of these MMPs, indicating not only that these diseases are episodic but that control of enzyme synthesis is focal. Only TIMP-1 may be considered an inhibitory factor.
PMCID: PMC1005508  PMID: 7880117
2.  Distribution of the matrix metalloproteinases stromelysin, gelatinases A and B, and collagenase in Crohn's disease and normal intestine. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1994;47(2):113-116.
AIMS--To investigate the role of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the connective tissue changes seen in the intestine in Crohn's disease. METHODS--Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using specific antibodies to the MMPs (collagenase, gelatinase A and B, and stromelysin) were used to assess the distribution of these enzymes in normal and diseased intestine. RESULTS--In normal intestine the matrix metalloproteinases were confined to a few isolated inflammatory cells, but in Crohn's disease, the inflammatory infiltrate was associated with increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes which stained positive for gelatinase B. Stromelysin was also detected extracellularly on the connective tissue matrix in regions of smooth muscle cell proliferation and mucosal degradation. Interestingly, in ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease, stromelysin was localised in the lamina propria in regions of mucosal loss. CONCLUSIONS--The increased numbers of inflammatory cells containing gelatinase B, and the localisation of extracellular stromelysin in regions of fibrosis and mucosal degradation, suggest that these enzymes have a role in the pathological changes seen in Crohn's disease. In cases of ulcerative colitis stromelysin was also detected on the lamina propria in regions of mucosal loss, and seems to be associated with the connective tissue changes that precede mucosal loss.
PMCID: PMC501822  PMID: 8132824
4.  Human hepatic lipocytes synthesize tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Implications for regulation of matrix degradation in liver. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(1):282-287.
Hepatic lipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, both via production of extracellular matrix proteins and through secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In this study, we have characterized lipocyte expression and release of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), an important inhibitor of metalloproteinase activity, whose role in liver has not previously been examined. TIMP-1 was immunolocalized to human lipocytes, and secretion of TIMP-1 was confirmed by ELISA of culture media; (mean +/- SD) 159 +/- 79 ng of TIMP-1/10(6) cells per 24 h. Evidence for functional inhibitory activity of released TIMP-1 was obtained by (a) reverse zymography that demonstrated a single inhibitor band, M(r) 28 kD, that co-migrated with a TIMP-1-positive control sample; and (b) unmasking of inhibited gelatinase activity in lipocyte medium by separating it from TIMP-1 using gelatin sepharose chromatography; gelatinase activity in chromatographed medium increased more than 20-fold, compared with unfractionated medium, and could be reinhibited by adding back fractions that contained inhibitor. By Northern analysis, freshly isolated human lipocytes exhibited low levels of mRNA expression for TIMP-1, but this increased markedly relative to beta-actin expression with lipocyte activation during cell culture. We conclude that human hepatic lipocytes synthesize TIMP-1, a potent metalloproteinase inhibitor, and that TIMP-1 expression increases with lipocyte activation. These data indicate that hepatic lipocytes can regulate matrix degradation in the liver, and suggest that expression of TIMP-1 by activated lipocytes may contribute to the progression of liver fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC443094  PMID: 1634616
5.  Bacterial antigens induce collagenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in human gingival fibroblasts through a primary effect on circulating mononuclear cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(9):2148-2154.
Our previous work suggests that one mechanism through which connective tissue breakdown might occur in periodontal diseases is the production of metalloproteinases, including collagenase, by gingival fibroblasts. In this study we investigated whether highly purified preparations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from a number of putative periodontal pathogens could induce monolayer cultures of human gingival fibroblasts to synthesize collagenase and prostaglandin E2. Using both biochemical assays and immunocytochemical techniques, we found that cells synthesized only very small amounts of collagenase in direct response to LPS or LTA (0.1 to 20.0 micrograms/ml). At the highest dose of both antigens, prostaglandin E2 production was increased. We then studied whether LPS and LTA could signal collagenase production by interacting primarily with a different cell type. Our results show that LPS and LTA were each able to stimulate cultures of human blood mononuclear cells (greater than 95% monocytes) to release collagenase-inducing cytokines. By indirect immunocytochemistry, we found that a large proportion of human gingival fibroblasts was activated to produce collagenase by supernatants from LPS- and LTA-stimulated mononuclear cells, whereas gingival fibroblasts cultured with supernatants from unstimulated mononuclear cells were not. Furthermore, in a population of activated fibroblasts we demonstrated, using a double-labeling technique, that some cells made collagenase and the specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) simultaneously. As yet, the collagenase-inducing signals remain poorly characterized but the interleukins-1 and tumor necrosis factors seem likely candidates.
PMCID: PMC260671  PMID: 3040590

Results 1-5 (5)