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1.  Effect of sulphasalazine on pulmonary inactivation of prostaglandin F2 alpha in the pig. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1982;76(2):319-326.
1 The metabolism of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) 15 nm in 100,000 g supernatant fractions from piglet lung homogenates was inhibited by sulphasalazine with an IC50 value of 25 micrometers. 2 The piglet isolated lung perfused with Krebs solution, containing either albumin or Ficoll 70 to prevent oedema and vascular damage, efficiently metabolized PGF2 alpha given as a bolus injection (1 ng in 0.1 ml; 30 nm). 3 In Krebs solution containing Ficoll 70, sulphasalazine inhibited the pulmonary inactivation of PGF2 alpha in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 110 micrometers. No inhibition of inactivation by sulphasalazine was found when the perfusion fluid contained albumin, which is known to bind this drug effectively. 4 Analysis of the separated efflux profiles for PGF2 alpha and its metabolites with reference to the dilution curve for an extracellular marker provided evidence that sulphasalazine inhibited PGF2 alpha uptake into lung cells. 5 We conclude that the effect of sulphasalazine on pulmonary prostaglandin inactivation is primarily due to inhibition of prostaglandin transport, and not to inhibition of prostaglandin metabolism.
PMCID: PMC2071779  PMID: 6178459
2.  Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human vascular endothelial and lung epithelial cells: modulation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1996;119(6):1149-1158.
1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases the expression of the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells and modulation of this may be important in controlling inflammation. Activation of tyrosine kinase(s) is known to be involved in the signal transduction pathways of many cytokines. In this study we have investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ST638, tyrphostin AG 1288 and genistein, on TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human alveolar epithelial (A549) and vascular endothelial (EAhy926) cell lines and also normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). 2. ICAM-1 expression on cultured cells was determined by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Endothelial or epithelial monolayers were exposed to increasing doses of TNF-alpha (0.01-10 ng ml-1), in the presence or absence of either ST638 (3-100 microM), AG 1288 (3-100 microM) or genistein (100 microM) and ICAM-1 expression was measured at 4 and 24 h. Control experiments examined the effect of ST638 on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 20 ng ml-1, 4 h)-stimulated ICAM-1 and compared it to that of a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, R031-8220 (10 microM). Also, functional consequences of changes in ICAM-1 expression were assessed by measuring adhesion of 111 In-labelled human neutrophils to EAhy926 endothelial and A549 epithelial monolayers treated with TNF alpha, in the presence or absence of ST638. 3. ST638 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial (at 4 h) and A549 epithelial monolayers (at 4 and 24 h). In contrast, ST638 caused a concentration-dependent increase in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial cells at 24 h. Similar effects were seen with AG 1288 or genistein. ST638 (100 microM) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited ICAM-1 expression on HLMVEC endothelial cells induced by 0.01 ng ml-1 TNF alpha at 4 or 24 h or 0.1 ng ml-1 at 4 h, but increased ICAM-1 expression induced by 0.1 ng ml-1 TNF alpha at 24 h. ST638 did not significantly change the expression of PMA-stimulated ICAM-1 on either A549 epithelial, EAhy926 or HLMVEC endothelial cells. However, PMA-induced ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by Ro31-8220. Also, treatment of epithelial or endothelial monolayers with TNF alpha and ST638 altered adhesion of human neutrophils to A549 epithelial or EAhy926 endothelial cells in a manner that corresponded to the alteration in ICAM-1 expression. 4. These results show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors alter TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression, but that the cell type, concentration of TNF alpha and time of exposure to this cytokine determine whether expression is decreased or increased by the inhibitor. An increased understanding of the signal transduction pathway(s) involved in TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression on lung epithelial and vascular endothelial cells may be of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of inflammatory disease.
PMCID: PMC1915891  PMID: 8937718
3.  Chemokine-induced eosinophil recruitment. Evidence of a role for endogenous eotaxin in an in vivo allergy model in mouse skin. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(7):1657-1666.
Selective eosinophil recruitment into tissues is a characteristic feature of allergic diseases. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in various allergic conditions in man. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of eosinophil recruitment in which we have compared the in vivo chemoattractant activity of different C-C chemokines. Furthermore, we describe the use of antibodies to chemokines and receptor blockade to address the endogenous mechanisms involved in eosinophil recruitment in a late-phase allergic reaction in mouse skin. Intradermal injection of mEotaxin and mMIP-1alpha, but not mMCP-1, mRANTES, mMCP-5, or mMIP-1beta, induced significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment in mouse skin. Significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment was also observed in an active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Pretreatment of skin sites with antieotaxin antiserum, but not an antiMIP-1alpha antibody, suppressed 111In-eosinophil recruitment in this delayed-onset allergic reaction. Similarly, desensitization of the eosinophil eotaxin receptor CCR3 with mEotaxin, or blockade of the receptor with metRANTES, significantly inhibited 111In-eosinophil recruitment in the allergic reaction. These results demonstrate an important role for endogenous eotaxin in mediating the 111In-eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation, and suggest that blockade of the CCR3 receptor is a valid strategy to inhibit eosinophil migration in vivo.
PMCID: PMC508348  PMID: 9312163
4.  Effects of agents which elevate cyclic AMP on guinea-pig eosinophil homotypic aggregation. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1996;118(8):2099-2106.
1. Eosinophil recruitment and activation in inflamed tissue is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Experimental evidence suggests that elevating cyclic AMP is an effective means of reducing eosinophil recruitment in vivo and may therefore have therapeutic benefit. In the present study, we have assessed the capacity of cyclic AMP-elevating agents to modulate guinea-pig eosinophil homotypic aggregation, a CD18-dependent process, which may be an important component of eosinophil function in vivo. 2. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, 10(-16) to 10(-6) M) inhibited platelet activating-factor (PAF)- and C5a-induced eosinophil aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. However, PAF-induced responses were more potently and more effectively inhibited by PGE1. The inhibitory effects of PGE1 on PAF-induced aggregation were reversed by pretreatment of eosinophils with the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 and KT5720. 3. The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol and salmeterol, concentration-dependently inhibited eosinophil aggregation induced by C5a and PAF and, again. PAF-induced responses were more effectively reduced. The inhibitory effect of salmeterol was mediated by beta-adrenoceptors, as assessed by the reversal after pretreatment with propranolol. 4. Rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, also attenuated PAF- and C5a-induced aggregation and at a low concentration which did not affect aggregation per se, had a synergistic effect with PGE1 and salbutamol to suppress this response. 5. Activation of eosinophils with PAF or C5a induced a small but significant increase in the level of CD18 expression on the eosinophil surface. PGE1 (10(-7) M) decreased PAF- and C5a-induced upregulation of CD18 by 93% and 62%, respectively. 6. These results demonstrate that cyclic AMP-elevating agents effectively inhibit eosinophil aggregation, a CD18-dependent functional response. Because CD18 has been shown to be important for eosinophil recruitment to inflamed tissue in vivo, our findings may be of relevance to the efficacy of cyclic AMP-elevating agents at inhibiting eosinophil trafficking.
PMCID: PMC1909909  PMID: 8864548
5.  Effects of dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on the accumulation of eosinophils in acute cutaneous inflammation in the guinea-pig. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1996;118(2):317-324.
1. Eosinophils are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and pharmacological suppression of their recruitment is considered to be of therapeutic benefit. In the present study we have assessed and compared the effects of treatment with dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on the accumulation of 111In-labelled eosinophils and local oedema formation in sites of acute inflammation in guinea-pig skin. 2. When injected locally 150 min prior to i.d. administration of antigen in a passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction, dexamethasone (10(-9) to 3 x 10(-7) mol per site) dose-dependently inhibited oedema formation by up to 50%. Similarly, oedema formation induced by PAF and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not by zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP), was significantly inhibited by dexamethasone. In contrast, 111In-eosinophil accumulation measured in response to i.d. injection of PAF, LPS and ZAP or in the PCA reaction was not altered. 3. Systemic treatment with dexamethasone (4 mg kg-1, i.v., 150 min pretreatment period) inhibited both oedema formation and 111In-eosinophil accumulation induced by PAF, ZAP, LPS and in the PCA reaction. 4. The effects of i.d. injection of cyclohexamide (2 x 10(-7) mol per site) on 111In-eosinophil accumulation and oedema formation induced by PAF, ZAP or in a PCA reaction were evaluated in order to assess the dependency of these responses on protein synthesis. Cycloheximide had no effect on the responses measured. In contrast, 111In-eosinophil accumulation, but oedema formation, induced by LPS was inhibited by 30%. 5. Acute (10 mg kg-1, i.v., 15 min pretreatment) or prolonged (10 mg kg-1, s.c. daily for 3 days) systemic treatment with cyclosporin A had no effect on 111In-eosinophil accumulation or oedema formation induced by PAF, ZAP, LPS or in the PCA reaction. 6. In conclusion, we demonstrate preferential inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on 111In-eosinophil accumulation according to its site of administration. In addition we show that dexamethasone inhibits protein synthesis-independent acute inflammation in guinea-pig skin. Finally, our results do not support the concept that eosinophils are an important cellular site of action for the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A in a guinea-pig model of allergic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1909638  PMID: 8735633
6.  Studies on the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response in a reversed passive Arthus reaction in guinea-pig skin: contribution of neutrophils and endogenous mediators. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1994;113(4):1363-1371.
1. Mediators of inflammation can increase vascular permeability in at least two different ways: by acting directly on endothelial cells or, indirectly, through an incompletely understood mechanism, dependent on circulating neutrophils. Neutrophil-dependent oedema formation has been described in the skin of rabbits, rats, hamsters, mice and man. In contrast, we presented evidence in a previous study that local oedema formation induced by i.d. injection of chemoattractants in guinea-pig skin was neutrophil-independent. In the present study, we sought evidence of neutrophil-dependent oedema formation in immune-complex-mediated vasculitis, the reversed passive Arthus (RPA) reaction, in guinea-pig skin. We also investigated whether haemorrhage in the RPA reaction was neutrophil-dependent (as it is in other species) and the role of endogenous mediators of inflammation (prostaglandins, nitric oxide, histamine, PAF and leukotrienes) in contributing to the local inflammatory response. 2. In the RPA reaction, most oedema formation occurred over the first 60 min whereas 111In-neutrophil accumulation was still increasing from 60 to 240 min. The different kinetics of these two events suggested that they may be dissociated. 3. Oedema formation was partially inhibited by a long-acting PAF antagonist (UK-74,505) and an H1 histamine receptor antagonist (mepyramine) but not by a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (ZM 230487). A nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME) suppressed oedema formation by 68% whereas a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor suppressed oedema by 27%. 4. 111In-neutrophil accumulation in the RPA reaction was partially suppressed by UK-74,505. In contrast, ZM 230487 was without effect at doses which abrogated arachidonic acid-induced 111In-neutrophil accumulation. 5. The anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody, (mAb) 6.5E F(ab')2, effectively inhibited 111In-neutrophil accumulation induced by PAF, zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) and in the RPA reaction. However, oedema formation measured in the same sites was not altered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1510534  PMID: 7889293
7.  Effects of phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors on cutaneous inflammation in the guinea-pig. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1994;112(1):332-340.
1. Inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of asthma. The recent findings that different inflammatory cells may express different phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes have centered attention on inhibitors of these isoenzymes as new drugs for the treatment of asthma. In this study, we investigated the effect of different PDE isoenzyme inhibitors on the accumulation of 111In-labelled eosinophils and local oedema formation at sites of allergic- and mediator-induced inflammation in guinea-pig skin. 2. Systemic treatment with SK&F 94120, a type III PDE inhibitor, or zaprinast, a type V PDE inhibitor, had no effect on the 111In-eosinophil accumulation and oedema formation induced by i.d. injection of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP), PAF, histamine or in a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. 3. Systemic treatment with rolipram, a type IV PDE inhibitor, effectively inhibited 111In-eosinophil accumulation induced by ZAP, PAF, histamine and in a PCA reaction. However, oedema formation measured in the same sites was not affected. Systemic administration of higher doses of theophylline produced similar results. In contrast, 111In-neutrophil accumulation induced by ZAP or in a PCA reaction was not altered by systemic treatment with rolipram. 4. Locally-injected rolipram had little effect on 111In-eosinophil accumulation and oedema formation induced by histamine, PAF and in a PCA reaction. 5. These data show that systemic, but not local, treatment with rolipram effectively inhibits allergic- and mediator-induced 111In-eosinophil accumulation but not oedema formation or 111In-neutrophil accumulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1910321  PMID: 8032659
8.  Effect of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, ZM 230487, on cutaneous allergic inflammation in the guinea-pig. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1994;111(4):1205-1211.
1. Leukotrienes have potent biological effects in vitro and in vivo and are found in tissue and in biological fluids in various pathological conditions including allergic diseases. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent stimulus for eosinophil accumulation and activation and there is much interest in determining its importance in mediating the accumulation of eosinophils at sites of allergic inflammation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of a potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, ZM 230487, on the accumulation of eosinophils and on local oedema formation in cutaneous inflammation in the guinea-pig. 2. The i.d. injection of increasing concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) led to a dose-dependent accumulation of 111In-eosinophils but oedema formation was only significant at the top dose of AA tested (3 x 10(-8) mol per site). Co-injection of ZM 230487 with AA inhibited 111In-eosinophil accumulation up to 99% but the small oedema response to AA was only partially inhibited. AA-induced oedema formation was only effectively inhibited when a combination of a PAF antagonist, an antihistamine and ZM 230487 was used. 3. Local administration of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, partially inhibited AA-induced oedema formation suggesting that vasodilator prostaglandins may be released following i.d. injection of AA. AA-induced 111In-eosinophil accumulation was also partially inhibited by ibuprofen. 4. PAF-induced 111In-eosinophil accumulation was partially suppressed by local administration of ZM 230487. In contrast, LTB4-induced 111In-eosinophil accumulation was enhanced by ZM 230487. These data suggest that locally-released leukotrienes may modulate mediator-induced eosinophil accumulation. ZM 230487 had no effect on PAF- or LTB4-induced oedema formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1910165  PMID: 8032607
9.  Role of CD18 in the accumulation of eosinophils and neutrophils and local oedema formation in inflammatory reactions in guinea-pig skin. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1994;111(3):811-818.
1. Intradermal injection of the complement fragment C5a des Arg induces local oedema formation that, in rabbits and man, is dependent on circulating neutrophils. Monoclonal antibodies to the leukocyte adhesion molecule CD11/CD18 block neutrophil accumulation and prevent neutrophil-dependent oedema formation. The role of CD11/CD18 in mediating eosinophil accumulation in vivo is less established. In this study we have used an anti-human CD18 monoclonal antibody, 6.5E, to investigate the neutrophil-dependency of oedema formation induced by C5a des Arg in guinea-pig skin. We also studied the role of CD18 in mediating eosinophil accumulation in the same model. 2. Stimulated adhesion of 111In-labelled guinea-pig neutrophils and eosinophils to serum-coated plastic was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 6.5E suggesting that the monoclonal antibody recognizes and blocks the guinea-pig CD18 adhesion molecule. 3. The accumulation of 111In-labelled neutrophils induced by zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP, as a source of C5a des Arg) in skin sites was reduced by up to 89% in animals treated intravenously with F(ab')2 fragments of 6.5E. ZAP-induced accumulation of 111In-labelled eosinophils was also greatly reduced (by up to 78%) by treatment with 6.5E. 4. Despite the inhibition of ZAP-induced neutrophil accumulation by 6.5E, local oedema formation in the same skin sites was unaffected, except at the top dose of ZAP, by treatment with the anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that the oedema response was largely neutrophil-independent. Indeed, ZAP-induced oedema formation was reduced by up to 81% by the H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1910091  PMID: 7912627
10.  Suppression by intradermal administration of heparin of eosinophil accumulation but not oedema formation in inflammatory reactions in guinea-pig skin. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1993;110(4):1496-1500.
1. Heparin is widely used in the treatment of thrombotic disorders and as an aid in surgery. Anti-inflammatory effects of heparin have also been described. In this study, we have investigated the effects of locally-injected heparin on the oedema formation and eosinophil accumulation induced by various inflammatory stimuli in guinea-pig skin. 2. Heparin dose-dependently suppressed the accumulation of 111In-labelled eosinophils induced by i.d. injection of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP). The 111In-eosinophil accumulation induced by other inflammatory stimuli (compound 48/80, platelet activating factor, interleukin-8 and in a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction) was also suppressed by locally-injected heparin. 3. Oedema formation in response to these same stimuli was not altered by the local injection of heparin. 4. Fucoidin, a negatively-charged sulphated algal polymer, had no effect on the 111In-eosinophil accumulation or oedema formation induced by ZAP. Nevertheless, fucoidin significantly suppressed the oedema formation induced by i.d. injection of cationic protein-containing extracts of Schistosoma mansoni larvae. Heparin also inhibited oedema induced by the extracts, suggesting that both fucoidin and heparin were effectively neutralizing the cationic protein of the extracts to inhibit their oedema-inducing activity. 5. Thus, heparin significantly inhibited the accumulation of 111In-eosinophils, but not oedema formation, induced by various inflammatory stimuli. This, taken together with the lack of effect of fucoidin, suggests that heparin interferes with the process of eosinophil trafficking by a mechanism that does not depend on neutralisation of the charge of the stimulatory molecules.
PMCID: PMC2175853  PMID: 8306092
11.  Role of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in acute inflammatory reactions in guinea-pig skin. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1993;110(4):1515-1521.
1. Oedema formation in skin is dependent on a synergism between mediators that increase vascular permeability and mediators that enhance local blood flow. Leukocyte accumulation is also enhanced by mediators that increase local blood flow. In this study, we have investigated whether nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous vasodilator, could modulate oedema formation and leukocyte accumulation in guinea-pig skin. 2. Local administration of the NO synthesis inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), dose-dependently inhibited the oedema formation induced in response to intrademal injection of bradykinin or histamine. L-NAME, but not NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME); also inhibited oedema formation in response to i.d. injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF), zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) and in a passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction. 3. N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine (L-NIO) was less effective and about 100 times less potent than L-NAME in inhibiting bradykinin-induced oedema formation. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, had little effect on oedema responses induced by bradykinin, PAF and in a PCA reaction. On the other hand, histamine-induced oedema formation was significantly suppressed by ibuprofen. 4. The inhibition by L-NAME of bradykinin-induced oedema formation was reversed by co-injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). 5. L-NAME inhibited 111In-eosinophil and 111In-neutrophil accumulation induced by i.d. injection of ZAP. 111In-eosinophil accumulation induced by PAF and in the PCA reaction was also inhibited by L-NAME but not by D-NAME.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC2175893  PMID: 8306095
12.  E-type prostaglandins enhance local oedema formation and neutrophil accumulation but suppress eosinophil accumulation in guinea-pig skin. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1993;110(1):416-422.
1. Prostaglandins possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions depending on their route of administration and the experimental model used. In this study, we have investigated the effect of locally injected prostaglandins on oedema formation, neutrophil accumulation and eosinophil accumulation in inflammatory responses in guinea-pig skin. 2. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) significantly enhanced local oedema formation induced by zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP), bradykinin and in a passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction. The accumulation of ZAP-induced 111In-labelled neutrophils was also significantly enhanced by PGE1. In addition, the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, enhanced ZAP-induced responses. 3. In contrast PGE1 decreased the accumulation of 111In-labelled eosinophils in skin sites. This was demonstrated on eosinophil accumulation and local oedema formation induced by PAF, compound 48/80 and in the PCA reaction. PGE2 also suppressed eosinophil accumulation while iloprost had no detectable effect. 4. Isoprenaline inhibited eosinophil accumulation in a dose-dependent manner with no effect on local oedema formation, except in the case of responses to ZAP where suppression was observed. 5. The vasodilator neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), enhanced local oedema formation but had no detectable effect on eosinophil accumulation. 6. In conclusion, the magnitude of a given response to an inflammatory mediator in vivo depends on the net effect of stimulation of several cell types e.g. arteriolar smooth muscle cells, microvascular endothelial cells, mast cells and accumulating leukocytes. In this study, we have demonstrated that different components of the inflammatory response in guinea-pig skin can be differentially modulated by E-type prostaglandins and isoprenaline, suggesting that cyclic AMP has an important regulatory role.
PMCID: PMC2176016  PMID: 7693286
13.  Inflammatory mechanisms in the passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in the rabbit: evidence that novel mediators are involved. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1992;107(4):1163-1172.
1. We have examined the mechanisms of local oedema formation in the passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction in the rabbit. 2. IgE-containing antiserum was injected i.d. and allowed to sensitize skin sites for periods up to 240 h. Antigen (bovine gamma globulin) was injected i.d. or i.v. and local oedema formation assessed by the accumulation of i.v. injected 125I-labelled rabbit serum albumin. Potential inhibitors were mixed with antigen prior to i.d. injection or were administered i.v. 3. Maximum oedema formation was observed when a sensitization period of 48-72 h was used. Oedema formation in the PCA reaction was of short duration with a t 1/2 of approximately 15 min. No evidence of late oedema formation (up to 6 h) was found. 4. Local oedema formation in the PCA was reduced by indomethacin suggesting that vasodilator, oedema-potentiating prostaglandins were released. However, it was likely that other vasodilators were also generated. 5. Antihistamines were poor inhibitors of oedema formation as were PAF antagonists, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, a kallikrein inhibitor, a bradykinin antagonist and anti-C5a antibody. 6. Local oedema formation in the PCA was partially reduced by neutrophil depletion and colchicine suggesting that neutrophil-dependent mediators were involved. 7. Exudate fluid from anaphylactic reactions in the rabbit peritoneal cavity contained permeability-increasing activity when injected into rabbit skin. This activity is now being characterized. 8. A vasodilator prostaglandin appears to be released in the rabbit PCA reaction but none of the established permeability-increasing mediators appears to be involved. Thus, there may be novel inflammatory mediators generated in this reaction which may have relevance for human allergic skin diseases.
PMCID: PMC1907921  PMID: 1281720
14.  Mechanism of action of platelet activating factor in the pulmonary circulation: an investigation using a novel isotopic system in rabbit isolated lung. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1991;104(1):251-257.
1. Rabbit isolated lungs were perfused via the pulmonary artery with Tyrode solution containing 4.5% Ficoll and 0.1% bovine serum albumin at a constant rate of 20 ml min-1. Lung perfusate was drawn for alternating 5 min periods from two reservoirs, one containing 125I-albumin and the other unlabelled albumin to wash out the intravascular label. Microvascular 125I-albumin leakage was determined from the count remaining at the end of the washout phase with an external gamma scintillation probe. In addition, perfusion pressure was monitored continuously. Each experiment comprised 6 cycles over a total period of 60 min. 2. Infusion of platelet activating factor (PAF, 3 nmol min-1 for 10 min) resulted in microvascular 125I-albumin leakage, whereas lyso-PAF was without effect. During PAF infusions there was also an increase in perfusion pressure. Both the permeability and pressor effects of PAF were inhibited by the PAF antagonist L-652731. 3. Infusion of the thromboxane analogue U-46619 (0.6 nmol min-1 for 10 min) caused an increase in perfusion pressure but protein accumulation was not significantly different from that observed with control infusions. 4. Bolus injections of PAF (1 nmol) caused increases in perfusion pressure which were reduced by indomethacin, dazmegrel and BW 755C. Bolus injections of PAF, repeated at 30 min intervals caused reproducible pressor responses; however, repeated injections at 60 min intervals resulted in augmented responses. This augmentation did not occur in the presence of indomethacin. 5. Retrograde perfusion of PAF via the pulmonary vein induced increased perfusion pressure and microvascular 125I-albumin leakage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1908255  PMID: 1786514
15.  Characteristics of oedema formation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in rabbit skin. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1989;97(1):181-189.
1. The characteristics of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced oedema formation were investigated in vivo in rabbit skin. 2. FMLP injected intradermally alone induced a small increase in plasma leakage, but marked synergism with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in producing oedema responses was observed. In the presence of PGE2, FMLP was equiactive with C5a des Arg and 100-1000 times more active than histamine in terms of permeability-increasing activity. The response to FMLP was not dependent on endogenous histamine release. 3. FMLP-induced responses were of long duration (t1/2 approximately 40-50 min) when compared with bradykinin (t1/2 approximately 4-5 min). 4. The activity of a range of N-formyl peptides in increasing vascular permeability in skin correlated well with their activity as neutrophil stimulants in vitro. 5. Intravenous infusion of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) resulted in transient neutropenia and inhibition of oedema formation induced by FMLP and C5a des Arg in the skin. Responses to bradykinin were unaffected by the infusion of ZAP. 6. Intravenous injection of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, ibuprofen, resulted in an inhibition of FMLP-induced, but not histamine-induced, oedema formation. This effect was independent of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition and the drug did not induced neutropenia. 7. Intravenous injection of the microtubule blocking agent colchicine inhibited FMLP-induced oedema formation. Responses to bradykinin were unaffected. When colchicine was administered after intradermal FMLP, subsequent plasma leakage was abolished. 8. The inference that receptors have evolved to bacterial secretions (i.e. FMLP) and products of the interaction of bacterial cell walls with tissue fluid (i.e. C5a des Arg), is consistent with the hypothesis that oedema formation is fundamentally a functional process concerned with regulating microbial lysis and opsonisation in an infected tissue.
PMCID: PMC1854467  PMID: 2497923
16.  Antagonism of Paf-induced oedema formation in rabbit skin: a comparison of different antagonists. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1989;97(1):171-180.
1. Eight platelet activating factor (Paf) antagonists were evaluated as inhibitors of oedema formation in rabbit skin induced by intradermal injection of Paf plus prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Antagonists were tested by both intradermal (i.d.) and intravenous (i.v.) routes. 2. Intradermal injection of two antagonists structurally-related to Paf (SRI 63-675 and CV-3988) resulted in a partial inhibition of Paf-induced oedema formation but at high doses of antagonist, marked agonist activities were detected. CV-3988 administered i.v. inhibited Paf-induced plasma leakage by 73-80%; however, oedema responses to a range of other inflammatory mediators were also reduced, albeit to a lesser extent (40-60%). SRI 63-675 administered i.v. did not significantly inhibit Paf-induced oedema. 3. The antagonist 48740 RP administered either i.d. or i.v. showed partial, but selective, inhibition of Paf-induced oedema formation, although the doses required were high when compared with other antagonists. 4. BN 52021 was a weak Paf antagonist when injected i.d., but following i.v. administration the responses to Paf were inhibited by 63-71%. Responses to all other mediators tested were unaffected. 5. Kadsurenone and its synthetic derivatives, L-652,731 and L-659,989 all blocked responses to Paf in the skin. L-659,989 was the most potent, achieving almost total inhibition when injected i.d. and i.v.; moreover, it was selective for Paf. L-652,731 was more potent than kadsurenone. 6. WEB 2086 given i.d. and i.v. showed similar activity to L-659,989 and it was also selective for Paf-induced oedema formation. 7. These results illustrate that in rabbit skin not all Paf antagonists are selective for Paf, some showing agonist-like activity which can mask antagonist properties. It is suggested that before ascribing a role for endogenous Paf in an inflammatory reaction based on results with antagonists, the activity of the antagonists in the model under investigation should be rigorously established.
PMCID: PMC1854485  PMID: 2720306
17.  An anti-inflammatory steroid inhibits tissue sensitization by IgE in vivo. 
An anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, dexamethasone, was found to be a potent suppressor of cell sensitization induced by IgE antibody in a model of type I allergic inflammation in vivo. Low doses (approximately less than 10(-10) mol) of dexamethasone, administered intradermally to rabbits 90 min before injection of IgE into the same sites, suppressed local oedema induced by a local challenge with antigen 72 h later. The effect was not due to anti-inflammatory activity persisting in the skin site for the 3 day period. This novel potent activity of the corticosteroid may be an important component of its anti-allergic effect in diseases such as asthma.
PMCID: PMC1854320  PMID: 2924076
18.  Purinoceptor mediated stimulation of prostacyclin release in the porcine pulmonary vasculature. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1984;83(2):457-462.
Prostacyclin (PGI2) release from the piglet isolated perfused lung was measured by radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the venous effluent. Basal release of PGI2 was transiently stimulated up to 30 fold, in a dose-dependent manner, by bolus injections of ATP (0.03-3 mumol). A continuous infusion of ATP also produced a transient response. Dose-response curves for purinergic stimulation of PGI2 release showed that ADP was equipotent with ATP, while AMP and adenosine were virtually inactive. The non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, ATP-gamma-S, elicited PGI2 release of similar magnitude and duration to that of ATP, suggesting that pulmonary catabolism of ATP is not required to induce PGI2 release. The results suggest that the porcine pulmonary vasculature possesses P2-purinoceptors through which the synthesis and release of PGI2 can be mediated.
PMCID: PMC1987114  PMID: 6091831

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