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1.  Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1997;63(10):3916-3918.
The efficacy of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide in a pass-through box for the decontamination of equipment and inanimate materials potentially contaminated with exotic animal viruses was evaluated. Tests were conducted with a variety of viral agents, which included representatives of several virus families (Orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, and Rhabdoviridae) from both avian and mammalian species, with particular emphasis on animal viruses exotic to Canada. The effects of the gas on a variety of laboratory equipment were also studied. Virus suspensions in cell culture media, egg fluid, or blood were dried onto glass and stainless steel. Virus viability was assessed after exposure to vaporphase hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. For all viruses tested and under all conditions (except one), the decontamination process reduced the virus titer to 0 embryo-lethal doses for the avian viruses (avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses) or less than 10 tissue culture infective doses for the mammalian viruses (African swine fever, bluetongue, hog cholera, pseudorabies, swine vesicular disease, vesicular exanthema, and vesicular stomatitis viruses). The laboratory equipment exposed to the gas appeared to suffer no adverse effects. Vaporphase hydrogen peroxide decontamination can be recommended as a safe and efficacious way of removing potentially virus-contaminated objects from biocontainment level III laboratories in which exotic animal disease virus agents are handled.
PMCID: PMC168702  PMID: 9327555
2.  Comparison of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from cormorants in Canada and the USA in 1975, 1990 and 1992. 
Seventeen Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates obtained from cormorants, turkeys, a pelican, and a gull in Canada and the USA collected in 1975, 1990 and 1992 were analyzed for relatedness by monoclonal antibody profiling. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis was performed in two areas of the fusion (F) gene for 5 of the isolates. No difference in the antigenicity of these 17 viruses, as determined by monoclonal antibody binding patterns, was seen. The amino acid sequences obtained via nucleotide sequencing at the cleavage site of the F protein showed that all the isolates tested had two pairs of basic amino acids immediately upstream of the cleavage site, and a phenylalanine residue at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, which is consistent with velogenic NDV. The deduced amino acid sequence obtained at the cleavage site of the F protein from 6 of the isolates was virtually identical regardless of the species, year of isolation, or location. However, the 1975 cormorant isolate showed marked differences from the 1990-1992 isolates in the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the F gene signal region. These data indicate that the 1990 and 1992 outbreaks were caused by the same epizootic virus and further suggest that the population of NDV in these wild birds may be very stable. The belief that the velogenic NDV circulating in cormorants in 1992 was transmitted into the free-ranging turkey flocks located near the cormorants in North Dakota is supported by the present study in which no distinction could be made between the viruses isolated from turkeys or wild birds.
PMCID: PMC1263800  PMID: 8825994
3.  Vaccination of chickens with a recombinant fowlpox virus containing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus under the control of the fowlpox virus thymidine kinase promoter. 
When chickens were vaccinated with a recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV) containing the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) cDNA under the control of the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter and inserted into the FPV TK gene, the FPV antibody response to the recombinant virus was similar to the response to vaccination with standard FPV, and the recombinant virus protected chickens against challenge with virulent FPV. While the presence of the NDV HN cDNA was demonstrated in the recombinant virus, which was stable on serial passage, expression of HN was not detected by hemagglutination, Western blot analysis or immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysate. Chickens vaccinated with the recombinant virus failed to mount an NDV hemagglutination-inhibition antibody response, and they did not resist challenge with velogenic NDV. It was concluded that the TK promoter was too weak to drive the HN gene, but that the insertion into the FPV TK gene did not reduce the immunogenicity of the virus.
PMCID: PMC1263719  PMID: 7889464
5.  Monoclonal antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus: cross-reactivities to field isolates and hog cholera virus strains. 
Monoclonal antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were examined for binding with a large number of North American BVDV isolates and eight strains of the serologically related pestivirus, hog cholera virus (HCV). No single BVDV monoclonal antibody reacted with all BVDV isolates. The most cross-reactive monoclonal antibody was an anti-p80/p125 antibody which showed a positive reaction with 173 of 180 (96%) North American isolates. From a fewer number of isolates tested, one anti-gp53 monoclonal antibody also showed a high cross-reactivity (94%). All BVDV isolates showed a positive reaction with at least one of the seven monoclonal antibodies in the panel. Thus, the results indicated that a pool of these monoclonal antibodies may be used in place of polyclonal antisera for the detection of BVDV contamination of cell lines or for virus isolation. For HCV, all three anti-p80/p125 monoclonal antibodies reacted positively with all eight virus strains. In contrast, none of the anti-gp53 monoclonal antibodies were reactive to HCV strains. Thus, the anti-gp53 monoclonal antibodies may be useful for distinguishing between usually innocuous BVDV infections and the highly significant HCV infections in swine for foreign animal disease surveillance.
PMCID: PMC1263663  PMID: 8143258
6.  Pestivirus is a common contaminant in maedi-visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus stocks. 
Eight different laboratory stocks of maedi-visna or caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus were examined for the presence of pestiviruses by a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. All of the viral stocks examined were found to contain noncytopathic pestivirus contaminants. The panel of monoclonal antibodies could not type the isolates as being more related to bovine virus diarrhea virus or border disease virus. However, the results did indicate that all isolates were not the same, except for two from the same laboratory where the source of pestivirus contamination may have been common.
PMCID: PMC1263571  PMID: 1335836
7.  Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goat serum. 
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was evaluated for its ability to detect serum antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). The ELISA was compared to three other serological immunoassays, agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), immunoblot assay (IBA), and a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay (FCIPA). A total of 511 samples, from 40 farms representing a variety of goat breeds and ages were tested. An estimate of the ELISA sensitivity and specificity was made, relative to combined test results of the three other CAEV serological assays. The degree of agreement of test results among these four assays was evaluated. The number of positives detected by the ELISA, AGIDT, IBA and IPA tests was 193, 154, 204 and 163, respectively. Of the 511 sera tested, 172 were positive to any two or all three of these tests, and were defined as reference positive. A total of 237 samples were negative to all three reference tests, and were defined as reference negative. Relative to these references, the ELISA had a point estimate of 98.3% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity. There was good agreement between the ELISA and the other three assays with a kappa statistic of agreement greater than 0.7 for all three comparisons. The ELISA is therefore considered a suitable assay, with high sensitivity and specificity, for detection of antibodies to CAEV in serum.
PMCID: PMC1263545  PMID: 1330278
8.  Use of Oxytocin in Sows 
PMCID: PMC1680014  PMID: 17422521

Results 1-8 (8)