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1.  Vitamin D status among the elderly Chinese population: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010–2013 China national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 
Nutrition Journal  2017;16:3.
Background
Vitamin D inadequacy is common among the elderly, especially within the Asian population. The vitamin D status among healthy adults in the elderly Chinese population was evaluated.
Methods
A total of 6014 healthy adults aged 60 years or older (2948 men, 3066 women) participated in this descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Possible predictors of vitamin D inadequacy were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses.
Results
The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were 61.0 nmol/l (interquartile range (IQR) 44.3–80.6, range 5.1–154.5) for men and 53.7 nmol/l (IQR 38.8–71.0, range 6.0–190.0) for women, with 34.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4–35.8) of men and 44.0% (95% CI 42.2–45.8) of women presenting vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). According to the multivariate logistic regression analyses, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with female gender (P <0.0001), underweight (P = 0.0259), the spring season (P <0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P <0.0001) and living in large cities (P = 0.0026). For men, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0015), low ambient UVB levels (P <0.0001) and living in large cities (P = 0.0022); for women, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0005) and low ambient UVB levels (P <.0001).
Conclusions
Vitamin D inadequacy is prevalent among the elderly population in China. Because residing in regions with low ambient UVB levels increases the risk of vitamin D inadequacy both for men and women, vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure should be encouraged, especially during the cooler seasons. Further studies are required to determine the optimal vitamin D intake and sun exposure levels to maintain sufficient vitamin D levels in the elderly Chinese population.
doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0224-3
PMCID: PMC5237548  PMID: 28088200
Vitamin D; Elderly population; China; Risk factors; Environment
2.  Multi-breed genome-wide association study reveals novel loci associated with the weight of internal organs 
Background
Recently, many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted to understand the genetic architecture of economic important traits in farm animals. Pig is widely used as a biomedical animal model for its similarity with humans in terms of organ formation and disease mechanisms. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms that underlie the development of internal organs will impact the productive potential of pigs. Our aim was to uncover new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the weight of internal organs and carcass and also potential candidate genes.
Methods
We performed GWAS for the weight of heart, liver, spleen, kidney and carcass on five pig populations (White Duroc × Erhualian F2 intercross, Sutai population, Laiwu population, Erhualian population and commercial population, for a total of 2650 individuals). Genotype data was produced using the PorcineSNP60 Beadchip array. After quality control, the data was used for association tests under a general linear mixed model. Population stratification was adjusted by including a random polygenic effect based on a matrix of genotypic relationships. A meta-analysis of our GWAS datasets was conducted by summing up the Chi square values across breeds, with the degrees of freedom of the Chi square distribution equal to the effective number of breeds.
Results
Thirty-nine quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on 15 chromosomes were identified by the single-population GWAS at the suggestive level. Among these, nine QTL surpassed the 5 % genome-wide significance threshold, including four for heart weight on SSC (Sus scrofa chromosome) 2, 4, 7 and 10, two for liver weight on SSC7, two for spleen weight on SSC5 and SSC7 and one for carcass weight on SSC11. The QTL on SSC7 showed pleiotropic effects for heart, liver and spleen weights in the F2 population. In addition, two QTL were detected in several populations, including one on SSC2 for heart weight in the F2 and Sutai populations and one on SSC7 for liver weight in the F2 and Laiwu populations. The meta-analysis detected four novel QTL on SSC1, 3, 8 and 16 for carcass weight.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12711-015-0168-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12711-015-0168-7
PMCID: PMC4647478  PMID: 26576866
GWAS; Pig; Haplotype GWAS; Organ weight
3.  Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66210.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18–59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as “Green Water” (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), “Yellow Earth” (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), “New Affluent” (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and “Western Adopter” (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066210
PMCID: PMC3686814  PMID: 23840426
4.  Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Early Life and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(4):1014-1018.
OBJECTIVE
To examine whether exposure to the Chinese famine during fetal life and early childhood is associated with the risks of metabolic syndrome and whether this association is modified by later life environment.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used data of 7,874 adults born between 1954 and 1964 from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Famine exposure groups were defined as nonexposed; fetal exposed; and early childhood, midchildhood, or late childhood exposed. Excess death rate was used to determine the severity of the famine. The ATP III criteria were used for the definition of metabolic syndrome (three or more of the following variables: elevated fasting triglyceride levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels, elevated fasting glucose levels, higher waist circumference, high blood pressure).
RESULTS
In severely affected famine areas, adults who were exposed to the famine during fetal life had a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, as compared with nonexposed subjects (odds ratio 3.13 [95% CI 1.24–7.89, P = 0.016]). Similar associations were observed among adults who were exposed to the famine during early childhood, but not for adults exposed to the famine during mid- or late childhood. Participants who were born in severely affected famine areas and had Western dietary habits in adulthood or were overweight in adulthood had a particularly high risk of metabolic syndrome in later life.
CONCLUSIONS
Exposure to the Chinese famine during fetal life or infancy is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These associations are stronger among subjects with a Western dietary pattern or who were overweight in adulthood.
doi:10.2337/dc10-2039
PMCID: PMC3064015  PMID: 21310886
5.  Dietary patterns and hypertension among Chinese adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:925.
Background
Several healthful dietary patterns appear to be effective at lowering blood pressure and preventing hypertension. However, the relationship between dietary patterns and hypertension among a representative Chinese population sample is unclear.
Methods
A nationally representative sample of 23 671 participants aged 18-59 years were recruited by the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. All participants had their blood pressure measured with standardized mercury sphygmomanometers. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. We conducted factor analysis using dietary information from a validated food frequency questionnaire to derive dietary patterns. Information of participants on physical activities, education level, annual household income, smoking status and family history of hypertension was collected by interviewer-administrated questionnaires.
Results
Three major dietary patterns, defined as 'Western', 'traditional northern', and 'traditional southern', were identified. Participants with the highest quartile for the score of the Western pattern had significantly higher blood pressure comparing with counterparts in the lowest quartile. In contrast, participants in the top quartile for the score of the traditional southern pattern presented significantly lower blood pressure comparing with counterparts in the lowest quartile. In multivariate analyses the traditional northern pattern score was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.53, P for trend = 0.0001) comparing with the lowest quartile. The OR for the top quartile of score for the traditional southern pattern was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.89, P for trend = 0.0040) compared with the lowest quartile of traditional southern pattern score. However, the significant association between the traditional northern pattern and prevalence of hypertension disappeared after further adjusting for body mass index (BMI) (P for trend = 0.3), whereas the association between the traditional southern pattern and prevalence of hypertension persisted after further adjusting for BMI (P for trend = 0.01).
Conclusions
We observed a positive relationship between the traditional northern pattern and hypertension that was mediated through differences in BMI. In addition, the traditional southern pattern was significantly associated with lower odds of presenting with hypertension.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-925
PMCID: PMC3299712  PMID: 22168909
6.  Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Early Life and the Risk of Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood 
Diabetes  2010;59(10):2400-2406.
OBJECTIVE
Early developmental adaptations in response to undernutrition may play an essential role in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, particularly for those experiencing a “mismatched rich nutritional environment” in later life. We examined the associations of exposure to the Chinese famine (1959–1961) during fetal life and childhood with the risk of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in adulthood.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used the data for 7,874 rural adults born between 1954 and 1964 in selected communities from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Hyperglycemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.1 mmol/l and/or 2-h plasma glucose ≥7.8 mmol/l and/or a previous clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
Prevalences of hyperglycemia among adults in nonexposed, fetal exposed, early-childhood, mid-childhood, and late-childhood exposed cohorts were 2.4%, 5.7%, 3.9%, 3.4%, and 5.9%, respectively. In severely affected famine areas, fetal-exposed subjects had an increased risk of hyperglycemia compared with nonexposed subjects (odds ratio = 3.92; 95% CI: 1.64–9.39; P = 0.002); this difference was not observed in less severely affected famine areas (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.25–1.31; P = 0.185). The odds ratios were significantly different between groups from the severe and less severe famine areas (P for interaction = 0.001). In severely affected famine areas, fetal-exposed subjects who followed an affluent/Western dietary pattern (odds ratios = 7.63; 95% CI: 2.41–24.1; P = 0.0005) or who had a higher economic status in later life experienced a substantially elevated risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratios = 6.20; 95% CI: 2.08–18.5; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Fetal exposure to the severe Chinese famine increases the risk of hyperglycemia in adulthood. This association appears to be exacerbated by a nutritionally rich environment in later life.
doi:10.2337/db10-0385
PMCID: PMC3279550  PMID: 20622161
7.  Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Adults, China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;8(1):A13.
Introduction
As a result of rapid economic development in China, the lifestyles and dietary habits of its people have been changing, and the rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions have increased substantially. We report the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and the association between diabetes and overweight and obesity in Chinese adults. We also compare the results with those from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.
Methods
Data were from adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002 (n = 47,729). Diabetes and IFG were defined by the American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes, IFG, and overweight and obesity by sex, age, region of residence, and ethnicity.
Results
The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Chinese adults was 2.7% and 4.9%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes increased with age and body mass index. Men and women had a similar prevalence of diabetes, but men had a significantly higher prevalence of IFG. The prevalence of diabetes among Chinese who lived in urban areas was 2 to 3 times higher than the prevalence among those who lived in rural areas (3.9% for urban areas and 6.1% for large cities vs 1.9% for rural areas), and the prevalence of IFG was 1.5 to 2 times higher (6.1% and 8.1% vs 4.2%, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes among Chinese women and young (20-39 y) and middle-aged (40-59 y) adults who lived in large cities was similar to the prevalence of diabetes in the US population.
Conclusion
The prevalence of diabetes and IFG was much higher in urban than rural areas, particularly in the large cities of China. Prevention must be emphasized among adults to reduce the future social and economic burden of diabetes in China.
PMCID: PMC3044024  PMID: 21159225
8.  Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(11):1972-1976.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Information on dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the food factors and dietary pattern clusters.
RESULTS
Four dietary pattern clusters were identified (“Green Water,” “Yellow Earth,” “Western Adopter,” and “New Affluence”). The prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities ranged from 3.9% in the Green Water to 8.0% in the New Affluence. After adjustment for area, age, sex, current smoking, and physical activity, subjects in the Yellow Earth cluster (prevalence ratio 1.22 [95% CI 1.04–1.43]) and New Affluence cluster (2.05 [1.76–2.37]) had significantly higher prevalence rates compared with those for the Green Water cluster. After further adjustment for BMI and waist-to-height ratio, the elevated risk in the New Affluence remained statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary patterns and food factors are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China, even independent of obesity. A New Affluence diet is an important modifiable risk factor, which needs attention from the prevention point of view.
doi:10.2337/dc09-0714
PMCID: PMC2768212  PMID: 19675202

Results 1-8 (8)