Experimental and clinical studies have shown that administration of insulin during reperfusion is cardioprotective, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown. In this study, the ability of insulin to protect apoptotic cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury using the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis was investigated.
Methods and Results
Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. [γ-32P] ATP was used to assess sphingosine kinase activity. Insulin was found to increase sphingosine kinase activity. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis showed changes in the subcellular location of sphingosine kinase 1 from cytosol to the membrane in cardiomyocytes. Insulin caused cardiomyocytes to accumulate of S1P in a dose-dependent manner. FRET efficiency showed that insulin also transactivates the S1P1 receptor. TUNEL staining showed that administration of insulin during reoxygenation could to reduce the rate of reoxygenation-induced apoptosis, which is a requirement for SphK 1 activity. It also reduced the rate of activation of the S1P receptor and inhibited hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death in cardiomyocytes.
The sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate/S1P receptor axis is one pathway through which insulin protects rat cardiomyocytes from apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.
This study focused on the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) and manual acupuncture (MA) at different acupoints on gastric motility and heart rate variability (HRV) simultaneously to elucidate the site specific effects of acupoints and the correlation between changes of gastric motility and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Gastric motility and HRV were recorded before and during MA or LA. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly enhanced gastric motility, while BL-21 caused no changes. In contrast, MA or LA at CV-12 significantly suppressed gastric motility. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly increased heart rate (HR), while CV-12 or BL-21 induced no significant changes of HR. Stimulating PC-6 significantly increased LF/HF, while ST-36, CV-12, or BL-21 induced no significant effects. These results indicated that there was acupoint specificity in the effects of acupuncture on gastric motility and HRV. The stimulatory effect of MA and LA at PC-6 and ST-36 on HR was associated with sympathetic activity. The stimulatory effect of MA or LA at PC-6 or ST-36 on gastric motility was associated with vagal activity. Laser needle can be used as an alternative stimulation therapy.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the duration of interstitial laser acupuncture therapy effects on neurovegetative and neurobioelectrical parameters like heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and electroencephalogram (EEG). We investigated 6 male Sprague-Dawley rats. They underwent 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min interstitial laser acupuncture (in randomized order, with a break of at least 30 min between the different measurement conditions) at the acupoint Neiguan. HR changed significantly only during 20 min red laser stimulation, whereas 10 and 30 min stimulation did not induce significant changes. HRV did not change significantly during any of the different durations; however, an increase was found during 20 min irradiation. Neither the LF/HF ratio of HRV nor the integrated EEG showed significant changes. In this study, it could be experimentally proved that some effects of laser acupuncture are time dependent, and therefore the dosage, as well known from theory, also depends on the time factor. We could especially demonstrate that different treatment times lead to different effects on neurovegetative and neurobioelectrical parameters. Further studies are needed to verify or refute these results.
Histone modifications play important roles in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and genes involved in histone modifications are seemed as ideal targets for treatment of PCa patients. However, clinical trials have shown that those existing drugs exert the minimal antitumor activity and excess adverse effects on PCa patients. Therefore, it is of great interest to figure out novel specific biomarkers to guide the development of new drugs. In present study, an RNAi screening with 44 genes involved in histone modifications was applied to a PCa cell line, Du145. The results showed that nine genes were in positive regulation of Du145 cell growth. Then four selected genes (KAT2B, KAT5, KAT6B and HDAC1) were found to exert this effect by a gene-specific manner when silenced. And then KAT5 or KAT6B silenced cells were subjected to DNA microarray analysis. The common differentially expressed genes were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and found that PDEF signaling, EIF2 signaling and PI3K signaling was suppressed following by KAT5 or KAT6B silencing. Subsequent immunoblotting assay showed that AKT signaling was inhibited, which suggested that KAT5 or KAT6B regulates cancer cell growth through PI3K-AKT signaling. Together with our published data  that AURKA inhibitoin increased drug sensitivity of DU145, our work demonstrated the underlying mechanism that how the acetylation enzyme regulates cancer cells survial and might provide potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer patients in future epigenetic drug development.
Prostate cancer; histone modifications; RNAi screening; KAT5; KAT6B; PI3K-AKT signaling
Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is receiving significant attention as a potential process that enables fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and produces high yields of fermentable sugars suitable for the production of renewable fuels. However, successful optimization and scale up of IL pretreatment involves challenges, such as high solids loading, biomass handling and transfer, washing of pretreated solids and formation of inhibitors, which are not addressed during the development stages at the small scale in a laboratory environment. As a first in the research community, the Joint BioEnergy Institute, in collaboration with the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, a Department of Energy funded facility that supports academic and industrial entities in scaling their novel biofuels enabling technologies, have performed benchmark studies to identify key challenges associated with IL pretreatment using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and subsequent enzymatic saccharification beyond bench scale.
Using switchgrass as the model feedstock, we have successfully executed 600-fold, relative to the bench scale (6 L vs 0.01 L), scale-up of IL pretreatment at 15% (w/w) biomass loading. Results show that IL pretreatment at 15% biomass generates a product containing 87.5% of glucan, 42.6% of xylan and only 22.8% of lignin relative to the starting material. The pretreated biomass is efficiently converted into monosaccharides during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at 10% loading over a 150-fold scale of operations (1.5 L vs 0.01 L) with 99.8% fermentable sugar conversion. The yield of glucose and xylose in the liquid streams were 94.8% and 62.2%, respectively, and the hydrolysate generated contains high titers of fermentable sugars (62.1 g/L of glucose and 5.4 g/L cellobiose). The overall glucan and xylan balance from pretreatment and saccharification were 95.0% and 77.1%, respectively. Enzymatic inhibition by [C2mim][OAc] at high solids loadings requires further process optimization to obtain higher yields of fermentable sugars.
Results from this initial scale up evaluation indicate that the IL-based conversion technology can be effectively scaled to larger operations and the current study establishes the first scaling parameters for this conversion pathway but several issues must be addressed before a commercially viable technology can be realized, most notably reduction in water consumption and efficient IL recycle.
Scale-up; Pretreatment; Saccharification; Ionic liquid; High solid loading; Viscosity; Inhibition
The world’s first reported patient infected with avian influenza H7N9 was treated at the Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai. Shortly thereafter, several other cases emerged in the local area. Here, we describe the detailed epidemiological and clinical data of 6 cases of avian influenza H7N9.
Methods and Findings
We analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical data from clustered patients infected with H7N9 in the Minhang District of Shanghai during a 2-week period. Of the 6 patients, 2 were from a single family. In addition, 3 patients had a history of contact with poultry; however, all 6 patients lived in the proximity of 2 food markets where the H7N9 virus was detected in chickens and pigeons. The main symptoms were fever, cough, and hemoptysis. At onset, a decreased lymphocyte count and elevated creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels were observed. As the disease progressed, most patients developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Imaging studies revealed lung consolidation and multiple ground-glass opacities in the early stage, rapidly extending bilaterally. All patients were treated with oseltamivir tablets beginning on days 3–8 after onset. The main complications were as follows: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 83.3%), secondary bacterial infection (66.7%), pleural effusion (50%), left ventricular failure (33.3%), neuropsychiatric symptoms (33.3%), and rhabdomyolysis (16.7%). Of the 6 patients, 4 died of ARDS, with 2 patients recovering from the infection.
An outbreak of H7N9 infection occurred in the Minhang District of Shanghai that easily progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two cases showed family aggregation, which led us to identify the H7N9 virus and indicated that human transmission may be involved in the spread of this infection.
The laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction is exploited by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE) for both the parallel state (P state) and the antiparallel state (AP state) of the magnetizations between two magnetic layers. It was observed that the demagnetization time is shorter and the magnitude of demagnetization is larger in the AP state than those in the P state. These behaviors are attributed to the ultrafast spin transfer between two CoFeB layers via the tunneling of hot electrons through the MgO barrier. Our observation indicates that ultrafast demagnetization can be engineered by the hot electrons tunneling current. It opens the door to manipulate the ultrafast spin current in magnetic tunneling junctions.
Due to the potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for decreasing cervical cancer rates in Mainland China, where some of the highest incidences in the world have been reported, our study aimed to assess HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and to evaluate the effect of a brief educational intervention on HPV knowledge and vaccine acceptability in Chinese undergraduate students and employed women.
This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted across five representative cities of the five main geographical regions of Mainland China. Participants were selected from one comprehensive university and three to four companies in each city for a total of six comprehensive universities and 16 companies. A 62-item questionnaire on HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability was administered to participants before and after an educational intervention. The intervention consisted of an informative group lecture.
A total of 1146 employed women and 557 female undergraduate students were surveyed between August and November 2011. Baseline HPV knowledge was low among both groups— 320/1146 (28%) of employed women and 66/557 (12%) of students had heard of HPV, while only 237/1146 (21%) of employed women and 40/557 (7.2%) of students knew that HPV is related to cervical cancer. After educational instruction, 947/1061 (89%) of employed women and 193/325 (59%) of students knew the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer (χ2 = 1041.8, p < 0.001 and χ2 = 278.5, p < 0.001, respectively). Post-intervention, vaccine acceptability increased from 881/1146 (77%) to 953/1061 (90%), (p = <0.001) in employed women and 405/557 (73%) in students to 266/325 (82%), (p < 0.001). Women in both groups cited concerns about the HPV vaccine’s safety, efficacy, and limited use to date as reasons for being unwilling to receive vaccination. 502/1146 (44%) of women were willing to vaccinate their children at baseline, which increased to 857/1061 (81%) post-intervention, p < 0.001.
Incorporation of our lecture-based education initiative into a government-sponsored or school-based program may improve HPV-related knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability. Further studies are needed to evaluate and standardize HPV education programs in China.
Cervical cancer; HPV education; Human papillomavirus; Prophylactic HPV vaccine; HPV knowledge; HPV attitudes; Vaccine acceptability
Cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by extreme skeletal muscle wasting that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Efforts to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of muscle loss have predominantly focused on events intrinsic to the myofiber. In contrast, less regard has been given to potential contributory factors outside the fiber within the muscle microenvironment. In tumor-bearing mice and patients with pancreatic cancer, we found that cachexia was associated with a type of muscle damage resulting in activation of both satellite and nonsatellite muscle progenitor cells. These muscle progenitors committed to a myogenic program, but were inhibited from completing differentiation by an event linked with persistent expression of the self-renewing factor Pax7. Overexpression of Pax7 was sufficient to induce atrophy in normal muscle, while under tumor conditions, the reduction of Pax7 or exogenous addition of its downstream target, MyoD, reversed wasting by restoring cell differentiation and fusion with injured fibers. Furthermore, Pax7 was induced by serum factors from cachectic mice and patients, in an NF-κB–dependent manner, both in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Pax7 responds to NF-κB by impairing the regenerative capacity of myogenic cells in the muscle microenvironment to drive muscle wasting in cancer.
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at the ST36 acupoint on the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). There were different effects of gastric distention in SDH and NTS in 46 male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 10 excitatory neurons in SDH, most of the neurons were inhibited by homolateral EA. The firing rates decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in 10 excitatory gastric-related neurons in NTS; the firing rates of 6 neurons were further excited by homolateral EA, with a significant increase of the firing rates (P < 0.05); all inhibitory gastric-related neurons in NTS were excited by EA. The inhibition rate of homolateral EA was significantly increased in comparison with contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of SDH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between homolateral and contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of NTS. EA at ST36 changes the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in SDH and NTS. However, there are some differences in responsive mode in these neurons. The existence of these differences could be one of the physiological foundations of diversity and complexity in EA effects.
Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is a member of the ING family and acts as a tumor suppressor protein. To investigate the impact of ING4 on breast cancer proliferation, the present study examined the antitumor effects caused by upregulation in the expression of ING4 and its possible mechanism of effect in MCF-7 cells. A plasmid-based expression system encoding the ING4 gene was used to construct a stable cell line and overexpress ING4 in MCF-7 cells. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of ING4, respectively. Cell growth was examined by methylthiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of p21, p53 and bax genes were tested by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The stably transfected cell lines pcDNA3.1(+)/ING4 (with the ING4 gene) and pcDNA3.1(+) (an empty vector) were established. The expression levels of ING4 mRNA and protein in the stable cell line expressing pcDNA3.1(+)/ING4 were significantly higher than those of the two control cell lines. The cell proliferation of stably transfected cells was inhibited, and the inhibitory rate was 62.58±2.93%. Based on the changes in cell cycle distribution in stably transfected cells compared with two control cell lines, a number of cells were blocked in the G0/G1 phase 67.82±3.78% (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptotic rate was significantly higher, at 31.51±3.02% (P<0.05). Real-time PCR revealed that p21 and bax mRNA expression were increased (P<0.01), but the expression of p53 did not change significantly (P>0.05) in the stably transfected cell lines. Western blot analysis results of p21, bax and p53 were in accordance with real-time PCR results. ING4 upregulation may inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and accelerate the process of apoptosis. It is suggested that ING4 plays a significant role in the suppression of breast cancer progression.
inhibitor of growth 4; breast cancer; MCF-7
Multispectral excitation-resolved fluorescence tomography (MEFT) uses excitation light of different wavelengths to illuminate the fluorophores and obtains the reconstruction image frame which is fluorescence yield at each corresponding wavelength. For structures containing fluorophores of different concentrations, fluorescence yields show different variation trends with the excitation spectrum. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to analyze the MEFT reconstructed image frames. By taking advantage of the different variation trends of fluorescence yields, PCA can provide a set of principal components (PCs) in which structures containing different concentrations of fluorophores are shown separately. Simulations and experiments are both performed to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results suggest that the location and structure of fluorophores with different concentrations can be obtained and the contrast of fluorophores can be improved further by using this algorithm.
(170.3010) Image reconstruction techniques; (170.6960) Tomography; (100.3190) Inverse problems; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (290.1990) Diffusion; (290.7050) Turbid media
Previous studies demonstrated that primo vessels (PVs) were distributed in different parts of the body in mammals, and PVs were also involved in some processes of pathology such as cancer. Whether PVs are intrinsic structures in mammals or not is still ignored. In this study, a peritonitis model rat was induced by i.p. administration of E. coli in rats. PVs were observed in all infected rats, but it appeared less in untreated rats, taking 10.53% (4/38). In addition, we examined cell types in celiac PVs by fluorescent staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, as well as immunofluorescent staining with CD11b and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and found the following. (1) The rod-shaped nuclei aligned longitudinally along PVs. (2) DAPI-, phalloidin-, CD11b-, and ICAM-1-positive labeling coexisted in PVs, suggesting that fibroblasts and leucocytes might be two kinds of cell types in PVs for both infected and control rats. (3) The difference was that numerous cells in PVs of the infected rats contained DAPI-labeled multilobal nucleus and were expressed with CD11b- and ICAM-1-positive labeling on the cytoplasm and membrane, showing the typical characteristics of neutrophil. (4) The cells in PVs from the untreated rats are those of loose connective tissue. Therefore, it is reasonably considered that PVs from infected rats might be the pathological products which might be involved in inflammation.
Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed.
A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified.
Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits.
Artificial selection; Evolution; Genetic diversity; Population genomics; Soybean
The real-time monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is very important for craniocerebrally critically ill patients, but it is very difficult to realize long-time monitoring for the traditional invasive method, which very easily infects patients. Many noninvasive methods have emerged, but these have not been able to monitor ICP for long periods in real time, and they are not ready for clinical application. In order to realize long-time, online, real-time, noninvasive monitoring for ICP, a new method based on acoustoelasticity of ultrasound is herein proposed. Experimental models were devised to research the new method for experiment and simulation. Polymethyl methacrylate and hydrogel were adopted for the experiment, and their mechanical properties were very close to the real brain. A numerical solution for acoustoelasticity theory was acquired by simulating calculation based on a finite-element method. This was compared to the experimental value. The results showed a consistent match between theoretical solution and experimental value, with maximum error at most 5%. Thus, the effectiveness of the new method was verified. Theoretical and practical foundation is provided for this new method, and it could be used for animal experimentation or clinical testing in further research.
medical instruments; noninvasive; intracranial pressure; ultrasonic; acoustoelasticity; biomechanics
Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology.
Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated.
The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much faster than that of the raw crystals.
Fluid-bed coating technology has potential for use in the solidification of drug nanosuspensions.
nanocrystals; nanosuspensions; food proteins; poorly water-soluble drugs; indomethacin; fluid-bed coating
The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an “auriculo-vagal afferent pathway” (AVAP), by which transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) suppresses pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures by activating the NTS neurons in rats.
The afferent projections from the ABVN to the NTS were firstly observed in rats. ta-VNS increased the first grand mal latency of the epileptic seizure and decreased the seizure scores in awake rats. Furthermore, when the firing rates of the NTS neurons decreased, epileptiform activity manifested as electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization increased with 0.37±0.12 s delay in anaesthetized rats. The change of instantaneous frequency, mean frequency of the NTS neurons was negative correlated with the amplitude of the epileptic activity in EEG traces. ta-VNS significantly suppressed epileptiform activity in EEG traces via increasing the firing rates of the neurons of the NTS. In comparison with tan-VNS, the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS were significantly longer (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS (P>0.05). The anticonvulsant effect of ta-VNS was weakened by reversible cold block of the NTS.
There existed an anatomical relationship between the ABVN and the NTS, which strongly supports the concept that ta-VNS has the potential for suppressing epileptiform activity via the AVAP in rats. ta-VNS will provide alternative treatments for neurological disorders, which can avoid the disadvantage of VNS.
The epitaxial growth of ultrathin Fe film on Si(111) surface provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the contribution of magnetic anisotropy to magnetic behavior. Here, we present the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect of Fe single crystal film on vicinal Si(111) substrate with atomically flat ultrathin p(2 × 2) iron silicide as buffer layer. Owing to the tiny misorientation from Fe(111) plane, the symmetry of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy changes from the six-fold to a superposition of six-fold, four-fold and a weakly uniaxial contribution. Furthermore, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were derived from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. Our work suggests that AMR measurements can be employed to figure out precisely the contributions of various magnetic anisotropy constants.
The aim of this study was to explore the “intensity-response” relationship between EAS and the effect of gastric motility of rats and its underlying peripheral neural mechanism by employing ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3−/−), TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1−/−), and C57BL/6 mice. For adult male Sprague-Dawley (n = 18) rats, the intensities of EAS were 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mA, respectively. For mice (n = 8 in each group), only 1 mA was used, by which C fiber of the mice can be activated. Gastric antrum motility was measured by intrapyloric balloon. Gastric motility was facilitated by EAS at ST36 and inhibited by EAS at CV12. The half maximal facilitation intensity of EAS at ST36 was 2.1–2.3 mA, and the half maximal inhibitory intensity of EAS at CV12 was 2.8 mA. In comparison with C57BL/6 mice, the facilitatory effect of ST36 and inhibitive effect of CV12 in ASIC3−/− mice decreased, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, these effects in TRPV1−/− mice decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that there existed an “intensity-response” relationship between EAS and the effect of gastric motility. TRPV1 receptor was involved in the regulation of gastric motility of EAS.
The aim of this study was to assess the expression levels of induced sputum interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 levels in patients with acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) at high altitude, and to evaluate the intervention effects of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist in this disease. A total of 186 patients with AECOPD complicated with CCP were randomly divided into three groups, with 62 cases in each. With regard to the two treatment groups, group A was treated with salmeterol/fluticasone (50 μg/250 μg, respectively) by airway inhalation twice daily, while group B received budesonide (1 mg) as a spray inhalation, twice daily. The routine treatment group (group C) received only routine treatment. The levels of IL-8 and IL-10 in the induced sputum and the predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%pred), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) were examined on admission and at a stable stage two weeks following treatment. Forty healthy volunteers served as a control group (group D). Compared with group D values, the IL-8 induced sputum level and the PaCO2 were significantly increased, while the level of IL-10, FEV1%pred and the PaO2 were markedly decreased in the three COPD groups prior to treatment. Following treatment, the induced sputum IL-8 level and the PaCO2 were significantly decreased, while the induced sputum IL-10 level, FEV1%pred and the PaO2 were markedly increased in the three treatment groups compared with the values pre-therapy (all P<0.01). The post-treatment parameters were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.01). The results indicate that IL-8 and IL-10 are involved in the airway inflammation of AECOPD complicated by CCP. Treatment with an ICS was demonstrated to be a successful method of reducing the local expression of IL-8 and increasing the local expression of IL-10; however, ICS combined with a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) was more effective than the sole administration of ICS in patients with AECOPD complicated by CCP at high altitude.
interleukin-8; interleukin-10; corticosteroid; β2-adrenoceptor agonist; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic cor pulmonale
The People’s Republic of China has the largest population affected by osteoporosis in the world. However, no population-based survey of osteoporosis awareness in People’s Republic of China has been reported. This study investigated the level of basic awareness of osteoporosis in a large community in People’s Republic of China. The relationship between level of awareness and quantitative ultrasound (US) measurements at the calcaneus was also assessed.
A questionnaire was completed by 9983 men and women aged 40 years or older in Nanjing, People’s Republic of China, between June and December 2011. During this time, the study participants underwent quantitative US measurement. Data from 9049 of the subjects were included in the final analysis.
The proportion of subjects who were aware of osteoporosis was very low. Only 30.7% had heard of osteoporosis, and only 18.5% had heard of osteoporotic fracture. In total, 52.9% of the subjects drank milk, 16.0% took calcium, 7.1% took vitamin D, and 47.2% were performing regular physical activity. Logistic regression showed that more highly educated older women had significantly better awareness of osteoporosis (P < 0.05). Subjects with a history of a previous osteoporotic fracture also had better awareness (P < 0.05) than subjects without such a history, except for those who drank milk. Similar to previous reports, female sex, old age, a low education level, and a personal history of osteoporotic fracture were significantly associated with a low quantitative US measurement (P < 0.001). Further, drinking milk and having not heard of osteoporosis were significantly associated with a higher quantitative US measurement (P < 0.05), while other indicators of osteoporosis awareness were not associated with quantitative US values (P > 0.05).
Awareness of osteoporosis in People’s Republic of China is very low. National awareness strategies should be implemented, especially for poorly educated young men.
osteoporosis; awareness; quantitative ultrasound; Chinese
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an endogenous oxidant enzyme that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may be involved in lung carcinogenesis. The MPO−463G>A polymorphism influences MPO transcription and has been associated with lung cancer susceptibility. However, the association between the MPO−463G>A polymorphism and lung cancer risk remains controversial.
To investigate the effect of this polymorphism on lung cancer susceptibility, we performed a meta-analysis based on 22 published case–control studies including 7,520 patients with lung cancer and 8,600 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association.
Overall, there was no evidence for significant association between MPO−463G>A polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility (for AA versus GG: OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.67–1.24; for GA versus GG: OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.78–0.98; for AA/GA versus GG: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.80–1.01; for AA versus GA/GG: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.72–1.28). In the stratified analyses by ethnicity, source of controls and smoking status, we also did not find any significant association between them.
In summary, this meta-analysis suggests MPO−463G>A polymorphism may not be a risk factor for developing lung cancer. However, further prospective well-designed population-based studies with larger sample size are expected to validate the results.
The meridian-collateral theory is the theoretical basis of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Professor Bonghan Kim, a professor of the Pyongyang Medical University of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, claimed that he found the anatomical structure of meridian-collaterals, named Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs) and Bonghan ducts (BHDs) system or primo vascular system (PVS), in 1962. From 1963 to 1965, researchers from our institute conducted a series of comparative anatomical experiments, trying to reproduce the so-called BHC- and BHD-like structures in different strains of animals. In the present paper, the authors introduced their research findings about BHC- and BHD-like structures in the young rabbit's umbilicus including its external appearance, ectoplasm and endoplasm, and about strip-like and node-like objects in the blood vessels and lymph vessels near the larger abdominal and cervical blood vessels and chromaffin tissue in the back wall of the rabbit's abdominal cavity and between the bilateral kidneys. In spite of existence of the BHC- and BHD-like structures in the rabbit, there has been no proved evidence for their association with the meridian-collateral system described in acupuncture medicine. In the present historical review, the authors also make a discussion about the significance of those findings.
The palliative therapy effect by docetaxel for CRPC patients makes it urgent to improve the therapy. It was suggested that PI3K and androgen receptor-directed combination therapy may be effective for prostate cancer (PCa) patients PTEN negative. However, for those patients PTEN positive, the mechanism of anti-apoptosis survival of cancer cells is not yet well defined. Amplification of AURKA has been detected in 5% of PCa. In this work, Du145, a PTEN positive PCa cell model, was employed to investigate the role of aurora kinase a (AURKA) on cell growth. Inhibition of AURKA expression by shRNA markedly reduced prostate cancer cell viability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AURKA inhibition induced a remarkable downregulation of AKT activity and Bax induction. Moreover, specific inhibition of the activity of AURKA, but not other aurora family members, by small molecular chemical inhibitors induced significant cell killing effects. Notably, AURKA inhibition sensitized prostate cancer cells to docetaxel treatment. Our work suggests that AURKA-directed monotherapy or combination therapy with docetaxel could be a potent treatment for PCa patients in future.
Prostate cancer; AURKA; p53; docetaxel; castration-resistant prostate cancer; aurora kinases
: To investigate computed tomography (CT) features of exophthalmos in Chinese subjects with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO).
A total of 605 eyes of 325 patients with exophthalmos due to TAO were classified as grade I (mild exophthalmos) or II (severe exophthalmos) based on orbital CT imaging. The increased orbital volume features, such as changes from extraocular muscles, orbital fat, or both, were analyzed.
A total of 605 eyes were analyzed, among them 62.98% presented grade I exophthalmos, while 36.02% showed grade II exophthalmos. In grade I, 56.69% showed orbital fat change, and in grade II, 89.29% exhibited extraocular muscle enlargement.
Orbital fat and extraocular muscle enlargement are likely to be observed on CTs of subjects with mild and severe exophthalmos, respectively. Our results suggest that CT findings may guide TAO clinical therapy recommendations and prognosis.
thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO); computed tomography (CT); exophthalmos