Osteoclasts are specialized secretory cells of the myeloid lineage important for normal skeletal homeostasis as well as pathologic conditions of bone including osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis and cancer metastasis. Differentiation of these multinucleated giant cells from precursors is controlled by the cytokine RANKL, which through its receptor RANK initiates a signaling cascade culminating in the activation of transcriptional regulators which induce the expression of the bone degradation machinery. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) is the master regulator of this process and in its absence osteoclast differentiation is aborted both in vitro and in vivo. Differential mRNA expression analysis by microarray is used to identify genes of potential physiologic relevance across nearly all biologic systems. We compared the gene expression profile of murine wild-type and NFATc1-deficient osteoclast precursors stimulated with RANKL and identified that the majority of the known genes important for osteoclastic bone resorption require NFATc1 for induction. Here, five novel RANKL-induced, NFATc1-dependent transcripts in the osteoclast are described: Nhedc2, Rhoc, Serpind1, Adcy3 and Rab38. Despite reasonable hypotheses for the importance of these molecules in the bone resorption pathway and their dramatic induction during differentiation, the analysis of mice with mutations in these genes failed to reveal a function in osteoclast biology. Compared to littermate controls, none of these mutants demonstrated a skeletal phenotype in vivo or alterations in osteoclast differentiation or function in vitro. These data highlight the need for rigorous validation studies to complement expression profiling results before functional importance can be assigned to highly regulated genes in any biologic process.
Osteoclast; Gene array; NFATc1; Bone resorption; NHEDC2
To investigate the changes in dry eye symptoms and clinical signs and corneal sensitivity after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond LASIK (femto-LASIK).
Prospective, non-randomized comparative study.
The study included a total of 71 eyes of 71 patients; the SMILE group comprised 38 eyes of 38 patients, and the femto-LASIK group comprised 33 eyes of 33 patients. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Tear film breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer test without anesthesia (S1T), corneal fluorescein staining, and central corneal sensation were evaluated before surgery and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery.
OSDI scores in both groups were increased immediately and returned to preoperative level at 1 month after surgeries. The TBUT values in both groups were reduced after surgeries relative to their preoperative scores. Patients in SMILE group were less likely to have corneal staining compared with those in the femto-LASIK group ([odds ratio] OR = 0.50, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.28 to 0.93, P = 0.03). Central corneal sensitivity was decreased at all postoperative time points in both groups. However, the central corneal sensation scores in the SMILE group were greater than that in the femto-LASIK group at all of the postoperative time points (all P<0.05).
SMILE surgeries resulted in a short-term increase in dry eye symptoms, tear film instability, and loss of corneal sensitivity. Furthermore, SMILE surgeries have superiority over femto-LASIK in lower risk of postoperative corneal staining and less reduction of corneal sensation.
The current study aimed to develop a reliable targeted array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to detect microdeletions and microduplications in congenital conotruncal defects (CTDs), especially on 22q11.2 region, and for some other chromosomal aberrations, such as 5p15-5p, 7q11.23 and 4p16.3.
Twenty-seven patients with CTDs, including 12 pulmonary atresia (PA), 10 double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), 3 transposition of great arteries (TGA), 1 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and one ventricular septal defect (VSD), were enrolled in this study and screened for pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs), using Agilent 8 x 15K targeted aCGH. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to test the molecular results of targeted aCGH.
Four of 27 patients (14.8%) had 22q11.2 CNVs, 1 microdeletion and 3 microduplications. qPCR test confirmed the microdeletion and microduplication detected by the targeted aCGH.
Chromosomal abnormalities were a well-known cause of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). This aCGH using arrays with high-density coverage in the targeted regions can detect genomic imbalances including 22q11.2 and other 10 kinds CNVs effectively and quickly. This approach has the potential to be applied to detect aneuploidy and common microdeletion/microduplication syndromes on a single microarray.
Recent studies have suggested that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin/collagen XVIII might play an important role in the secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we measured endostatin/collagen XVIII concentrations serially for 1 week after hospitalization by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients with TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission. There was a significant trend toward increased CSF levels of endostatin after TBI versus control from 72 h after injury. In patients with GCS score of 3–5, CSF endostatin concentration was substantially higher at 72 h after injury than that in patients with GCS score of 6–8 (P < 0.05) and peaked rapidly at day 5 after injury, but decreased thereafter. The CSF endostatin concentration in 12 patients with an unfavorable outcome was significantly higher than that in 18 patients with a favorable outcome at day 5 (P = 0.043) and day 7 (P = 0.005) after trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested a reliable operating point for the 7-day CSF endostatin concentration predicting poor prognosis to be 67.29 pg/mL. Our preliminary findings provide new evidence that endostatin/collagen XVIII concentration in the CSF increases substantially in patients with sTBI. Its dynamic change may have some clinical significance on the judgment of brain injury severity and the assessment of prognosis. This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
Although many adiposity indices may be used to predict obesity-related health risks, uncertainty remains over which of them performs best.
This study compared the predictive capability of direct and indirect adiposity measures in identifying people at higher risk of metabolic abnormalities.
This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 2780 women and 1160 men. Body weight and height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat (and percentage of fat) over the whole body and the trunk were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, and glucose and urine acid levels were assessed.
In women, the ROC and the multivariate logistic regression analyses both showed that WHtR consistently had the best performance in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes/IFG, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In men, the ROC analysis showed that WHtR was the best predictor of hypertension, WHtR and WC were equally good predictors of dyslipidemia and MetS, and WHtR was the second-best predictor of hyperuricemia and diabetes/IFG. The multivariate logistic regression also found WHtR to be superior in discriminating between MetS, diabetes/IFG, and dyslipidemia while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension and hyperuricemia in men. The BIA-derived indices were the second-worst predictors for all of the endpoints, and HC was the worst.
WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic abnormalities. BMI may be used as an alternative measure of obesity for identifying hypertension in both sexes.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is usually defined as a neurologic ischemic disorder without permanent cerebral infarction. Studies have showed that patients with TIA can have lasting cognitive functional impairment. Inherent brain activity in the resting state is spatially organized in a set of specific coherent patterns named resting state networks (RSNs), which epitomize the functional architecture of memory, language, attention, visual, auditory and somato-motor networks. Here, we aimed to detect differences in RSNs between TIA patients and healthy controls (HCs).
Twenty one TIA patients suffered an ischemic event and 21 matched HCs were enrolled in the study. All subjects were investigated using cognitive tests, psychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to acquire the eight brain RSNs. Then one-sample t-tests were calculated in each group to gather the spatial maps of each RSNs, followed by second level analysis to investigate statistical differences on RSNs between twenty one TIA patients and 21 controls. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and cognitive and psychiatric scales in TIA group.
Compared with the controls, TIA patients exhibited both decreased and increased functional connectivity in default mode network (DMN) and self-referential network (SRN), and decreased functional connectivity in dorsal attention network (DAN), central-executive network (CEN), core network (CN), somato-motor network (SMN), visual network (VN) and auditory network (AN). There was no correlation between neuropsychological scores and functional connectivity in regions of RSNs.
We observed selective impairments of RSN intrinsic FC in TIA patients, whose all eight RSNs had aberrant functional connectivity. These changes indicate that TIA is a disease with widely abnormal brain networks. Our results might put forward a novel way to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in TIA patients.
Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a severe secondary insult of head injury and often leads to a poor prognosis. Hemocoagulation disorder is recognized to have important effects on hemorrhagic or ischemic damages. We sought to assess if posttraumatic hemocoagulation disorders were associated with cerebral infarction, and evaluate their influence on outcome among patients with moderate or severe head trauma. In this study, PTCI was observed in 28 (10.57%) of the 265 patients within the first week after injury. In multivariate analysis, the thrombocytopenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.210, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.065–4.674), abnormal prothrombin time (PT) (OR 3.241, 95% CI 1.090–7.648), D-dimer (>2 mg/L) (OR 7.260, 95% CI 1.822–28.076), or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scores (≥5) (OR 4.717, 95% CI 1.778–12.517) were each independently associated with an increased risk of PTCI. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen, and D-dimer (>2 mg/L) and DIC scores (≥5) showed an independent predictive effect on poor outcome. In conclusion, recognition of this important treatable cause of PTCI and the associated risk factors may help identify the group at risk and tailor management of patients with TBI.
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) plays a key role in larval settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. To study the signaling pathway associated with p38MAPK during larval settlement, we sought to identify the upstream kinase of p38MAPK. Three MKKs (MKK3, MKK4 and MKK7) and three MAPKs (p38MAPK, ERK and JNK) in A. amphitrite were cloned and recombinantly expressed in E. coli. Through kinase assays, we found that MKK3, but not MKK4 or MKK7, phosphorylated p38MAPK. Furthermore, MKK3 activity was specific to p38MAPK, as it did not phosphorylate ERK or JNK. To further investigate the functional relationship between MKK3 and p38MAPK in vivo, we studied the localization of phospho-MKK3 (pMKK3) and MKK3 by immunostaining. Consistent with the patterns of p38MAPK and phospho-p38MAPK (pp38MAPK), pMKK3 and MKK3 mainly localized to the antennules of the cyprids. Western blot analysis revealed that pMKK3 levels, like pp38MAPK levels, were elevated at cyprid stage, compared to nauplii and juvenile stages. Moreover, pMKK3 levels increased after treatment with adult barnacle crude extracts, suggesting that MKK3 might mediate the stimulatory effects of adult barnacle extracts on the p38MAPK pathway.
The transcription factor NF-κB plays an important role in both physiological and pathological events in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of NF-κB-mediated regulation of gene expression, and the signaling molecules participating in the NF-κB pathway in the central nervous system are, to date, poorly understood. To identify such molecules, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using NIK as bait. As a result, we identified a novel NIK and IKKβ binding protein designated NIBP that is mainly expressed in brain, muscle, heart, and kidney. Interestingly, low levels of expression were detected in immune tissues such as spleen, thymus, and peripheral blood leukocytes, where NF-κB is known to modulate immune function. We demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that NIBP expression in the brain is localized to neurons. NIBP physically interacts with NIK IKKβ, but not IKKα or IKKγ. NIBP overexpression potentiates tumor necrosis factor-α-induced NF-κB activation through increased phosphorylation of the IKK complex and its downstream IκBα and p65 substrates. Finally, knockdown of NIBP expression by small interfering RNA reduces tumor necrosis factor-α-induced NF-κB activation, prevents nerve growth factor-induced neuronal differentiation, and decreases Bcl-xL gene expression in PC12 cells. Our data demonstrate that NIBP, by interacting with NIK and IKKβ, is a new enhancer of the cytokine-induced NF-κB signaling pathway. Because of its neuronal expression, we propose that NIBP may be a potential target for modulating the NF-κB signaling cascade in neuronal pathologies dependent upon abnormal activation of this pathway.
To evaluate the association of coronary artery endothelial function and plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).
We investigated 90 participants from our institution between October 2007 to March 2010: non-DM (n = 60) and DM (n = 30). As an indicator of coronary endothelial dysfunction, we used non-invasive Doppler echocardiography to quantify coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the distal part of the left descending artery after rest and after intravenous adenosine administration.
Plasma level of LDL-C was significantly higher in patients with DM than in non-DM (3.21 ± 0.64 vs. 2.86 ± 0.72 mmo/L, P < 0.05), but HDL-C level did not differ between the groups (1.01 ± 0.17 vs. 1.05 ± 0.19 mmo/L). Furthermore, the CFVR value was lower in DM patients than non-diabetics (2.45 ± 0.62 vs. 2.98 ± 0.68, P < 0.001). Plasma levels of LDL-C were negatively correlated with CFVR in all subjects (r = −0.35, P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.52 – −0.15) and in the non-DM (r = −0.29, P < 0.05; 95% CI: −0.51– −0.05), with an even stronger negative correlation in the DM group (r = −0.42, P < 0.05; 95% CI: −0.68 – −0.06). Age (β = −0.019, s = 0.007, sβ = −0.435, 95% CI: −0.033 – −0.005, P = 0.008), LDL-C (β = −0.217, s = 0.105, sβ = −0.282, 95% CI: −0.428 – −0.005, P = 0.045) remained independently correlated with CFVR in the DM group. However, we found no correlation between HDL-C level and CFVR in any group.
Diabetes may contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) by inducing dysfunction of the coronary artery endothelium. Increased LDL-C level may adversely impair coronary endothelial function in DM. HDL-C may lose its endothelial-protective effects, in part as a result of pathological conditions, especially under abnormal glucose metabolism.
Coronary flow velocity reserve; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Endothelial function; Diabetes mellitus; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Cystatin SN is a secreted protein and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. It has been considered to be a tumor marker for gastrointestinal tract cancer in several functional researches. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated.
In our study, the expression of Cystatin SN was detected in 209 surgically resected ESCC tissues and 170 peritumoral normal esophageal mucosae by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression was analysed with Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox proportional hazards regression models.
The results showed that the immunostaining of Cystatin SN in ESCC tissues was less intense than that in the normal control tissue (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with low tumoral Cystatin SN expression, ESCC patients with tumors high-expression Cystatin SN exhibited increased disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the expression level of Cystatin SN could further stratify the ESCC patients by survival (DFS and OS) in the stage II subgroup (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that Cystatin SN expression, N status and differentiation were independent and significant predictors of survival.
We concluded that ESCC patients whose tumors express high levels of Cystatin SN have favourable survival compared with those patients with low Cystatin SN expression. Tumoral Cystatin SN expression may be an independent predictor of survival for patients with resectable ESCCs.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Cystatin SN; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k) in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing.
Although it is well established that a higher body weight is protective against osteoporosis, the effects of body fat and fat distribution on bone mineral density (BMD) after adjustment for body weight remains uncertain.
To examine the relationship between body fat and fat distribution and BMD beyond its weight-bearing effect in middle-aged Chinese adults.
The study had a community-based cross-sectional design and involved 1,767 women and 698 men aged 50–75 years. The BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body, and the fat mass (FM) and percentage fat mass (%FM) of the total body and segments of the body were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General information on the participants was collected using structured questionnaire interviews.
After adjusting for potential confounders, an analysis of covariance showed the weight-adjusted (WA-) total FM (or %FM) to be negatively associated with BMD in all of the studied sites (P<0.05) in both women and men. The unfavorable effects of WA-total FM were generally more substantial in men than in women, and the whole body was the most sensitive site related to FM, followed by the total hip and the lumbar spine, in both genders. The mean BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body was 3.93%, 3.01%, and 3.65% (in women) and 5.02%, 5.57%, 6.03% (in men) lower in the highest quartile (vs. lowest quartile) according to the WA-total FM (all p<0.05). Similar results were noted among the groups for WA-total FM%. In women, abdominal fat had the most unfavorable association with BMD, whereas in men it was limb fat.
FM (or %FM) is inversely associated with BMD beyond its weight-bearing effect. Abdominal fat in women and limb fat in men seems to have the greatest effect on BMD.
Replication and assembly of vertebrate reoviruses occur in specific intracellular compartments known as viral factories. Recently, NS88 and NS80, the nonstructural proteins from aquareoviruses, have been proposed to share common traits with µNS from orthoreoviruses, which are involved in the formation of viral factories.
In this study, the NS80 characteristics and its interactions with other viral components were investigated. We observed that the NS80 structure ensured its self-aggregation and selective recruitment of viral proteins to viral factories like structures (VFLS). The minimum amino acids (aa) of NS80 required for VFLS formation included 193 aa at the C-terminal. However, this truncated protein only contained one aa coil and located in the nucleus. Its N-terminal residual regions, aa 1–55 and aa 55–85, were required for recruiting viral nonstructural protein NS38 and structural protein VP3, respectively. A conserved N-terminal region of NS38, which was responsible for the interaction with NS80, was also identified. Moreover, the minimal region of C-terminal residues, aa 506–742 (Δ505), required for NS80 self-aggregation in the cytoplasm, and aa 550–742 (Δ549), which are sufficient for recruiting viral structure proteins VP1, VP2, and VP4 were also identified.
The present study shows detailed interactions between NS80 and NS38 or other viral proteins. Sequence and structure characteristics of NS80 ensures its self-aggregation to form VFLS (either in the cytoplasm or nucleus) and recruitment of viral structural or nonstructural proteins.
The innate immune system differentially regulates the expression of host defense peptides to combat infection during wound healing. We enhanced the expression of a host defense peptide, human β defensin-3 (hBD-3), in keratinocytes to generate a three-dimensional biologic dressing to improve healing of infected wounds. The NIKS human keratinocyte cell line was stably transfected ex vivo with a construct containing an epidermis-specific promoter driving hBD-3(NIKShBD-3) using non-viral methods. Levels of hBD-3 mRNA and protein in three-dimensional skin tissue produced from NIKShBD-3 were determined using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Tissue architecture was characterized by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and by indirect immunofluorence using proliferation and keratinocyte differentiation markers. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using an in vitro bacterial growth assay and in vivo using a murine burn infection model. Three-dimensional full thickness skin tissues containing epidermal NIKShBD-3 or control NIKS possessed histologic features of interfollicular epidermis and exhibited normal tissue growth and differentiation. NIKShBD-3 tissue contained approximately 5-fold more hBD-3 protein than tissue containing unmodified control NIKS. In vitro studies showed that NIKShBD-3 tissue produced a significant reduction in the growth of Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) mprF compared to control tissue. In an in vivo infected murine burn model, NIKShBD-3 tissue resulted in a 90% reduction in bacterial growth. These results demonstrate that sustained delivery of hBD-3 by a bioengineered skin tissue results in a therapeutically relevant reduction in growth of a S. aureus strain in an animal model of infected third degree burn wounds.
skin substitute; host defense peptide; wound infection
Glycerol is an important osmotically compatible solute in Dunaliella. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) is a key enzyme in the pathway of glycerol synthesis, which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate. Generally, the glycerol-DHAP cycle pathway, which is driven by G3PDH, is considered as the rate-limiting enzyme to regulate the glycerol level under osmotic shocks. Considering the peculiarity in osmoregulation, the cDNA of a NAD+-dependent G3PDH was isolated from D. salina using RACE and RT-PCR approaches in this study. Results indicated that the length of the cDNA sequence of G3PDH was 2,100 bp encoding a 699 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computational molecular weight was 76.6 kDa. Conserved domain analysis revealed that the G3PDH protein has two independent functional domains, SerB and G3PDH domains. It was predicted that the G3PDH was a nonsecretory protein and may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina G3PDH had a closer relationship with the G3PDHs from the Dunaliella genus than with those from other species. In addition, the cDNA was subsequently subcloned in the pET-32a(+) vector and was transformed into E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), a expression protein with 100 kDa was identified, which was consistent with the theoretical value.
Blood cells transfusion and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplantation are important methods for cell therapy. They are widely used in the treatment of incurable hematological disorder, infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and immunologic deficiency. However, their availability is limited by quantity, capacity of proliferation and the risk of blood transfusion complications. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been shown to be an alternative resource for the generation of hematopoietic cells. In the current study, we describe a novel method for the efficient production of hematopoietic cells from hESCs. The stable human fetal liver stromal cell lines (hFLSCs) expressing erythropoietin (EPO) were established using the lentiviral system. We observed that the supernatant from the EPO transfected hFLSCs could induce the hESCs differentiation into hematopoietic cells, especially erythroid cells. They not only expressed fetal and embryonic globins but also expressed the adult-globin chain on further maturation. In addition, these hESCs-derived erythroid cells possess oxygen-transporting capacity, which indicated hESCs could generate terminally mature progenies. This should be useful for ultimately developing an animal-free culture system to generate large numbers of erythroid cells from hESCs and provide an experimental model to study early human erythropoiesis.
Systems biology has become an effective approach for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer. In this study, sequences of 100 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins were downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases. The Theory of Coevolution was then used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of NSCLC. Adopting the reverse thinking approach, we analyzed the NSCLC proteins one at a time. Fifteen key proteins were identified and categorized into a special protein family F (K), which included Cyclin D1 (CCND1), E-cadherin (CDH1), Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TNF receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 (FRAP1), O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), parkinson protein 2, E3 Ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta subunit 2 (CACNA2D2), tubulin beta class I (TUBB), SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2), and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7A (WNT7A). Seven key nodes of the sub-network were identified, which included PARK2, WNT7A, SMARCA2, FRAP1, CDKN2A, CCND1, and EGFR. The PPI predictions of EGFR-EGF, PARK2-FAS, PTEN-FAS, and CACNA2D2-CDH1 were confirmed experimentally by retrieving the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) and PubMed databases. We proposed that the 7 proteins could serve as potential diagnostic molecular markers for NSCLC. In accordance with the developmental mode of lung cancer established by Sekine et al., we assumed that the occurrence and development of lung cancer were linked not only to gene loss in the 3p region (WNT7A, 3p25) and genetic mutations in the 9p region but also to similar events in the regions of 1p36.2 (FRAP1), 6q25.2-q27 (PARK2), and 11q13 (CCND1). Lastly, the invasion or metastasis of lung cancer happened.
Coevolution; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); protein-protein interactions (PPI)
Smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer and is linked to 85% of lung cancer cases. However, how lung cancer develops in patients with smoking history remains unclear. Systems approaches that combine human protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and gene expression data are superior to traditional methods. We performed these systems to determine the role that smoking plays in lung cancer development and used the support vector machine (SVM) model to predict PPIs. By defining expression variance (EV), we found 520 dynamic proteins (EV>0.4) using data from the Human Protein Reference Database and Gene Expression Omnibus Database, and built 7 dynamic PPI subnetworks of lung cancer in patients with smoking history. We also determined the primary functions of each subnetwork: signal transduction, apoptosis, and cell migration and adhesion for subnetwork A; cell-sustained angiogenesis for subnetwork B; apoptosis for subnetwork C; and, finally, signal transduction and cell replication and proliferation for subnetworks D–G. The probability distribution of the degree of dynamic protein and static protein differed, clearly showing that the dynamic proteins were not the core proteins which widely connected with their neighbor proteins. There were high correlations among the dynamic proteins, suggesting that the dynamic proteins tend to form specific dynamic modules. We also found that the dynamic proteins were only correlated with the expression of selected proteins but not all neighbor proteins when cancer occurred.
Lung cancer; protein-protein interaction (PPI); network
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of radical treatment and palliative treatment in stage IV pancreatic cancer patients.
METHODS: 81 patients were enrolled in the study. Radical treatment was performed on 51 patients, while 30 patients were put under palliative treatment. The procedural safety and interval survival for stage IV pancreatic cancer (IS-IV) was assessed by almost 2.5 years of follow-ups. The IS-IV of patients under the two kinds of treatment, and the effects of treatment timing and frequency on IS-IV, were compared.
RESULTS: The IS-IV of patients who received radical treatment was significantly longer than those who received palliative treatment (P < 0.001). The IS-IV of patients who received delayed radical or palliative treatment was longer than those who received accordingly timely treatment (P = 0.0034 and 0.0415, respectively). Multiple treatments can play an important role in improving the IS-IV of patients who received radical treatment (P = 0.0389), but not for those who received palliative treatment (P = 0.99).
CONCLUSION: The effect of radical treatment was significantly more obvious than that of palliative treatment, and multiple radical treatments may contribute more to patients than a single radical treatment.
Cryosurgery; Stage IV pancreatic cancer; Iodine-125 seed
Progressive epidural hematoma (PEDH) after head injury is often observed on serial computerized tomography (CT) scans. Recent advances in imaging modalities and treatment might affect its incidence and outcome. In this study, PEDH was observed in 9.2% of 412 head trauma patients in whom two CT scans were obtained within 24 hours of injury, and in a majority of cases, it developed within 3 days after injury. In multivariate logistic regression, patient gender, age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, and skull fracture were not associated with PEDH, whereas hypotension (odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17–0.84), time interval of the first CT scanning (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19–0.83), coagulopathy (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.15–0.85), or decompressive craniectomy (DC) (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.21–0.97) was independently associated with an increased risk of PEDH. The 3-month postinjury outcome was similar in patients with PEDH and patients without PEDH (χ2 = 0.07, P = 0.86). In conclusion, epidural hematoma has a greater tendency to progress early after injury, often in dramatic and rapid fashion. Recognition of this important treatable cause of secondary brain injury and the associated risk factors may help identify the group at risk and tailor management of patients with TBI.
In the recent worldwide campaign for the global biodiversity inventory via DNA barcoding, a simple and easily used measure of confidence for assigning sequences to species in DNA barcoding has not been established so far, although the likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian approach had been proposed to address this issue from a statistical point of view. The TDR (Two Dimensional non-parametric Resampling) measure newly proposed in this study offers users a simple and easy approach to evaluate the confidence of species membership in DNA barcoding projects. We assessed the validity and robustness of the TDR approach using datasets simulated under coalescent models, and an empirical dataset, and found that TDR measure is very robust in assessing species membership of DNA barcoding. In contrast to the likelihood ratio test and Bayesian approach, the TDR method stands out due to simplicity in both concepts and calculations, with little in the way of restrictive population genetic assumptions. To implement this approach we have developed a computer program package (TDR1.0beta) freely available from ftp://220.127.116.11/education/video/TDR1.0beta.rar.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is suggested to predict the radiosensitivity and/or prognosis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nimotuzumab (an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody) on ESCC radiotherapy (RT) and underlying mechanisms.
Nimotuzumab was administrated to 2 ESCC cell lines KYSE30 and TE-1 treated with RT. Cell growth, colony formation and apoptosis were used to measure anti-proliferation effects. The method of RNA interference was used to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in ESCC cells radiosensitivity treated with Nimotuzumab. In vivo effect of Nimotuzumab on ESCC radiotherapy was done using a mouse xenograft model.
Nimotuzumab enhanced radiation response of KYSE30 cells (with high EGFR expression) in vitro, as evidenced by increased radiation-inhibited cell growth and colony formation and radiation-mediated apoptosis. Mechanism study revealed that Nimotuzumab inhibited phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR) induced by EGF in KYSE30 cells. In addition, knockdown of IGFBP-3 by short hairpin RNA significantly reduced KYSE30 cells radiosensitivity (P<0.05), and even after the administration of Nimotuzumab, the RT response of IGFBP-3 silenced KYSE30 cells was not enhanced (P>0.05). In KYSE30 cell xenografts, Nimotuzumab combined with radiation led to significant tumor growth delay, compared with that of radiation alone (P=0.029), and also with IGFBP-3 up-regulation in tumor tissue.
Nimotuzumab could enhance the RT effect of ESCC cells with a functional active EGFR pathway. In particular, the increased ESCC radiosensitivity by Nimotuzumab might be dependent on the up-regulation of IGFBP-3 through EGFR-dependent pathway.
EGFR; Esophageal squamous carcinoma cell; IGFBP-3; Nimotuzumab; Radiosensitivity
The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has diverse actions on the cardiovascular system and is widely reported to modulate multiple ion currents in some cell types. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. This study investigated whether LPA has electrophysiological effects on isolated rabbit myocardial preparations. The results indicate that LPA prolongs action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90) in a concentration- and frequency-dependent manner in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The application of extracellular LPA significantly increases the coefficient of APD90 variability. LPA increased L-type calcium current (ICa,L) density without altering its activation or deactivation properties. In contrast, LPA has no effect on two other ventricular repolarizing currents, the transient outward potassium current (Ito) and the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK). In arterially perfused rabbit left ventricular wedge preparations, the monophasic action potential duration, QT interval, and Tpeak-end are prolonged by LPA. LPA treatment also significantly increases the incidence of ventricular tachycardia induced by S1S2 stimulation. Notably, the effects of LPA on action potentials and ICa,L are PTX-sensitive, suggesting LPA action requires a Gi-type G protein. In conclusion, LPA prolongs APD and increases electrophysiological instability in isolated rabbit myocardial preparations by increasing ICa,L in a Gi protein-dependent manner.