The nanoparticle drug delivery system, which uses natural or synthetic polymeric material as a carrier to deliver drugs to targeted tissues, has a broad prospect for clinical application for its targeting, slow-release, and biodegradable properties. Here, we used chitosan (CTS) and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule glycyrrhetinic acid to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS). The synthetic product was confirmed by infrared (IR) spectra and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-CTS/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles were synthesized by combining GA-CTS and 5-FU and conjugating 5-FU onto the GA-CTS nanomaterial. The central composite design was performed to optimize the preparation process as CTS:tripolyphosphate sodium (TPP) weight ratio =5:1, 5-FU:CTS weight ratio =1:1, TPP concentration =0.05% (w/v), and cross-link time =50 minutes. GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 193.7 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.003, a zeta potential of +27.4 mV, and a drug loading of 1.56%. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle had a protective effect on the drug against plasma degrading enzyme, and provided a sustained release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady, and slow release. Our study showed that the peak time, half-life time, mean residence time and area under the curve of GA-CTS/5-FU were longer or more than those of the 5-FU group, but the maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower. We demonstrated that the nanoparticles accumulated in the liver and have significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model.
liver cancer; targeted therapy; chemotherapy; pharmacokinetics efficacy
Protein ubiquitination is one of the important post-translational modifications by attaching ubiquitin to specific lysine (K) residues in target proteins, and plays important regulatory roles in many cell processes. Recent studies indicated that abnormal protein ubiquitination have been implicated in many diseases by degradation of many key regulatory proteins including tumor suppressor, oncoprotein, and cell cycle regulator. The detailed information of protein ubiquitination sites is useful for scientists to investigate the mechanism of many cell activities and related diseases.
In this study we established mUbiSida for mammalian Ubiquitination Site Database, which provides a scientific community with a comprehensive, freely and high-quality accessible resource of mammalian protein ubiquitination sites. In mUbiSida, we deposited about 35,494 experimentally validated ubiquitinated proteins with 110,976 ubiquitination sites from five species. The mUbiSiDa can also provide blast function to predict novel protein ubiquitination sites in other species by blast the query sequence in the deposit sequences in mUbiSiDa. The mUbiSiDa was designed to be a widely used tool for biologists and biomedical researchers with a user-friendly interface, and facilitate the further research of protein ubiquitination, biological networks and functional proteomics. The mUbiSiDa database is freely available at http://reprod.njmu.edu.cn/mUbiSiDa.
Cancer is both a systemic and a genetic disease. The pathogenesis of cancer might be related to dampened immunity. Host immunity recognizes nascent malignant cells – a process referred to as immune surveillance. Augmenting immune surveillance and suppressing immune escape are crucial in tumor immunotherapy.
A recombinant plasmid capable of co-expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-SCF), interleukin-21 (IL-21), and retinoic acid early transcription factor-1 (Rae-1) was constructed, and its effects determined in a mouse model of subcutaneous liver cancer. Serum specimens were assayed for IL-2 and INF-γ by ELISA. Liver cancer specimens were isolated for Rae-1 expression by RT-PCR and Western blot, and splenocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry.
The recombinant plasmid inhibited the growth of liver cancer and prolonged survival of tumor-loaded mice. Activation of host immunity might have contributed to this effect by promoting increased numbers and cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) following expression of GM-SCF, IL-21, and Rae-1. By contrast, the frequency of regulatory T cells was decreased, Consequently, activated CTL and NK cells enhanced their secretion of INF-γ, which promoted cytotoxicity of NK cells and CTL. Moreover, active CTL showed dramatic secretion of IL-2, which stimulates CTL. The recombinant expression plasmid also augmented Rae-1 expression by liver cancer cells. Rae-1 receptor expressing CTL and NK cells removed liver cancer.
The recombinant expression plasmid inhibited liver cancer by a mechanism that involved activation of cell-mediated immunity and Rae-1 in liver cancer.
Gene therapy; Natural killer cells; Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; Liver cancer; Immune escape; Cell-mediated immunity
Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems are characterized by targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability and lowered side effects; these drug delivery systems are widely used for delivery of cytotoxic agents. The galactosylated chitosan (GC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticle is a nanomaterial made by coupling GC, a polymer known to have the advantages described above, and 5-FU. The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a sustained release system, it was showed that the peak time, half-life time, mean residence time (MRT) and area of under curve (AUC) of GC/5-FU were longer or more than those of the 5-FU group, but the maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower. The distribution of GC/5-FU in vivo revealed the greatest accumulation in the hepatic cancer tissues, and the hepatic cell was the target of the nanoparticles. Toxicology research showed that the toxicity of GC-5-FU was lower than that of 5-FU in mice. In vivo experiments showed that GC/5-FU can significantly inhibit tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model. GC/5-FU treatment can significantly lower the tumor weight and increase the survival time of mice when compared with 5-FU treatment alone. Flow cytometry and the TUNEL assay revealed that compared with 5-FU, GC/5-FU caused higher rates of G0-G1 arrest and apoptosis in hepatic cancer cells.
galactosylated chitosan; nanoparticles; 5-fluorouracil; hepatocellular cancer; pharmacokinetics; apoptosis
Nanoparticle drug delivery systems using polymers hold promise for clinical applications. We synthesized dual-ligand modified chitosan (GCGA) nanoparticles using lactic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, and chitosan to target the liver in our previous studies. We then synthesized the GCGA/5-FU nanoparticles by conjugating 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) onto the GCGA nanomaterial, which had a mean particle size of 239.9 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.040, a zeta potential of +21.2 mV, and a drug loading of 3.90%. GCGA/5-FU nanoparticles had good slow release properties, and the release process could be divided into five phases: small burst release, gentle release, second burst release, steady release, and slow release. Inhibitory effects of GCGA/5-FU on tumor cells targeted the liver, and were time and dose dependent. GCGA nanoparticles significantly prolonged the efficacy of 5-FU on tumor cells, and alleviated the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU. GCGA/5-FU nanoparticles were mostly concentrated in the liver, indicating that the GCGA nanoparticles were liver targeting. GCGA/5-FU nanoparticles significantly suppressed tumor growth in orthotopic liver transplantation mouse model, and improved mouse survival.
liver cancer; chemotherapy; targeted therapy; 5-fluorouracil
Modified chitosan nanoparticles are a promising platform for drug, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gene, and vaccine delivery. Here, we used chitosan and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS). The synthetic product was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. By combining GA-CTS and 5-FU, we obtained a GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle, with a particle size of 193.7 nm, drug loading of 1.56%, and a polydispersity index of 0.003. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle provided a sustained-release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady, and slow release. In vitro data indicated that it had a dose- and time-dependent anticancer effect. The effective drug exposure time against hepatic cancer cells was increased in comparison with that observed with 5-FU. In vivo studies on an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model demonstrated that GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, resulting in increased survival time. The antitumor mechanisms for GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle were possibly associated with an increased expression of regulatory T-cells, decreased expression of cytotoxic T-cell and natural killer cells, and reduced levels of interleukin-2 and interferon gamma.
hepatic carcinoma; regulatory T cells; glycyrrhetinic acid; targeted therapy; 5-fluorouracil
Baicalin is one of the main bioactive flavone glucuronides derived as a medicinal herb from the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and it is widely used for the treatment of fever, inflammation, and other conditions. Due to baicalin’s poor solubility in water, its absolute bioavailability after oral administration is only 2.2%. The objective of this study was to develop a novel baicalin-loaded nanoemulsion to improve the oral bioavailability of baicalin. Based on the result of pseudoternary phase diagram, the nanoemulsion formulation consisting of soy-lecithin, tween-80, polyethylene glycol 400, isopropyl myristate, and water (1:2:1.5:3.75:8.25, w/w) was selected for further study. Baicalin-loaded nanoemulsions (BAN-1 and BAN-2) were prepared by internal or external drug addition and in vivo and in vitro evaluations were performed. The results showed that the mean droplet size, polydispersity index, and drug content of BAN-1 and BAN-2 were 91.2 ± 2.36 nm and 89.7 ± 3.05 nm, 0.313 ± 0.002 and 0.265 ± 0.001, and 98.56% ± 0.79% and 99.40% ± 0.51%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical globules and confirmed droplet size analysis. After dilution 30-fold with water, the solubilization capacity of BAN-1 and BAN-2 did not change. In vitro release results showed sustained-release characteristics. BAN-1 formulation was stable for at least 6 months and was more stable than BAN-2. In rats, the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve value of BAN-1 was 1.8-fold and 7-fold greater than those of BAN-2 and free baicalin suspension after oral administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the baicalin-loaded nanoemulsion formulation, in particular BAN-1, was very effective for improving the oral bioavailability of baicalin and exhibited great potential for future clinical application.
nanoemulsion; baicalin; oral bioavailability; pharmacokinetics
Nanoparticle drug delivery (NDDS) is a novel system in which the drugs are delivered to the site of action by small particles in the nanometer range. Natural or synthetic polymers are used as vectors in NDDS, as they provide targeted, sustained release and biodegradability. Here, we used the chitosan and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS). The synthetic product was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). By combining GA-CTS and 5-FU (5-fluorouracil), we obtained a GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle, with a particle size of 217.2 nm, a drug loading of 1.56% and a polydispersity index of 0.003. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle provided a sustained release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady and slow release. We demonstrated that the nanoparticle accumulated in the liver. In vitro data indicated that it had a dose- and time-dependent anti-cancer effect. The effective drug exposure time against hepatic cancer cells was increased in comparison with that observed with 5-FU. Additionally, GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of drug-resistant hepatoma, which may compensate for the drug-resistance of 5-FU. In vivo studies on an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model demonstrated that GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited tumor growth, resulting in increased survival time.
hepatic carcinoma; regulatory T-cells; glycyrrhetinic acid; targeted therapy; 5-fluorouracil
Directional cell migration requires the coordination of actin assembly and membrane remodeling. The exocyst is an octameric protein complex essential for exocytosis and plasma membrane remodeling [1,2]. A component of the exocyst, Exo70, directly interacts with the Arp2/3 complex, a core nucleating factor for the generation of branched actin networks for cell morphogenesis and migration [3-9]. Using in vitro actin polymerization assay and time-lapse TIRF microscopy, we found Exo70 functions as a kinetic activator of the Arp2/3 complex that promotes actin filament nucleation and branching. We further found that the effect of Exo70 on actin is mediated by promoting the interaction of Arp2/3 complex with WAVE2, a member of the N-WASP/WAVE family of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs). At the cellular level, the stimulatory effect of Exo70 on Arp2/3 is required for lamellipodia formation and maintaining directional persistence of cell migration. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for regulating actin polymerization and branching for effective membrane protrusion during cell morphogenesis and migration.
Podocytes serve as an important constituent of the glomerular filtration barrier. Recently, we and others identified Myo1e as a key molecular component of the podocyte cytoskeleton.
Myo1e mRNA and protein was expressed in human and mouse kidney sections as determined by Northern blot and reverse transcriptase PCR, and its expression was more evident in podocytes by immunofluorescence. By specific knock-down of MYO1E in zebrafish, the injected larvae exhibited pericardial edema and pronephric cysts, consistent with the appearance of protein in condensed incubation supernate. Furthermore, specific inhibition of Myo1e expression in a conditionally immortalized podocyte cell line induced morphological changes, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and dysfunction in cell proliferation, migration, endocytosis, and adhesion with the glomerular basement membrane.
Our results revealed that Myo1e is a key component contributing to the functional integrity of podocytes. Its impairment may cause actin cytoskeleton re-organization, alteration of cell shape, and membrane transport, and podocyte drop-out from the glomerular basement membrane, which might eventually lead to an impaired glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria.
We formed the GEnetics of Nephropathy–an International Effort (GENIE) consortium to examine previously reported genetic associations with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetes. GENIE consists of 6,366 similarly ascertained participants of European ancestry with type 1 diabetes, with and without DN, from the All Ireland-Warren 3-Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes U.K. and Republic of Ireland (U.K.-R.O.I.) collection and the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane), combined with reanalyzed data from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes U.S. Study (U.S. GoKinD). We found little evidence for the association of the EPO promoter polymorphism, rs161740, with the combined phenotype of proliferative retinopathy and end-stage renal disease in U.K.-R.O.I. (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, P = 0.19) or FinnDiane (OR 1.06, P = 0.60). However, a fixed-effects meta-analysis that included the previously reported cohorts retained a genome-wide significant association with that phenotype (OR 1.31, P = 2 × 10−9). An expanded investigation of the ELMO1 locus and genetic regions reported to be associated with DN in the U.S. GoKinD yielded only nominal statistical significance for these loci. Finally, top candidates identified in a recent meta-analysis failed to reach genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we were unable to replicate most of the previously reported genetic associations for DN, and significance for the EPO promoter association was attenuated.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal B cell disorder of unknown origin. Accessory signals from the microenvironment are critical for the survival, expansion and progression of malignant B cells. We found that the CLL stroma included microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) expressing BAFF and APRIL, two TNF family members related to the T cell-associated B cell-stimulating molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L). Constitutive release of soluble BAFF and APRIL increased upon engagement of CD40 on MVECs by CD40L aberrantly expressed on CLL cells. In addition to enhancing MVEC expression of the CD40 receptor, leukemic CD40L induced cleavases that elicited intracellular processing of pro-BAFF and pro-APRIL proteins in MVECs. The resulting soluble BAFF and APRIL proteins delivered survival, proliferation, Ig gene-remodeling and differentiation signals by activating CLL cells through TACI, BAFF-R and BCMA receptors. BAFF and APRIL further amplified CLL cell survival by up-regulating the expression of leukemic CD40L. Inhibition of TACI, BCMA and BAFF-R expression on CLL cells, abrogation of CD40 expression in MVECs, or suppression of BAFF and APRIL cleavases in MVECs reduced the survival and diversification of malignant B cells. These data indicate that BAFF, APRIL and CD40L form a CLL-enhancing bidirectional signaling network linking neoplastic B cells with the microvascular stroma.
Human; B cells; Antibodies; Cell Activation; Neoplasia
Expression of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands are implicated in the T cell exhaustion phenotype which contributes to the persistence of several chronic viral infections, including human hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral potential of BMS-936558 (MDX-1106) – a fully human anti-PD-1 monoclonal immunoglobulin-G4 that blocks ligand binding – was explored in a proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled single-ascending-dose study in patients (N = 54) with chronic HCV infection. Interferon-alfa treatment-experienced patients (n = 42) were randomized 5∶1 to receive a single infusion of BMS-936558 (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg [n = 5 each] or 10 mg/kg [n = 10]) or of placebo (n = 7). An additional 12 HCV treatment-naïve patients were randomized to receive 10 mg/kg BMS-936558 (n = 10) or placebo (n = 2). Patients were followed for 85 days post-dose. Five patients who received BMS-936558 (0.1 [n = 1] or 10 mg/kg) and one placebo patient achieved the primary study endpoint of a reduction in HCV RNA ≥0.5 log10 IU/mL on at least 2 consecutive visits; 3 (10 mg/kg) achieved a >4 log10 reduction. Two patients (10 mg/kg) achieved HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantitation (25 IU/mL), one of whom (a prior null-responder) remained RNA-undetectable 1 year post-study. Transient reductions in CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ cells, including both naïve and memory CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, were observed at Day 2 without evidence of immune deficit. No clinically relevant changes in immunoglobulin subsets or treatment-related trends in circulating cytokines were noted. BMS-936558 exhibited dose-related exposure increases, with a half-life of 20–24 days. BMS-936558 was mostly well tolerated. One patient (10 mg/kg) experienced an asymptomatic grade 4 ALT elevation coincident with the onset of a 4-log viral load reduction. Six patients exhibited immune-related adverse events of mild-to-moderate intensity, including two cases of hyperthyroidism consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. Further investigation of PD-1 pathway blockade in chronic viral disease is warranted.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703469 NCT00703469
We have previously reported genetic association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1866813, at 3q locus with increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The SNP is located approximately 70 kb downstream of a cluster of four genes. This raises a question how the remote noncoding polymorphism affects the risk of DN. In this study, we tested a long-range regulatory potential of this variant by a series of experiments. In a luciferase assay, two alleles of the SNP showed differential effects on the luciferase activity in transfected cells in vitro. Using transgenic zebrafish, we further demonstrated in vivo that two alleles of the SNP differentially regulated GFP expression in zebrafish podocytes. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting verified that only Nck1 of the four nearby genes was predominantly expressed in mouse glomeruli as well as in podocytes. Furthermore, genotypes of the SNP rs1866813 were correlated with NCK1 expression in immortalized lymphocytes from diabetic patients. The risk allele was associated with increased NCK1 expression compared to the non-risk allele, consistent with the results of the reporter-based studies. Interestingly, differential expression of glomerular Nck1 between mouse strains carrying the nephropathy-prone 129/Sv allele and nephropathy-resistant C57BL/6 allele was also observed. Our results show that the DN-associated SNP rs1866813 is a remote cis-acting variant differentially regulating glomerular NCK1 expression. This finding implicates an important role for glomerular NCK1 in DN pathogenesis under hyperglycemia.
AIM: To observe the curative effect of galactosylated chitosan (GC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles in liver caner mice and its side effects.
METHODS: The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a nanomaterial made by coupling GC and 5-FU. The release experiment was performed in vitro. The orthotropic liver cancer mouse models were established and divided into control, GC, 5-FU and GC/5-FU groups. Mice in the control and GC group received an intravenous injection of 200 μL saline and GC, respectively. Mice in the 5-FU and GC/5-FU groups received 200 μL (containing 0.371 mg 5-FU) 5-FU and GC/5-FU, respectively. The tumor weight and survival time were observed. The cell cycle and apoptosis in tumor tissues were monitored by flow cytometry. The expression of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly adenosine 50-diphosphate-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The serum blood biochemical parameters and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL) were measured.
RESULTS: The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a sustained release system. The drug loading was 6.12% ± 1.36%, the encapsulation efficiency was 81.82% ± 5.32%, and the Zeta potential was 10.34 ± 1.43 mV. The tumor weight in the GC/5-FU group (0.4361 ± 0.1153 g vs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g, P < 0.001) and the 5-FU (0.7932 ± 0.1283 g vs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g, P < 0.001) was significantly lower than that in the control group; GC/5-FU treatment can significantly lower the tumor weight (0.4361 ± 0.1153 g vs 0.7932 ± 0.1283 g, P < 0.001), and the longest median survival time was seen in the GC/5-FU group, compared with the control (12 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001), GC (13 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001) and 5-FU groups (17 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001). Flow cytometry revealed that compared with the control, GC/5-FU caused a higher rate of G0-G1 arrest (52.79% ± 13.42% vs 23.92% ± 9.09%, P = 0.014 ) and apoptosis (2.55% ± 1.10% vs 11.13% ± 11.73%, P < 0.001) in hepatic cancer cells. Analysis of the apoptosis pathways showed that GC/5-FU upregulated the expression of p53 at both the protein and the mRNA levels, which in turn lowered the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression; this led to the release of cytochrome C into the cytosol from the mitochondria and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. Upregulation of caspase-3 expression decreased the PARP-1 at both the mRNA and the protein levels, which contributed to apoptosis. 5-FU increased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and decreased the numbers of platelet, white blood cell and lymphocyte and cytotoxic activities of CTL and NK cells, however, there were no such side effects in the GC/5-FU group.
CONCLUSION: GC/5-FU nanoparticles can significantly inhibit the growth of liver cancer in mice via the p53 apoptosis pathway, and relieve the side effects and immunosuppression of 5-FU.
Galactosylated chitosan; Nanoparticles; 5-fluorouracil; Hepatocellular cancer; Targeted therapy; Apoptosis
Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems provide targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability and fewer side effects. These drug delivery systems are widely used for delivering cytotoxic agents. In the present study, we synthesized GC/5-FU nanoparticles by combining galactosylated chitosan (GC) material with 5-FU, and tested its effect on liver cancer in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro anti-cancer effects of this sustained release system were both dose- and time-dependent, and demonstrated higher cytotoxicity against hepatic cancer cells than against other cell types. The distribution of GC/5-FU in vivo revealed the greatest accumulation in hepatic cancer tissues. GC/5-FU significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor weight and increased survival time in comparison to 5-FU alone. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays in hepatic cancer cells showed that GC/5-FU was associated with higher rates of G0–G1 arrest and apoptosis than 5-FU. Analysis of apoptosis pathways indicated that GC/5-FU upregulates p53 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. This in turn lowers Bcl-2/Bax expression resulting in mitochondrial release of cytochrome C into the cytosol with subsequent caspase-3 activation. Upregulation of caspase-3 expression decreased poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) at mRNA and protein levels, further promoting apoptosis. These findings indicate that sustained release of GC/5-FU nanoparticles are more effective at targeting hepatic cancer cells than 5-FU monotherapy in the mouse orthotropic liver cancer mouse model.
Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN), is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that requires dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation. In addition to the decrease in the quality of life, DN accounts for a large proportion of the excess mortality associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas the degree of glycemia plays a pivotal role in DN, a subset of individuals with poorly controlled T1D do not develop DN. Furthermore, strong familial aggregation supports genetic susceptibility to DN. However, the genes and the molecular mechanisms behind the disease remain poorly understood, and current therapeutic strategies rarely result in reversal of DN. In the GEnetics of Nephropathy: an International Effort (GENIE) consortium, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of T1D DN comprising ∼2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) imputed in 6,691 individuals. After additional genotyping of 41 top ranked SNPs representing 24 independent signals in 5,873 individuals, combined meta-analysis revealed association of two SNPs with ESRD: rs7583877 in the AFF3 gene (P = 1.2×10−8) and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 15q26 between the genes RGMA and MCTP2, rs12437854 (P = 2.0×10−9). Functional data suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) pathway. The strongest association with DN as a primary phenotype was seen for an intronic SNP in the ERBB4 gene (rs7588550, P = 2.1×10−7), a gene with type 2 diabetes DN differential expression and in the same intron as a variant with cis-eQTL expression of ERBB4. All these detected associations represent new signals in the pathogenesis of DN.
The global prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, constituting a major health care problem worldwide. Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN)—the major long term microvascular complication of diabetes—is associated with excess mortality among patients with type 1 diabetes. Even though DN has been shown to cluster in families, the underlying genetic and molecular pathways remain poorly defined. We have undertaken the largest genome-wide association study and meta-analysis to date on DN and on its most severe form of kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We identified new loci significantly associated with diabetic ESRD: AFF3 and an intergenic locus on chromosome 15q26 residing between RGMA and MCTP2. Our functional analyses suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis, a pathological hallmark of severe DN. Another locus in ERBB4 was suggestively associated with DN and resides in the same intronic region as a variant affecting the expression of ERBB4. Subsequent pathway analysis of the genes co-expressed with ERBB4 indicated involvement of fibrosis.
Neutrophils utilize immunoglobulins (Igs) to clear antigen, but their role in Ig production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T-independent Ig responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after post-natal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B-helper function upon receiving reprogramming signals from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells, including interleukin 10 (IL-10). Splenic neutrophils induced Ig class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism involving the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and less preimmune Igs to T-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial Ig defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
Adaptive co-evolution of mammals and bacteria has led to the establishment of complex commensal communities on mucosal surfaces. In spite of having available a wealth of immune-sensing and effector mechanisms capable of triggering inflammation in response to microbial intrusion, mucosal immune cells establish an intimate dialogue with microbes to generate a state of hyporesponsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. A key component of this homeostatic balance is IgA, a noninflammatory antibody isotype produced by mucosal B cells through class switching. This process involves activation of B cells by IgA-inducing signals originating from mucosal T cells, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. Here, we review the mechanisms by which mucosal B cells undergo IgA diversification and production and discuss how the study of primary immunodeficiencies facilitates better understanding of mucosal IgA responses in humans.
human; B cells; IgA; mucosa; immunodeficiency
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H15FN2O2, contains two molecules, A and B, in which the dihedral angles between the ring systems are 46.4 (2) and 17.24 (14)°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked into  chains of alternating A and B species by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] protein is a globally expressed, multi-zinc finger (ZnF) DNA-binding protein. Su(Hw) forms a classic insulator when bound to the gypsy retrotransposon and is essential for female germline development. These functions are genetically separable, as exemplified by Su(Hw)f that carries a defective ZnF10, causing a loss of insulator but not germline function. Here, we completed the first genome-wide analysis of Su(Hw)-binding sites (SBSs) in the ovary, showing that tissue-specific binding is not responsible for the restricted developmental requirements for Su(Hw). Mapping of ovary Su(Hw)f SBSs revealed that female fertility requires binding to only one third of the wild-type sites. We demonstrate that Su(Hw)f retention correlates with binding site affinity and partnership with Modifier of (mdg4) 67.2 protein. Finally, we identify clusters of co-regulated ovary genes flanked by Su(Hw)f bound sites and show that loss of Su(Hw) has limited effects on transcription of these genes. These data imply that the fertility function of Su(Hw) may not depend upon the demarcation of transcriptional domains. Our studies establish a framework for understanding the germline Su(Hw) function and provide insights into how chromatin occupancy is achieved by multi-ZnF proteins, the most common transcription factor class in metazoans.
Much life science and biology research requires an understanding of complex relationships between biological entities (genes, compounds, pathways, diseases, and so on). There is a wealth of data on such relationships in publicly available datasets and publications, but these sources are overlapped and distributed so that finding pertinent relational data is increasingly difficult. Whilst most public datasets have associated tools for searching, there is a lack of searching methods that can cross data sources and that in particular search not only based on the biological entities themselves but also on the relationships between them. In this paper, we demonstrate how graph-theoretic algorithms for mining relational paths can be used together with a previous integrative data resource we developed called Chem2Bio2RDF to extract new biological insights about the relationships between such entities. In particular, we use these methods to investigate the genetic basis of side-effects of thiazolinedione drugs, and in particular make a hypothesis for the recently discovered cardiac side-effects of Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and a prediction for Pioglitazone which is backed up by recent clinical studies.
In their expression process, different genes can generate diverse functional products, including various protein-coding or noncoding RNAs. Here, we investigated the protein-coding capacities and the expression levels of their isoforms for human known genes, the conservation and disease association of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with two transcriptome sequencing datasets from human brain tissues and 10 mixed cell lines. Comparative analysis revealed that about two-thirds of the genes expressed between brain and cell lines are the same, but less than one-third of their isoforms are identical. Besides those genes specially expressed in brain and cell lines, about 66% of genes expressed in common encoded different isoforms. Moreover, most genes dominantly expressed one isoform and some genes only generated protein-coding (or noncoding) RNAs in one sample but not in another. We found 282 human genes could encode both protein-coding and noncoding RNAs through alternative splicing in the two samples. We also identified more than 1,000 long ncRNAs, and most of those long ncRNAs contain conserved elements across either 46 vertebrates or 33 placental mammals or 10 primates. Further analysis showed that some long ncRNAs differentially expressed in human breast cancer or lung cancer, several of those differentially expressed long ncRNAs were validated by RT-PCR. In addition, those validated differentially expressed long ncRNAs were found significantly correlated with certain breast cancer or lung cancer related genes, indicating the important biological relevance between long ncRNAs and human cancers. Our findings reveal that the differences of gene expression profile between samples mainly result from the expressed gene isoforms, and highlight the importance of studying genes at the isoform level for completely illustrating the intricate transcriptome.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop.
We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life.
This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species.
The molecule of the title compound, C19H15BrN2O2, displays a pseudo-trans conformation about the N—N bond [C—N—N=C torsion angle = 164.7 (2)°]. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene ring and the naphthyl system is 70.1 (2)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into C(4) chains along the c axis by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.