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1.  The X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Inhibitor Embelin Suppresses Inflammation and Bone Erosion in Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis Mice 
Mediators of Inflammation  2015;2015:564042.
Objective. To investigate the effect of Embelin, an inhibitor of X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP), on inflammation and bone erosion in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice. Methods. Four groups of mice (n = 6 per group) were allocated: CAIA untreated mice, CAIA treated with Prednisolone (10 mg/kg/day), CAIA treated with low dose Embelin (30 mg/kg/day), and CAIA treated with high dose Embelin (50 mg/kg/day). Joint inflammation was evaluated using clinical paw score and histological assessments. Bone erosion was assessed using micro-CT, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX-1) ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect XIAP protein. TUNEL was performed to identify apoptotic cells. Results. Low dose, but not high dose Embelin, suppressed inflammation as reflected by lower paw scores (P < 0.05) and lower histological scores for inflammation. Low dose Embelin reduced serum CTX-1 (P < 0.05) and demonstrated lower histological score and TRAP counting, and slightly higher bone volume as compared to CAIA untreated mice. XIAP expression was not reduced but TUNEL positive cells were more abundant in Embelin treated CAIA mice. Conclusion. Low dose Embelin suppressed inflammation and serum CTX-1 in CAIA mice, indicating a potential use for Embelin to treat pathological bone loss.
doi:10.1155/2015/564042
PMCID: PMC4539506  PMID: 26347311
2.  Osteoimmunology: Major and Costimulatory Pathway Expression Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Induced Bone Loss 
Journal of Immunology Research  2015;2015:281287.
The field of osteoimmunology has emerged in response to the range of evidences demonstrating the close interrelationship between the immune system and bone metabolism. This is pertinent to immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease, where there are chronic inflammation and local bone erosion. Periprosthetic osteolysis is another example of chronic inflammation with associated osteolysis. This may also involve immune mediation when occurring in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Similarities in the regulation and mechanisms of bone loss are likely to be related to the inflammatory cytokines expressed in these diseases. This review highlights the role of immune-related factors influencing bone loss particularly in diseases of chronic inflammation where there is associated localized bone loss. The importance of the balance of the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis is discussed as well as the more recently appreciated role that receptors and adaptor proteins involved in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling pathway play. Although animal models are briefly discussed, the focus of this review is on the expression of ITAM associated molecules in relation to inflammation induced localized bone loss in RA, chronic periodontitis, and periprosthetic osteolysis, with an emphasis on the soluble and membrane bound factor osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR).
doi:10.1155/2015/281287
PMCID: PMC4433696  PMID: 26064999
3.  Role of polyethylene particles in peri-prosthetic osteolysis: A review 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2011;2(10):93-101.
There is convincing evidence that particles produced by the wear of joint prostheses are causal in the peri-prosthetic loss of bone, or osteolysis, which, if it progresses, leads to the phenomenon of aseptic loosening. It is important to fully understand the biology of this bone loss because it threatens prosthesis survival, and loosened implants can result in peri-prosthetic fracture, which is disastrous for the patient and presents a difficult surgical scenario. The focus of this review is the bioactivity of polyethylene (PE) particles, since there is evidence that these are major players in the development and progression of osteolysis around prostheses which use PE as the bearing surface. The review describes the biological consequences of interaction of PE particles with macrophages, osteoclasts and cells of the osteoblast lineage, including osteocytes. It explores the possible cellular mechanisms of action of PE and seeks to use the findings to date to propose potential non-surgical treatments for osteolysis. In particular, a non-surgical approach is likely to be applicable to implants containing newer, highly cross-linked PEs (HXLPEs), for which osteolysis seems to occur with much reduced PE wear compared with conventional PEs. The caveat here is that we know little as yet about the bioactivity of HXLPE particles and addressing this constitutes our next challenge.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v2.i10.93
PMCID: PMC3302032  PMID: 22474627
Polyethylene; Aseptic loosening; Osteolysis; Wear particle; Peri-prosthetic
4.  The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) -related factors are increased in synovial tissue and vasculature of rheumatoid arthritic joints 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(6):R245.
Introduction
The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) pathway provides osteoclast co-stimulatory signals and regulates proliferation, survival and differentiation of effector immune cells. In the osteoclast, the receptors Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and Osteoclast Associated Receptor (OSCAR) and their respective adaptor proteins, DAP12 and FcRγ mediate ITAM signals and induce calcium signaling and the crucial transcription factor, NFATc1. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), OSCAR expression by monocytes is inversely correlated with disease activity. Additionally, serum levels of OSCAR are reduced in RA patients versus healthy controls suggesting that expression and secretion or cleavage of soluble (s) OSCAR is immune modulated. Recent data suggest that endothelial cells may also be a source of OSCAR.
Methods
ITAM receptors, their adaptor proteins, and NFATc1 and cathepsin K were detected in human synovial tissues by immunohistochemistry. Synovial tissues from patients with active RA were compared with tissue from patients in remission, osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy individuals. OSCAR was measured by immunoassay in synovial fluids recovered from active RA and OA patients. Endothelial cells were cultured with or without 5 ng/mL TNF-α or IL-1β over 72 hours. Temporal expression of OSCAR mRNA was assessed by qRT PCR and OSCAR protein in the supernatant was measured by ELISA.
Results
Significantly higher (P < 0.05) NFATc1-positive inflammatory cell aggregates were found in active RA tissues than in healthy synovial tissue. Similarly, the percentage of OSCAR, FcRγ, DAP12 and TREM2 positive cells was significantly higher in active RA tissues compared to the healthy synovial tissue. Notably, OSCAR was strongly expressed in the microvasculature of the active RA tissues (9/9), inactive RA (8/9) weakly in OA (4/9) but only in the lumen of healthy synovial tissue (0/8). OSCAR levels were detected in synovial fluids from both RA (47 to 152 ng/mL) and OA (112 to 145 ng/mL) patients. Moreover, OSCAR mRNA expression and soluble OSCAR release was stimulated by TNF-α and IL1-β in cultured endothelial cells.
Conclusions
Increased levels of ITAM related factors were present in synovial tissue from active RA joints compared to OA and healthy joints. OSCAR was strongly expressed by the vasculature of active RA patients and membrane bound and soluble OSCAR was stimulated by inflammatory mediators in endothelial cells in vitro.
doi:10.1186/ar4088
PMCID: PMC3674611  PMID: 23146195
5.  TWEAK and Fn14 expression in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis 
Introduction
TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been proposed as a mediator of inflammation and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to investigate TWEAK and TWEAK receptor (Fn14) expression in synovial tissue from patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls and assess soluble (s)TWEAK levels in the synovial fluids from patients with active RA and OA. Effects of sTWEAK on osteoclasts and osteoblasts were investigated in vitro.
Methods
TWEAK and Fn14 expression were detected in synovial tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Selected tissues were dual labelled with antibodies specific for TWEAK and lineage-selective cell surface markers CD68, Tryptase G, CD22 and CD38. TWEAK mRNA expression was examined in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) sorted on the basis of their expression of CD22. sTWEAK was detected in synovial fluid from OA and RA patients by ELISA. The effect of sTWEAK on PBMC and RAW 264.7 osteoclastogenesis was examined. The effect of sTWEAK on cell surface receptor activator of NF Kappa B Ligand (RANKL) expression by human osteoblasts was determined by flow cytometry.
Results
TWEAK and Fn14 expression were significantly higher in synovial tissue from all patient groups compared to the synovial tissue from control subjects (P < 0.05). TWEAK was significantly higher in active compared with inactive RA tissues (P < 0.05). TWEAK expression co-localised with a subset of CD38+ plasma cells and with CD22+ B-lymphocytes in RA tissues. Abundant TWEAK mRNA expression was detected in normal human CD22+ B cells. Higher levels of sTWEAK were observed in synovial fluids isolated from active RA compared with OA patients. sTWEAK did not stimulate osteoclast formation directly from PBMC, however, sTWEAK induced the surface expression of RANKL by human immature, STRO-1+ osteoblasts.
Conclusions
The expression of TWEAK by CD22+ B cells and CD38+ plasma cells in RA synovium represents a novel potential pathogenic pathway. High levels of sTWEAK in active RA synovial fluid and of TWEAK and Fn14 in active RA tissue, together with the effect of TWEAK to induce osteoblastic RANKL expression, is consistent with TWEAK/Fn14 signalling being important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and bone erosion in RA.
doi:10.1186/ar3294
PMCID: PMC3132040  PMID: 21435232
6.  Elevated expression of caspase-3 inhibitors, survivin and xIAP correlates with low levels of apoptosis in active rheumatoid synovium 
Introduction
Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family member capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types.
Methods
Using immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and real-time PCR we investigated the expression of TRAIL, TRAIL receptors and several key molecules of the intracellular apoptotic pathway in human synovial tissues from various types of arthritis and normal controls. Synovial tissues from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inactive RA, osteoarthritis (OA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) and normal individuals were studied.
Results
Significantly higher levels of TRAIL, TRAIL R1, TRAIL R2 and TRAIL R4 were observed in synovial tissues from patients with active RA compared with normal controls (p < 0.05). TRAIL, TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R4 were expressed by many of the cells expressing CD68 (macrophages). Lower levels of TUNEL but higher levels of cleaved caspase-3 staining were detected in tissue from active RA compared with inactive RA patients (p < 0.05). Higher levels of survivin and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xIAP) were expressed in active RA synovial tissues compared with inactive RA observed at both the protein and mRNA levels.
Conclusions
This study indicates that the induction of apoptosis in active RA synovial tissues is inhibited despite stimulation of the intracellular pathway(s) that lead to apoptosis. This inhibition of apoptosis was observed downstream of caspase-3 and may involve the caspase-3 inhibitors, survivin and xIAP.
doi:10.1186/ar2603
PMCID: PMC2688245  PMID: 19171073
7.  Inflammatory cells and bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis 
Pathogenic bone erosion is often associated with inflammation. The destructive bone erosion that is often seen in rheumatoid arthritis is probably due to the close proximity of inflamed tissues to bone. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the factors that are crucial in regulating osteoclast bone resorption. It is not surprising that these factors are expressed by inflammatory cells that are present in the rheumatoid joint. It now appears that we can add neutrophils to the list of inflammatory cells found in the inflamed rheumatoid joint that express factors that regulate bone erosion.
doi:10.1186/ar2213
PMCID: PMC2206339  PMID: 17601357

Results 1-7 (7)