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1.  Survival of Microorganisms in a Simulated Martian Environment 
Applied Microbiology  1964;12(3):215-218.
Survival of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii in a simulated Martian environment was demonstrated. Previous contact with the simulated Martian soil or atmosphere reduced germination or outgrowth of unheated spores, or both. Inoculation into simulated Martian soil and then flushing with a simulated Martian atmosphere were lethal to both vegetative cells and spores. After one diurnal temperature cycle (26 to -60 C), the majority of of cells present were spores. No further effect of the diurnal cycle on survival was noted in any of the experimental samples.
PMCID: PMC1058102  PMID: 14170958
2.  Use of the Scanning Electron Microscope for Viewing Bacteria in Soil 
Applied Microbiology  1968;16(6):932-934.
Scanning electron microscopy was used for viewing Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in three different soils. Both organisms were detected in the test soils at an approximate concentration of 107 cells per gram of soil; theoretically, the minimal number of microorganisms required for detection with the scanning electron microscope technique was between 107 and 1010 cells per gram of soil. Because the concentration of cells was critical, the use of scanning electron microscopy as an extraterrestrial life detection instrument would be limited with soils containing more than 107 bacteria per gram of soil.
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PMCID: PMC547556  PMID: 4969663
3.  Survival of Microorganisms in a Simulated Martian Environment 
Applied Microbiology  1967;15(2):285-291.
The effects of moisture and oxygen concentration on germination of Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis var. niger spores were investigated in a simulated Martian environment. Less moisture was required for germination than for vegetative growth of both organisms. A daily freeze-thaw cycle lowered moisture requirements for spore germination and vegetative growth of both organisms, as compared with a constant 35 C environment. Oxygen had a synergistic effect by lowing the moisture requirements for vegetative growth, and possibly germination, of both organisms. Oxygen was not required for spore germination of either organism, but was required for vegetative growth of B. subtilis and for sporulation of both organisms.
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PMCID: PMC546892  PMID: 4961769

Results 1-3 (3)