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1.  IL-12Rβ1 deficiency: mutation update and description of the IL12RB1 variation database 
Human mutation  2013;34(10):1329-1339.
IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by predisposition to recurrent and/or severe infections caused by otherwise poorly pathogenic mycobacteria and salmonella. IL-12Rβ1 is a receptor chain of both the IL-12 and the IL-23 receptor and deficiency of IL-12Rβ1 thus abolishes both IL-12 and IL-23 signaling. IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the IL12RB1 gene. Mutations resulting in premature stop codons, such as nonsense, frame shift, and splice site mutations, represent the majority of IL-12Rβ1 deficiency causing mutations (66%; 46/70). Also every other morbid mutation completely inactivates the IL-12Rβ1 protein. In addition to disease-causing mutations, rare and common variations with unknown functional effect have been reported in IL12RB1. All these variants have been deposited in the online IL12RB1 variation database (www.LOVD.nl/IL12RB1). In this article, we review the function of IL-12Rβ1 and molecular genetics of human IL12RB1.
doi:10.1002/humu.22380
PMCID: PMC4104692  PMID: 23864330
IL12RB1; IL-12Rβ1 deficiency; Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease
2.  Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Responsive to Interleukin-1β Inhibition 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(6):581-592.
BACKGROUND
Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease is characterized by fever, urticarial rash, aseptic meningitis, deforming arthropathy, hearing loss, and mental retardation. Many patients have mutations in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene, encoding cryopyrin, a protein that regulates inflammation.
METHODS
We selected 18 patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (12 with identifiable CIAS1 mutations) to receive anakinra, an interleukin-1–receptor antagonist (1 to 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day subcutaneously). In 11 patients, anakinra was withdrawn at three months until a flare occurred. The primary end points included changes in scores in a daily diary of symptoms, serum levels of amyloid A and C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate from baseline to month 3 and from month 3 until a disease flare.
RESULTS
All 18 patients had a rapid response to anakinra, with disappearance of rash. Diary scores improved (P<0.001) and serum amyloid A (from a median of 174 mg to 8 mg per liter), C-reactive protein (from a median of 5.29 mg to 0.34 mg per deciliter), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased at month 3 (all P<0.001), and remained low at month 6. Magnetic resonance imaging showed improvement in cochlear and leptomeningeal lesions as compared with baseline. Withdrawal of anakinra uniformly resulted in relapse within days; retreatment led to rapid improvement. There were no drug-related serious adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS
Daily injections of anakinra markedly improved clinical and laboratory manifestations in patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, with or without CIAS1 mutations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069329.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055137
PMCID: PMC4178954  PMID: 16899778
3.  X-linked susceptibility to mycobacteria is caused by mutations in NEMO impairing CD40-dependent IL-12 production 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(7):1745-1759.
Germline mutations in five autosomal genes involved in interleukin (IL)-12–dependent, interferon (IFN)-γ–mediated immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD). The molecular basis of X-linked recessive (XR)–MSMD remains unknown. We report here mutations in the leucine zipper (LZ) domain of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) gene in three unrelated kindreds with XR-MSMD. The mutant proteins were produced in normal amounts in blood and fibroblastic cells. However, the patients' monocytes presented an intrinsic defect in T cell–dependent IL-12 production, resulting in defective IFN-γ secretion by T cells. IL-12 production was also impaired as the result of a specific defect in NEMO- and NF-κB/c-Rel–mediated CD40 signaling after the stimulation of monocytes and dendritic cells by CD40L-expressing T cells and fibroblasts, respectively. However, the CD40-dependent up-regulation of costimulatory molecules of dendritic cells and the proliferation and immunoglobulin class switch of B cells were normal. Moreover, the patients' blood and fibroblastic cells responded to other NF-κB activators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and lipopolysaccharide. These two mutations in the NEMO LZ domain provide the first genetic etiology of XR-MSMD. They also demonstrate the importance of the T cell– and CD40L-triggered, CD40-, and NEMO/NF-κB/c-Rel–mediated induction of IL-12 by monocyte-derived cells for protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.
doi:10.1084/jem.20060085
PMCID: PMC2118353  PMID: 16818673
4.  Novel self-epitopes derived from aggrecan, fibrillin, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 drive distinct autoreactive T-cell responses in juvenile idiopathic arthritis and in health 
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Knowing which antigens drive the autoreactive T-cell response in JIA is crucial for the understanding of disease pathogenesis and additionally may provide targets for antigen-specific immune therapy. In this study, we tested 9 self-peptides derived from joint-related autoantigens for T-cell recognition (T-cell proliferative responses and cytokine production) in 36 JIA patients and 15 healthy controls. Positive T-cell proliferative responses (stimulation index ≥2) to one or more peptides were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 69% of JIA patients irrespective of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype. The peptides derived from aggrecan, fibrillin, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 yielded the highest frequency of T-cell proliferative responses in JIA patients. In both the oligoarticular and polyarticular subtypes of JIA, the aggrecan peptide induced T-cell proliferative responses that were inversely related with disease duration. The fibrillin peptide, to our knowledge, is the first identified autoantigen that is primarily recognized in polyarticular JIA patients. Finally, the epitope derived from MMP-3 elicited immune responses in both subtypes of JIA and in healthy controls. Cytokine production in short-term peptide-specific T-cell lines revealed production of interferon-γ (aggrecan/MMP-3) and interleukin (IL)-17 (aggrecan) and inhibition of IL-10 production (aggrecan). Here, we have identified a triplet of self-epitopes, each with distinct patterns of T-cell recognition in JIA patients. Additional experiments need to be performed to explore their qualities and role in disease pathogenesis in further detail.
doi:10.1186/ar2088
PMCID: PMC1794523  PMID: 17129378

Results 1-4 (4)