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1.  Systematic review and meta‐analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor as a biomarker for malignant pleural effusions 
Physiological Reports  2016;4(24):e12978.
Abstract
Conventional methods may fail to identify the cause of pleural effusion (PE), thus establishing reliable biomarkers is deemed necessary. This study aimed at examining the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a biomarker in the differentiation between malignant and benign PEs in adults. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed (Medline), Scopus (ELSEVIER), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases was conducted using keywords. We included studies that evaluated pleural and/or serum levels of VEGF among patients presenting with undiagnosed PE and the association between these levels and the final diagnosis. We performed a meta‐analysis to calculate the summary effect using the random effects model. Statistical analysis was performed with the statistical package for meta‐analysis Comprehensive Meta‐Analysis. Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, while 11 of them in the meta‐analysis. Pleural fluid VEGF levels among patients with malignant PE were increased by 1.93 ng/mL as compared to patients with benign PE (95% CI: 1.32–2.54, Q = 173, df (Q): 10, I 2 = 94.2%, P < 0.05). Serum VEGF levels among patients with malignant PE were increased respectively by 1.90 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.93–2.88, Q = 182, df (Q): 6, I 2 = 96.7%, P < 0.05). This study showed that malignant PEs were associated with higher levels of both pleural fluid and serum VEGF. VEGF appears to represent a promising biomarker for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant PEs.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12978
PMCID: PMC5210377  PMID: 28039396
Benign pleural effusion; biomarkers; malignant pleural effusion; meta‐analysis; vascular endothelial growth factor
2.  AB009. References of passive smoking and anti-smoking law in Greek electronic news media 
Background
Despite the proven harmful effects of passive smoking (PS) in health, the anti-smoking legislation (AL) in Greece is still not being implemented and the electronic media addresses the issue in various ways. The aim of the study was the collection, classification and correlation of PS and AL references in national and local Greek electronic media, in three time periods specified by the adoption of the respective anti-smoking laws: N.3730/08 (A period), N.3868/10 (B period), and N.3986/11 (C period).
Methods
The population studied included 67 newspapers that were derived from the list of the General Secretariat of Information and Communication, through which a total of 548 articles about PS and AL were found. Statistical analysis was done using «SPSS 19.0 for Windows» and the tests used were: Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test, and Spearman.
Results
347 articles were found for PS (212 were of general and 135 were of specific content) and 201 articles related to AL. The three most frequent specific references titles were: “passive smoking risks”, “passive smoking of children”, and “the cost of smoking in the economy”. The majority of the newspapers belonged to the daily editions of regional electronic media. The largest number of reports appeared in the newspapers of: the city of Athens, Attica prefecture (excluding the city of Athens) as well as in the Ionian and Aegean islands. Comparatively the greatest intensity in the relationship among references about PS and AL for all newspapers appeared in the B period, followed by the C and D periods. The strongest correlation among references was presented by the Athenian media in the A and B period and the Daily (local) media in the B, and C period.
Conclusions
The issue of PS and the antismoking legislation was particularly raised by electronic media during the B period which may be ought to the fact that the law N.3868/2010 imposed a total ban on smoking in public places in comparison to the other two laws that incorporated exceptions.
doi:10.21037/atm.2016.AB009
PMCID: PMC5159363
Smoking; passive smoking; anti-smoking law
3.  Physiology of pericardial fluid production and drainage 
The pericardium is one of the serosal cavities of the mammals. It consists of two anatomical structures closely connected, an external sac of fibrous connective tissue, that is called fibrous pericardium and an internal that is called serous pericardium coating the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium (parietal layer) and the heart (visceral layer) forming the pericardial space. Between these two layers a small amount of fluid exists that is called pericardial fluid. The pericardial fluid is a product of ultrafiltration and is considered to be drained by lymphatic capillary bed mainly. Under normal conditions it provides lubrication during heart beating while the mesothelial cells that line the membrane may also have a role in the absorption of the pericardial fluid along with the pericardial lymphatics. Here, we provide a review of the the current literature regarding the physiology of the pericardial space and the regulation of pericardial fluid turnover and highlight the areas that need to be further investigated.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00062
PMCID: PMC4364155  PMID: 25852564
mesothelium; pericardiac fluid turnover; pericardium; serosal membranes; transmembrane transport
4.  Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 increase permeability of sheep pleura in vitro 
BMC Physiology  2012;12:2.
Background
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are two gelatinase members which have been found elevated in exudative pleural effusions. In endothelial cells these MMPs increase paracellular permeability via the disruption of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and claudin. In the present study it was investigated if MMP2 and MMP9 alter permeability properties of the pleura tissue by degradation of TJ proteins in pleural mesothelium.
Results
In the present study the transmesothelial resistance (RTM) of sheep pleura tissue was recorded in Ussing chambers after the addition of MMP2 or MMP9. Both enzymes reduced RTM of the pleura, implying an increase in pleural permeability. The localization and expression of TJ proteins, occludin and claudin-1, were assessed after incubation with MMPs by indirect immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Our results revealed that incubation with MMPs did not alter neither proteins localization at cell periphery nor their expression.
Conclusions
MMP2 and MMP9 increase the permeability of sheep pleura and this finding suggests a role for MMPs in pleural fluid formation. Tight junction proteins remain intact after incubation with MMPs, contrary to previous studies which have shown TJ degradation by MMPs. Probably MMP2 and MMP9 augment pleural permeability via other mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1472-6793-12-2
PMCID: PMC3337816  PMID: 22424238
5.  Pleural Transport Physiology: Insights from Biological Marker Measurements in Transudates 
Aims:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the pleural mesothelial barrier and of the biological markers that facilitate or eliminate the passage of molecules through the pleura.
Methods and Material:
Pleural fluid samples from sixty-five patients with heart failure were analyzed. The biological markers studied were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine deaminase (ADA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -3 (MMP-3), -7(MMP-7), -8 (MMP-8) and -9 (MMP-9). Based on the pleural fluid/serum ratio, these molecules were divided into three groups: a) the LDH-like group with a pleural fluid/serum ratio between 0,4 and 0,8 (LDH, CEA, CuZnSOD, ADA, CRP, MMP-8), b) molecules with a pleural fluid/serum ratio less than 0,4 (MMP-7 and MMP-9) and c) molecules with a pleural fluid/serum ratio equal or above 1 (TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-3).
Results:
No correlation between the molecular radius and the pleural fluid to serum ratio of the above biological markers was found.
Conclusions:
The molecular size is not a major determinant for the passage of molecules through the mesothelial barrier. Several other factors may influence the transport of the above molecules to pleural cavity, such as their charge and shape.
doi:10.2174/1874306401105010070
PMCID: PMC3204423  PMID: 22114657
Biological markers; mesothelial barrier; pleural fluid/ serum ratio; transudates; lactate dehydrogenase; tumor necrosis factor.
6.  Body Composition in Severe Refractory Asthma: Comparison with COPD Patients and Healthy Smokers 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13233.
Background
Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA) on fat free mass (FFM) has not been investigated.
Methodology and Principal Findings
213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients) without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements) and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI) between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3–18.3)–19.5(18.4–21.5), p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I–III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3–18.3)–18.8(17.8–20.1), p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used.
Conclusions and Significance
SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013233
PMCID: PMC2950851  PMID: 20949085
7.  Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:100.
Background
Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries.
Methods
486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices.
Results
Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past.
Conclusion
Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older ships. HACCP system aids in the prevention of cockroach infestations on board.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-100
PMCID: PMC2359741  PMID: 18371217

Results 1-7 (7)