The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a useful tool to assess respiratory resistance and reactance during tidal breathing in patients with respiratory diseases, specifically asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although the FOT has been clinically used, results of respiratory impedance can be affected by various factors such as upper airway artifact. We investigated the effects of cheek support on respiratory resistance and reactance measured by a commercially available FOT equipment MostGraph-01. Respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R20) with support of the cheeks was significantly higher than those without the cheek support in healthy subjects. Two different cheek support protocols, support of the cheeks by subjects themselves and an operator, were compared in healthy volunteers and patients with respiratory diseases. The cheek support protocols significantly affected respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5) in the patient group but not in the healthy subjects. Moreover, for X5, there was a significant interaction between cheek support protocols (by a subject or operator) and groups (healthy or diseased). In conclusion, during impedance measurements using the FOT, application of cheek support either by subjects or the operator is recommended to reduce upper airway artifacts, however, results obtained by two protocols may be different in patients with respiratory diseases. Contribution of the chest wall and position of the arms to the mechanical properties should be carefully considered in physiological studies in which the FOT is attempted.
Asthma; Cheek support; COPD; Forced oscillation technique; MostGraph; Respiratory resistance; Reactance; Upper airway shunt
It has been debated whether treatment should be started early in subjects with mild to moderate COPD. An impaired health status score was associated with a higher probability of being diagnosed with COPD as compared with undiagnosed COPD.
To investigate the health status in a healthy working population, to determine reference scores for healthy non-smoking subjects, and to investigate the relationship between their health status and airflow limitation.
A total of 1333 healthy industrial workers aged ≥40 years performed spirometry and completed the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT).
The prevalence of COPD defined by the fixed ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) was 10.9%, and the prevalence defined by the Lower Limit of Normal was 5.0%. All SGRQ and CAT scores were skewed to the milder end. In 512 non-smoking subjects with normal spirometry, the mean SGRQ score was 5.7, and the mean CAT score was 5.8. In 145 people with COPD defined by the fixed ratio, the mean SGRQ score was 7.9, with a zero score in 6.9% of the subjects. Using the CAT, the mean score was 7.3, with 7.6% of the scores being zero. The scores in patients identified using the Lower Limit of Normal approach were: SGRQ 8.4 (13.4% had a score of zero) and CAT 7.4 (13.4% had a score of zero). Although the 95th percentiles of the Total, Symptoms, Activity, and Impact scores of the SGRQ and CAT sores were 13.8, 34.0, 23.4, 7.2 and 13.6 in the 512 healthy non-smoking subjects, respectively, they were also distributed under their upper limits in over 80% of the COPD subjects.
The COPD-specific health status scores in a working population were good, even in those with spirometrically diagnosed COPD. All scores were widely distributed in both healthy non-smoking subjects and in subjects with COPD, and the score distribution overlapped remarkably between these two groups. This suggests that symptom-based methods are not suitable screening tools in a healthy general population.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; Symptoms and COPD; Smoking and health; Health related quality of life
Although inspiratory capacity (IC) is strongly associated with the disease severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there was no appropriate equation to compute predicted values for IC. Furthermore, whether assessment of IC can identify the risk of prolonged postoperative stay (PPS) in patients undergoing thoracic surgery also remains unclear. To evaluate whether %IC predicted, for which the new equation to compute the predicted values for IC was utilized, could be applied to identify the risk of PPS, we retrospectively analysed the cases of 412 patients who underwent thoracic surgery in Nagoya University Hospital. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that %IC predicted < 85% was one of the most critical risk predictors for PPS (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03–2.648) and, in particular, was independent of percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1) < 80%. A combined assessment of ICFEV1 Low, defined as %IC predicted <85% or %FEV1 <80%, was able to identify more than double the number of patients with PPS, compared with %FEV1 <80% alone (65.9 vs. 28.5%, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate the significance of %IC predicted in screening for the risk for PPS in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.
Chronic obstructive lung disease; Inspiratory capacity; Lung cancer; Screening assessment; Surgical complications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive neoplasm arising from the mesothelial cells lining the parietal pleura and it exhibits poor prognosis. Although there has been significant progress in MPM treatment, development of more efficient therapeutic approaches is needed. BMAL1 is a core component of the circadian clock machinery and its constitutive overexpression in MPM has been reported. Here, we demonstrate that BMAL1 may serve as a molecular target for MPM. The majority of MPM cell lines and a subset of MPM clinical specimens expressed higher levels of BMAL1 compared to a nontumorigenic mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) and normal parietal pleural specimens, respectively. A serum shock induced a rhythmical BMAL1 expression change in MeT-5A but not in ACC-MESO-1, suggesting that the circadian rhythm pathway is deregulated in MPM cells. BMAL1 knockdown suppressed proliferation and anchorage-dependent and independent clonal growth in two MPM cell lines (ACC-MESO-1 and H290) but not in MeT-5A. Notably, BMAL1 depletion resulted in cell cycle disruption with a substantial increase in apoptotic and polyploidy cell population in association with downregulation of Wee1, cyclin B and p21WAF1/CIP1 and upregulation of cyclin E expression. BMAL1 knockdown induced mitotic catastrophe as denoted by disruption of cell cycle regulators and induction of drastic morphological changes including micronucleation and multiple nuclei in ACC-MESO-1 cells that expressed the highest level of BMAL1. Taken together, these findings indicate that BMAL1 has a critical role in MPM and could serve as an attractive therapeutic target for MPM.
apoptosis; BMAL1; mesothelioma; targeted therapy; mitotic catastrophe
It is suggested that migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in asthma. Increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) regulate most ASM cell functions related to asthma, such as contraction and proliferation. Recently, STIM1 was identified as a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ sensor that activates Orai1, the Ca2+ channel responsible for store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). We investigated the role of STIM1 in [Ca2+]i and cell migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in human ASM cells. Cell migration was assessed by a chemotaxis chamber assay. Human ASM cells express STIM1, STIM2, and Orai1 mRNAs. SOCE activated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of SR Ca2+-ATPase, was significantly blocked by STIM1 siRNA and Orai1 siRNA but not by STIM2 siRNA. PDGF-BB induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i followed by sustained [Ca2+]i elevation. Sustained increases in [Ca2+]i due to PDGF-BB were significantly inhibited by a Ca2+ chelating agent EGTA or by siRNA for STIM1 or Orai1. The numbers of migrating cells were significantly increased by PDGF-BB treatment for 6 h. Knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 by siRNA transfection inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration. Similarly, EGTA significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration. In contrast, transfection with siRNA for STIM2 did not inhibit the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i or cell migration induced by PDGF-BB. These results demonstrate that STIM1 and Orai1 are essential for PDGF-induced cell migration and Ca2+ influx in human ASM cells. STIM1 could be an important molecule responsible for airway remodeling.
The role of ZEB1, a master epithelial-tomesenchymal transition gene, in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is unclear.
The expression of ZEB1, E-cadherin, vimentin, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in 18 MPM cell lines and a normal pleural mesothelial cell line MeT-5A was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot testing. RNA interference–mediated transient and/or stable knockdown of ZEB1 and EpCAM was performed. Microarray expression analysis was performed with a TORAY-3D gene chip. Growth was evaluated by colorimetric proliferation and colony formation assays. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to access the effects of ZEB1 knockdown on EpCAM promoter activity.
Most MPM cell lines exhibited mesenchymal phenotype and expressed ZEB1. Transient ZEB1 knockdown suppressed growth in all four cell lines studied (ACC-MESO-1, H2052, Y-MESO-8A, Y-MESO-29) while stable ZEB1 knockdown suppressed growth only in Y-MESO-29. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that EpCAM was the most prominently up-regulated gene by both transient and stable ZEB1 knockdown in ACC-MESO-1, with more marked up-regulation in stable knockdown. We hypothesized that EpCAM up-regulation counteracts the stable ZEB1 knockdown-induced growth inhibition in ACC-MESO-1. Transient EpCAM knockdown suppressed growth dramatically in ACC-MESO-1 cells expressing shZEB1 but only modestly in those expressing shGFP, supporting our hypothesis. Luciferase reporter assay showed that ZEB1 knockdown resulted in increased EpCAM promoter activity. EpCAM was also up-regulated in Y-MESO-29 expressing shZEB1, but this EpCAM up-regulation did not counteract ZEB1 knockdown-induced growth suppression, suggesting that the counteracting effects of EpCAM may be cellular context dependent.
RNA interference-mediated ZEB1 knockdown may be a promising therapeutic strategy for MPM, but one has to consider the possibility of diminished growth inhibitory effects of long-term ZEB1 knockdown, possibly as a result of EpCAM up-regulation and/or other gene expression changes resulting from ZEB1 knockdown.
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed in a wide variety of human cancers including lung cancer, and its contribution to increased proliferation through upregulation of cell cycle accelerators such as cyclins A and E has been well established in breast and gastric cancers. Nevertheless, very little is known about its role in supporting the survival of cancer cells. In addition, the functional role of EpCAM in the pathogenesis of lung cancer remains to be explored. In this study, we show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of EpCAM suppresses proliferation and clonogenic growth of three EpCAM-expressing lung cancer cell lines (H3255, H358, and HCC827), but does not induce cell cycle arrest in any of these. In addition, EpCAM knockdown inhibits invasion in the highly invasive H358 but not in less invasive H3255 cells in a Transwell assay. Of note, the EpCAM knockdown induces massive apoptosis in the three cell lines as well as in another EpCAM-expressing lung cancer cell line, HCC2279, but to a much lesser extent in a cdk4/hTERT immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line, HBEC4, suggesting that EpCAM could be a therapeutic target for lung cancer. Finally, EpCAM knockdown partially restores contact inhibition in HCC827, in association with p27Kip1 upregulation. These results indicate that EpCAM could contribute substantially to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, especially cancer cell survival, and suggest that EpCAM targeted therapy for lung cancer may have potential.
Using a library of siRNAs, we found that ARHGAP18 was essential for the organization of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion. ARHGAP18 is one of the crucial factors for the regulation of RhoA in order to control cell motility and spreading.
Rho GTPases are molecular switches that transmit biochemical signals in response to extracellular stimuli to elicit changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases cycle between an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state. These states are regulated by two distinct families of proteins—guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). We studied the role of a previously uncharacterized GAP, ARHGAP18 (MacGAP). Overexpression of ARHGAP18 suppressed the activity of RhoA and disrupted stress fiber formation. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP18 by small interfering RNA transfection–enhanced stress fiber formation and induced rounding of cells. We examined the role of ARHGAP18 in cell spreading and migration. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that ARHGAP18 was localized to the leading edge during cell spreading and migration. ARHGAP18-knockdown cells showed impaired spreading, premature formation of stress fibers, and sustained activation of RhoA upon cell attachment. In addition, knockdown and overexpression of ARHGAP18 resulted in the inhibition and promotion of cell migration, respectively. Furthermore, ARHGAP18 was required for the polarization of cells for migration. Our results define ARHGAP18 as one of the crucial factors for the regulation of RhoA for the control of cell shape, spreading, and migration.
Microtubules are structural components of the cytoskeleton that determine cell shape, polarity, and motility in cooperation with the actin filaments. In order to determine the role of microtubules in cell alignment, human airway smooth muscle cells were exposed to cyclic uniaxial stretch. Human airway smooth muscle cells, cultured on type I collagen-coated elastic silicone membranes, were stretched uniaxially (20% in strain, 30 cycles/min) for 2 h. The population of airway smooth muscle cells which were originally oriented randomly aligned near perpendicular to the stretch axis in a time-dependent manner. However, when the cells treated with microtubule disruptors, nocodazole and colchicine, were subjected to the same cyclic uniaxial stretch, the cells failed to align. Lack of alignment was also observed for airway smooth muscle cells treated with a microtubule stabilizer, paclitaxel. To understand the intracellular mechanisms involved, we developed a computational model in which microtubule polymerization and attachment to focal adhesions were regulated by the preexisting tensile stress, pre-stress, on actin stress fibers. We demonstrate that microtubules play a central role in cell re-orientation when cells experience cyclic uniaxial stretching. Our findings further suggest that cell alignment and cytoskeletal reorganization in response to cyclic stretch results from the ability of the microtubule-stress fiber assembly to maintain a homeostatic strain on the stress fiber at focal adhesions. The mechanism of stretch-induced alignment we uncovered is likely involved in various airway functions as well as in the pathophysiology of airway remodeling in asthma.
The pathological hallmark lesions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are the fibroblastic foci, in which fibroblasts are thought to be involved in the tissue remodeling, matrix deposition, and cross-talk with alveolar epithelium. Recent evidence indicates that some fibroblasts in fibrosis may be derived from bone marrow progenitors as well as from epithelial cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition. To evaluate whether endothelial cells could represent an additional source for fibroblasts, bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was established in Tie2-Cre/CAG-CAT-LacZ double-transgenic mice, in which LacZ was stably expressed in pan-endothelial cells. Combined X-gal staining and immunocytochemical staining for type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin revealed the presence of X-gal–positive cells in lung fibroblast cultures from bleomycin-treated mice. To explore the underlying mechanisms, by which loss of endothelial-specific markers and gain of mesenchymal phenotypes could be involved in microvascular endothelial cells, the effects of activated Ras and TGF-β on the microvascular endothelial cell line MS1 were analyzed. Combined treatment with activated Ras and TGF-β caused a significant loss of endothelial-specific markers, while inducing de novo mesenchymal phenotypes. The altered expression of these markers in MS1 cells with activated Ras persisted after withdrawal of TGF-β in vitro and in vivo. These findings are the first to show that lung capillary endothelial cells could give rise to significant numbers of fibroblasts through an endothelial–mesenchymal transition in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model.
fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; endothelial cells; LacZ; fibrosis
During high tidal volume mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), regions of the lung are exposed to excessive stretch, causing inflammatory responses and further lung damage. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which regulates a variety of endothelial properties, were investigated in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs). HPMVECs grown on fibronectin-coated silicon chambers were exposed to uniaxial stretching, using a cell-stretching apparatus. After stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca2+]i, as measured by fura-2 fluorescence, was transiently increased in a strain amplitude–dependent manner. The elevation of [Ca2+]i induced by stretch was not evident in the Ca2+-free solution and was blocked by Gd3+, a stretch-activated channel inhibitor, or ruthenium red, a transient receptor potential vanilloid inhibitor. The disruption of actin polymerization with cytochalasin D inhibited the stretch-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i. In contrast, increases in [Ca2+]i induced by thapsigargin or thrombin were not affected by cytochalasin D. Increased actin polymerization with sphingosine-1-phosphate or jasplakinolide enhanced the stretch-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i. A simple network model of the cytoskeleton was also developed in support of the notion that actin stress fibers are required for efficient force transmission to open stretch-activated Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, mechanical stretch activates Ca2+ influx via stretch-activated channels which are tightly regulated by the actin cytoskeleton different from other Ca2+ influx pathways such as receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ entries in HPMVECs. These results suggest that abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis because of excessive mechanical stretch during mechanical ventilation may play a role in the progression of ALI/ARDS.
Ca2+ channels; F-actin; mechanotransduction; mechanical stress; stretch-activated channel
Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the most common gram-positive pathogens to colonize the human upper respiratory tract, is responsible for many severe infections, including meningitis and bacteremia. A 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is available to protect against the 23 S. pneumoniae serotypes responsible for 90% of reported bacteremic infections. Unfortunately, current S. pneumoniae serotype testing requires a large panel of expensive antisera, assay results may be subjective, and serotype cross-reactions are common. For this study, we designed an oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray to identify glycosyltransferase gene sequences specific to each vaccine-related serotype. Out of 56 isolates representing different serotypes, only one isolate, representing serotype 23A, was not detected correctly as it could not be distinguished from serotype 23F. Our data suggest that the microarray provides a more cost-effective and reliable way of monitoring pneumococcal capsular types.
We found that among four master epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing genes (ZEB1, SIP1, Snail, and Slug) ZEB1expression was most significantly correlated with the mesenchymal phenotype (high Vimentin and low E-cadherin expression) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tumors. Furthermore, ZEB1 knockdown with RNA interference in three NSCLC cell lines with high ZEB1 expression suppressed to varying degrees mass culture growth and liquid colony formation but in all cases dramatically suppressed soft agar colony formation. In addition, ZEB1 knockdown induced apoptosis in one of the three lines, indicating that the growth inhibitory effects of ZEB1 knockdown occurs in part through the activation of the apoptosis pathway. These results suggest that inhibiting ZEB1 function may be an attractive target for NSCLC therapeutic development.
Lung cancer; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Anchorage-independent growth; EMT; MicroRNA; RNA interference
The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes.
Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined.
Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61%) had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21%) had solid malignancies, 12 (15%) had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7%) had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3) β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes.
In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.
We describe the first case of bloodstream infection caused by Rhodococcus erythropolis. The identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. This case illustrates that non-equi Rhodococcus infections may be underdiagnosed due to difficulties in identification in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory.
Cell type-specific gene expression is regulated by chromatin structure and the transcription factors provided by the cells. In the present study, we introduced genes packaged into chromatin into target cells using a human artificial chromosome (HAC) and analyzed regulation of gene expression. The human β-globin gene cluster was built into an HAC (globin-HAC) and introduced into mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT); the adult-type human β-globin gene was expressed in bone marrow and spleen cells of the transgenic mice. In vitro differentiation of ES cells into mouse erythrocytes indicated that the natural sequential expression of ε, γ and β-globin genes was reproduced on the globin-HAC. Combination of MMCT and a novel chromosome transfection technique allowed transfer of globin-HAC from HT1080 cells into the human leukemia cell line K562, and from K562 cells back into HT1080 cells. Expression of the γ-globin gene, repressed in HT1080 cells, was activated in K562 cells without any processes of differentiation into adult erythroid cells, and was completely repressed again in HT1080 cells when transferred back from K562 cells. Thus, transfer of target genes packaged into chromatin using a HAC was useful for functional analyses of gene regulation.
To determine whether oral administration of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a nontoxic anti-ulcer drug that is an inducer of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, protects against drug-induced lung injury/fibrosis in vivo.
We used a bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis model in which mice were treated with oral 600 mg/kg of GGA before and after BLM administration. Inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated by histological scoring, hydroxyproline content in the lung and inflammatory cell count, and quantification by ELISA of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL method. The induction of HSP70 in the lung was examined with western blot analysis and its localization was determined by immunohistochemistry.
We confirmed the presence of inflammation and fibrosis in the BLM-induced lung injury model and induction of HSP70 by oral administration of GGA. GGA prevented apoptosis of cellular constituents of lung tissue, such as epithelial cells, most likely related to the de novo induction of HSP70 in the lungs. GGA-treated mice also showed less fibrosis of the lungs, associated with the findings of suppression of both production of MIP-2 and inflammatory cell accumulation in the injured lung, compared with vehicle-treated mice.
GGA had a protective effect on drug-induced lung injury/fibrosis. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate, which are indispensable for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, often cause interstitial lung diseases, an adverse event that currently cannot be prevented. Clinical use of GGA for drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis might be considered in the future.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important pathogen associated with both nosocomial and community-acquired infections and its pathogenicity is attributed to its potential to produce virulence factors. Since the amount of toxin produced is related to virulence, evaluating toxin production should be useful for controlling S. aureus infection. We previously found that some strains produce relatively large amounts of TSST-1; however, no reports have described the amount of TSST-1 produced by clinical isolates.
Amounts of TSST-1 produced by clinical methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were measured by Western blotting. We determined their accessory gene regulator (agr) class by PCR and investigated whether TSST-1 production correlates with variations in the class and structure of the agr.
We found that 75% of surveyed MRSA isolates (n = 152) possessed the tst gene and that 96.7% belonged to agr class 2. The concentrations of TSST-1 secreted into culture supernatants by 34 strains measured by Western blotting differed 170-fold. Sequencing the entire agr locus (n = 9) revealed that some had allelic variations regardless of the amount of TSST-1 produced whereas sequencing the sar, sigma factor B and the tst promoter region revealed no significant changes.
The amounts of TSST-1 produced by clinical MRSA isolates varied. The present results suggest that TSST-1 production is not directly associated with the agr structure, but is instead controlled by unknown transcriptional/translational regulatory systems, or synthesized by multiple regulatory mechanisms that are interlinked in a complex manner.
Recent technological advances have enabled us to visualize the organization and dynamics of local chromatin structures; however, the comprehensive mechanisms by which chromatin organization modulates gene regulation are poorly understood. We designed a human artificial chromosome vector that allowed manipulation of transgenes using a method for delivering chromatin architectures into different cell lines from human to fish. This methodology enabled analysis of de novo construction, epigenetic maintenance and changes in the chromatin architecture of specific genes. Expressive and repressive architectures of human STAT3 were established from naked DNA in mouse embryonic stem cells and CHO cells, respectively. Delivery of STAT3 within repressive architecture to embryonic stem cells resulted in STAT3 activation, accompanied by changes in DNA methylation. This technology for manipulating a single gene with a specific chromatin architecture could be utilized in applied biology, including stem cell science and regeneration medicine.