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1.  Novel Potential Interacting Partners of Fibronectin in Spontaneous Animal Model of Interstitial Cystitis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51391.
Feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) is the only spontaneous animal model for human interstitial cystitis (IC), as both possess a distinctive chronical and relapsing character. Underlying pathomechanisms of both diseases are not clearly established yet. We recently detected increased urine fibronectin levels in FIC cases. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the pathogenesis by assessing interacting partners of fibronectin in urine of FIC affected cats. Several candidate proteins were identified via immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Considerable changes in FIC conditions compared to physiological expression of co-purified proteins were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, complement C4a and thioredoxin were present in higher levels in urine of FIC patients whereas loss of signal intensity was detected in FIC affected tissue. Galectin-7 was exclusively detected in urine of FIC cats, pointing to an important role of this molecule in FIC pathogenesis. Moderate physiological signal intensity of galectin-7 in transitional epithelium shifted to distinct expression in transitional epithelium under pathophysiological conditions. I-FABP expression was reduced in urine and urinary bladder tissue of FIC cats. Additionally, transduction molecules of thioredoxin, NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK, were examined. In FIC affected tissue, colocalization of thioredoxin and NF-κB p65 could be demonstrated compared to absent coexpression of thioredoxin and p38 MAPK. These considerable changes in expression level and pattern point to an important role for co-purified proteins of fibronectin and thioredoxin-regulated signal transduction pathways in FIC pathogenesis. These results could provide a promising starting point for novel therapeutic approaches in the future.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051391
PMCID: PMC3517491  PMID: 23236492
2.  Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review 
Viruses  2012;4(11):2684-2710.
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats.
doi:10.3390/v4112684
PMCID: PMC3509668  PMID: 23202500
feline leukemia virus; FeLV; feline immunodeficiency virus; FIV; clinical signs; immunosuppression; immune-mediated diseases; tumors; neurologic signs; bone marrow suppression
3.  The risk of AIDS-defining events is decreasing over time in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort 
Background
With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) needs to be monitored continuously at the population level. The German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort is a multi-centre, open, long-term observational cohort including patients with a known or reliably estimated date of HIV-infection i.e. last negative and first positive HIV antibody test within a maximum three-year interval or laboratory evidence of seroconversion. Our study aims to investigate survival improvements and changes in AIDS risk over calendar periods in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort.
Methods
Retrospective (for the pre-1997 period) and prospective (since 1997) data from the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort were used. Time from seroconversion to first AIDS-defining event over calendar periods was analysed by using Cox models adjusting for age at seroconversion, sex, transmission groups and short HIV test interval. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine expected survival (remaining AIDS-free) by calendar period.
Results
2162 seroconverters with 8976 person-years of observation were included in our analysis (up to 31.12.2010). A total of 196 first AIDSdefining events were reported. Two periods i.e. 19972000 and 2007-2010 were statistically associated with a reduction in the risk of AIDS, accounting for an overall reduction of 80%. Compared to1997-2000, hazard ratios were 2.6 (95%CI, 1.6-4.8; p=0.000) in pre-1997 and 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.8; p=0.007) in 20072010. Independent risk factor for AIDS progression was age at seroconversion (HR, 1.3 per 10year-increase; p=0.001).
Conclusion
HAART effectiveness has improved in the German HIV-1-Seroconverter Cohort. The risk to develop AIDS decreased significantly in 19972000 and in 20072010. However, elderly may require particular monitoring in view of their faster progression to AIDS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-94
PMCID: PMC3494508  PMID: 22515400
HIV progression; AIDS-defining event; Seroconverter; HAART effectiveness
4.  “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” Infection in a Dog from Germany▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(5):2059-2062.
“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” is a new intracellular pathogen associated with human infection and death. “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infection in a chronically neutropenic dog from Germany was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The same organism was previously described from ticks and two sick human beings from Germany.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02327-10
PMCID: PMC3122698  PMID: 21367991

Results 1-4 (4)