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2.  Endometrial stromal sarcoma metastasis to the lumbar spine and sphenoid bone 
Rare Tumors  2011;3(3):e27.
Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is typically associated with metastasis to the abdomen, pelvis, and lung. We found three case reports of ESS metastasis to the bone (two to the thoracic spine, and one to the parietal bone). Our objective is to review the literature on ESS spinal and intracranial metastases and, report the first case of ESS metastatic to the lumbar paraspinal region and sphenoid bone. A 53-year-old female with ESS status-post radiation, chemotherapy, and pelvic exenteration surgery presented with right hip weakness, back pain, and radicular leg pain that were explained by chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy, and femoral nerve and obturator nerve injury during pelvic exenteration surgery. During routine positron emission tomography, we found metastasis to the L3 lumbar spinal region. L3 laminectomy and subtotal resection of the mass was performed with tumor residual in the neuroforamina and pedicles. One month later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for persistent headaches revealed a large lesion in the sphenoid bone that was biopsied transsphenoidally with the same diagnosis, but no further surgery was performed. She is intolerant of chemotherapy and currently undergoing whole brain radiation. Delay in the diagnosis and management of lumbar paraspinal and sphenoid bone metastasis of ESS likely occurred because of the uniqueness of the location and aggressiveness of ESS metastasis. Health care providers should be aware of potentially aggressive metastasis of ESS to bone, in particular the unusual locations of the lumbar paraspinal region and sphenoid bone.
doi:10.4081/rt.2011.e27
PMCID: PMC3208414  PMID: 22066034
endometrial stromal sarcoma; uterine sarcoma; lumbar spine; sphenoid bone; bone metastasis.
3.  Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Selenoprotein Gene Expression and Response to Influenza Vaccine Challenge: A Randomised Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e14771.
Background
The uncertainty surrounding dietary requirements for selenium (Se) is partly due to limitations in biomarkers of Se status that are related to health outcomes. In this study we determined the effect of different doses and forms of Se on gene expression of selenoprotein S (SEPS1), selenoprotein W (SEPW1) and selenoprotein R (SEPR), and responses to an immune function challenge, influenza vaccine, were measured in order to identify functional markers of Se status.
Methods and Findings
A 12 week human dietary intervention study was undertaken in 119 volunteers who received placebo, 50, 100 or 200 µg/day Se-enriched yeast (Se-yeast) or meals containing unenriched or Se-enriched onions (50 µg/day). Gene expression was quantified in RNA samples extracted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) using quantitative RT-PCR. There was a significant increase in SEPW1 mRNA in the Se-enriched onion group (50 µg/day) compared with the unenriched onion group. SEPR and SEPW1 did not change significantly over the duration of the supplementation period in the control or Se-yeast groups, except at week 10 when SEPW1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the 200 µg/day Se-yeast group compared to the placebo group. Levels of SEPS1 mRNA increased significantly 7 days after the influenza vaccine challenge, the magnitude of the increase in SEPS1 gene expression was dose-dependent, with a significantly greater response with higher Se supplementation.
Conclusions
This novel finding provides preliminary evidence for a role of SEPS1 in the immune response, and further supports the relationship between Se status and immune function.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00279812]
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014771
PMCID: PMC3061857  PMID: 21445287

Results 1-3 (3)