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1.  Reduction of leucocyte telomere length in radiographic hand osteoarthritis: a population‐based study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;65(11):1444-1448.
Although age is the strongest predictor of osteoarthritis, the exact mechanism underlying this disorder remains elusive.
To examine the association between leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a bio‐indicator of ageing, and radiographic hand osteoarthritis.
An unselected, predominantly female sample from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry (Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK) was studied. Radiographs of both hands were obtained with a standard posteroanterior view and assessed for radiographic osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) score. Individual radiographic features including osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were also assessed on a four‐point scale using a standard atlas. Hand osteoarthritis was defined radiographically as having ⩾3 osteoarthritis‐affected joints of both hands (K/L score⩾2). Severity of hand osteoarthritis was indicated semiquantitatively by total K/L scores, osteophytes, JSN scores and proportion of joints affected. Mean LTL was measured by the terminal restriction fragment length using the Southern blot.
A total of 1086 Caucasian subjects (mean (SD) age 55 (8.0) years) were studied. LTL was 6.95 (0.64) kb and was inversely correlated with age. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and smoking, LTL was significantly shorter by 178 bp in subjects with hand osteoarthritis (n = 160) than in those without (n = 926; p = 0.04). LTL was also significantly associated with semicontinuous measures of osteoarthritis (eg, total K/L score, JSN score, osteophyte score and proportion of joints affected) after adjustment (all p⩽0.02) in a dose–response fashion.
Shorter LTL equivalent to around 11 years of annual loss in normal people is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis and disease severity, suggesting potential shared mechanisms between osteoarthritis and ageing, and implicating oxidative stress and low‐level chronic inflammation in both conditions.
PMCID: PMC1798337  PMID: 17038452
2.  Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: A 19-year prospective study of 1003 women 
The Knee  2012;19(4):316-319.
The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty.
Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time.
In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions.
PMCID: PMC3381226  PMID: 21782451
Knee; Arthroplasty; Risk; BMI
3.  The relation between progressive osteoarthritis of the knee and long term progression of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and lumbar spine 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;65(5):623-628.
The association between progression of knee osteoarthritis and progression of osteoarthritis at sites distant from the knee is unclear because of a lack of multisite longitudinal progression data.
To examine the association between radiological progression of knee osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis of the hands, hips, and lumbar spine in a population based cohort.
914 women had knee x rays taken 10 years apart, which were read for the presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Progression status was available for hand, hip, and lumbar spine x rays over the same 8 to 10 year period. The association between progression of knee osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis at other sites was analysed using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in logistic regression models.
89 of 133 women had progression of knee osteoarthritis based on osteophytes, and 51 of 148 based on JSN definition. Progression of JSN in the knee was predicted by progression in lumbar spine disc space narrowing (OR = 2.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 7.5)) and hip JSN (OR = 2.0 (1.0 to 4.2)). No consistent effects were seen for hand osteoarthritis. The associations remained after adjustment for age and body mass index.
Progression of knee osteoarthritis is associated with progression of lumbar spine and hip osteoarthritis. This may have implications for trial methodology, the selection of patients for osteoarthritis research, and advice for patients on prognosis of osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC1798151  PMID: 16219710
osteoarthritis; knee; lumbar spine; outcome
4.  Keratan sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory diseases. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(10):1134-1137.
Serum concentrations of antigenic keratan sulphate determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, other inflammatory diseases, and a large control group of women without arthritis. Mean keratan sulphate concentrations were low in 117 women with RA compared with 227 female control subjects matched for age drawn from a community survey. There were significant correlations between serum keratan sulphate concentrations in patients with RA and serum C reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum keratan sulphate concentrations were also low in 29 men and women with ankylosing spondylitis and 29 patients with arthritis and high concentrations of C reactive protein. In 98 women undergoing an operation for benign breast disease there were decreases in serum keratan sulphate concentrations after the operation which correlated with doses in serum C reactive protein. No differences were found in keratan sulphate concentrations in 137 women with osteoarthritis compared with controls. Within the group with osteoarthritis there were no differences for the various joint groups and there was no obvious correlation with radiographic severity or progression. These findings suggest serum keratan sulphate is unlikely to be useful as a diagnostic marker in osteoarthritis or RA but indicate a role for inflammation in the regulation of cartilage loss.
PMCID: PMC1012418  PMID: 1444626
5.  Clinical signs of early osteoarthritis: reproducibility and relation to x ray changes in 541 women in the general population. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(7):467-470.
The definition and classification of early clinically apparent osteoarthritis both in clinical situations and in epidemiological surveys remains a problem. Few data exist on the between-observer reproducibility of simple clinical methods of detecting hand and knee osteoarthritis in the population and their sensitivity and specificity as compared with radiography. Two observers first studied the reproducibility of a number of clinical signs in 41 middle aged women. Good rates of agreement were found for most of the clinical signs tested (kappa = 0.54-1.0). The more reproducible signs were then tested on a population of 541 women, aged 45-65, drawn from general practice, screening centres, and patients previously attending hospital for non-rheumatic problems. The major clinical signs used had a high specificity (87-99%) and lower sensitivity (20-49%) when compared with radiographs graded on the Kellgren and Lawrence scale (2+ = positive). When analysis was restricted to symptomatic radiographic osteoarthritis, levels of sensitivity were increased and specificity was lowered. These data show that certain physical signs of osteoarthritis are reproducible and may be used to identify clinical disease. They are not a substitute for radiographs, however, if radiographic change is regarded as the 'gold standard' of diagnosis. As the clinical signs tested seemed specific for osteoarthritis they may be of value in screening populations for clinical disease.
PMCID: PMC1004459  PMID: 1877852
6.  The salt dependence of DNA recognition by NF-kappaB p50: a detailed kinetic analysis of the effects on affinityand specificity. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1999;27(4):1063-1069.
The binding kinetics of NF-kappaB p50 to the Ig-kappaB site and to a DNA duplex with no specific binding site were determined under varying conditions of potassium chloride concentration using a surface plasmonresonance biosensor. Association and dissociation rate constants were measured enabling calculation of the dissociation constants. Under previously established high affinity buffer conditions, the k a for both sequences was in the order of 10(7) M-1s-1whilst the k d values varied 600-fold in a sequence-dependent manner between 10(-1) and 10(-4 )s-1, suggesting that the selectivity of p50 for different sequences is mediated primarily through sequence-dependent dissociation rates. The calculated K D value for the Ig-kappaB sequence was 16 pM, whilst the K D for the non-specific sequence was 9.9 nM. As the ionic strength increased to levels which are closer to that of the cellular environment, the binding of p50 to the non-specific sequence was abolished whilst the specific affinity dropped to nanomolar levels. From these results, a mechanism is proposed in which p50 binds specific sequences with high affinity whilst binding non-specific sequences weakly enough to allow efficient searching of the DNA.
PMCID: PMC148287  PMID: 9927740
7.  Choosing the best method for radiological assessment of patellofemoral osteoarthritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(2):134-136.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproducibility of different methods of radiological assessment of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine which is the best view as a research tool in epidemiological studies of knee OA requiring explicit diagnostic criteria to classify the disease in the general population. METHODS: A population based study of 252 unrelated, normal individuals (504 knees) was performed. Lateral and skyline radiographs from each individual were graded for joint space narrowing and osteophytes using a standard atlas. Reproducibility was assessed by two observers on 50 knees. Radiographic features were assessed on their ability to predict knee pain. RESULTS: The skyline views performed better than the lateral views in the assessment of patellofemoral joint OA. The reproducibility for osteophytes was high (kappa > 0.8) and that for joint space narrowing moderate (kappa > 0.6) for both lateral and skyline views. Although the specificity for detecting knee pain was similar in both views, the sensitivity of skyline views in the assessment of knee pain was greater (52.8% versus 30%). The odds ratio for skyline osteophytes as a predictor of knee pain was 7.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.68 to 15.90); that for osteophytes seen on lateral view was 1.83 (95% CI 0.96 to 3.49). Narrowing on both views was a poor predictor of pain. There was frequent disagreement between the lateral and skyline views for detecting osteophytes. CONCLUSION: In a community based study, skyline views performed better than lateral views in terms of reproducibility and for identifying symptomatic patellofemoral joint OA. Skyline radiographs should be the preferred method for examining the patellofemoral joint in such studies.
PMCID: PMC1010108  PMID: 8712864
8.  Definition of osteoarthritis of the knee for epidemiological studies. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1993;52(11):790-794.
OBJECTIVES--There are no agreed criteria for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in population studies. The radiographic scoring system of Kellgren and Lawrence has been the system most used in the past and although other methods have been developed, comparisons have not been performed. Therefore these grading systems were compared in radiographs from a general population sample. METHODS--Anteroposterior weightbearing radiographs of 1954 knees from 977 women aged 45-64 years from the Chingford population study were read by a variety of methods, including quantitative measures of minimum joint space, qualitative measures of osteophytes and of joint space, and a qualitative Kellgren and Lawrence global score. All qualitative methods used standardised atlases. Intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility was tested on a subgroup of 100 films using three observers and two readings. Variables were dichotomised at the tenth and second centiles to define OA. Odds ratios were calculated for each method for the association of OA with knee pain, obesity, and with each of the other methods. RESULTS--Most methods had high intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, except for measurements of lateral joint space. The best predictors of knee pain were the presence of osteophytes and the Kellgren and Lawrence grade. Methods measuring narrowing performed less well, with measurements of lateral joint space being particularly poor. Similar results were achieved in the comparison with obesity and in the comparisons between methods. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that the presence or absence of a definite osteophyte read by a single observer with an atlas is the best method of defining OA of the knee for epidemiological studies in women. Assessment of narrowing may be better used in evaluating severity.
PMCID: PMC1005190  PMID: 8250610
9.  Cigarette smoking and risk of osteoarthritis in women in the general population: the Chingford study. 
Previous studies have suggested that smoking might be protective against the development of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A group of 1003 women aged 45-64 years (mean 54.2 years) from the Chingford general population survey were studied to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on the prevalence of radiologically confirmed OA at different sites. Standard anteroposterior radiographs of the hand and knee were available in 985 women. Disease classification was made on the basis of radiological OA and symptomatic radiological OA. Odds ratios were calculated and adjusted for age and body mass index. A total of 463 (46.2%) women were ever smokers compared with 540 (53.8%) non-smokers. Ever smokers had consumed an average of 14.9 cigarettes a day for a mean of 25.7 years. For radiological OA of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) (140 women), proximal interphalangeal joint (40 women), carpometacarpal joint (160 women), and knee joint (118, women) there was no reduced risk of OA in ever smokers. In the small number of subjects with generalised OA (22 women) there was a non-significant 40% reduction of radiological OA in ever smokers (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.68). Results were similar for subjects with radiographic clinical OA, except the DIP joint which showed a positive association between smoking and Heberden's nodes (odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 3.42). Results were similar when analysed using current smokers against never smokers. These results do not support an inverse association between cigarette smoking and OA in women. A possible inverse relation with the small subgroup of women with generalised OA and an effect of cigarettes on disease severity cannot, however, be discounted.
PMCID: PMC1004985  PMID: 8447703
10.  Primary biliary cirrhosis presenting with granulomatous skin lesions. 
Gut  1994;35(4):564-566.
A case is described of primary biliary cirrhosis in a 59 year old woman who initially presented with a rash over her lower legs 18 months before diagnosis. Skin biopsy examination showed non-caseating granulomas of the sarcoid type. It is believed that this is the first reported case of primary biliary cirrhosis presenting with a granulomatous rash.
PMCID: PMC1374812  PMID: 8175000
11.  GDF5 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs143383 is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in Northern European women 
Arthritis and Rheumatism  2011;63(3):708-712.
Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is a serious social and medical problem which has been shown to be highly heritable. It has similarities with peripheral joint osteoarthritis (OA) in terms of both epidemiology and pathologic processes. A few known genetic variants have been identified using a candidate gene approach, but many more are thought to exist. GDF5 is a gene whose variants have been shown to play a role in skeletal height as well as predisposing to peripheral joint OA. In vitro, the gene product growth differentiation factor 5 has been shown to promote growth and repair of animal disc. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the GDF5 gene plays a role in LDD.
We investigated whether the 5′ upstream single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant rs143383 was associated with LDD, using plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging to identify disc space narrowing and osteophytes, in 5 population cohorts from Northern Europe.
An association between LDD and the SNP rs143383 was identified in women, with the same risk allele as in knee and hip OA (odds ratio 1.72 [95% confidence interval 1.15–2.57], P = 0.008).
Our findings in 5 population cohorts from Northern Europe indicate that a variant in the GDF5 gene is a risk factor for LDD in women. Many more such variants are predicted to exist, but this result highlights the growth and differentiation cellular pathway as a possible route to a better understanding of the process behind lumbar disc degeneration.
PMCID: PMC3498734  PMID: 21360499
12.  Relation between insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations, osteoarthritis, bone density, and fractures in the general population: the Chingford study. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(12):870-874.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) concentrations and osteoarthritis, and bone mineral density, and fractures in a large group of middle aged women from the general population. METHODS: 761 women aged 44-64 years from the Chingford study had serum IGF-I concentrations measured; hand, hip, spine, and anteroposterior weight bearing knee radiographs taken; and dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans of the hip and spine. X rays were scored using the Kellgren and Lawrence system. In addition knee x rays were scored using a standard atlas for individual features of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (both graded 0-3). IGF-I concentrations were adjusted for the effects of age. RESULTS: In the osteoarthritis analysis results were compared to a constant group of 155 subjects with no evidence of osteoarthritis at any site. There was no significant difference in serum IGF-I between these subjects and 606 subjects with osteoarthritis at any site. When individual sites were analysed, serum IGF-I was higher in those cases with more severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis and in those with distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint disease. There was no significant association between serum IGF-I and other forms of osteoarthritis or milder forms of knee osteoarthritis. There was no correlation between IGF-I concentrations and bone mineral density at the spine or hip, nor any difference between IGF-I concentrations in subjects with and without a history of non-traumatic fracture [22.8 (SD 6.6) v 23.1 (SD 6.6) nmol litre-1, P = 0.6] CONCLUSIONS: There is a modest association between IGF-I concentrations and the development of DIP osteoarthritis and more severe or bilateral knee joint osteoarthritis in women from the normal population, but no association with other forms of osteoarthritis, bone density, or fractures.
PMCID: PMC1010336  PMID: 9014579
13.  Spiking of the tibial tubercles--a radiological feature of osteoarthritis? 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(2):105-108.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 'spiking' or angulation of the tibial tubercle is associated with other radiographic markers of osteoarthritis (OA) or pain in the knee joint, and could be taken as a reliable marker for early OA, in a large general population sample. METHODS: A total of 950 women from the Chingford general population survey underwent anteroposterior extended weight bearing radiography of the knees. Angulation of the tip of the medial and lateral tubercles, and height of the tubercles above the tibial plateau were measured. These measures were compared with standard radiographic indices including qualitative Kellgren and Lawrence global score, individual scores of osteophytes and joint space narrowing, and pain score. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility for assessment of spiking was tested in a subgroup of 50 films using two observers and two readings. Tibial spiking (angulation and height) was defined for this study as the top 10th centile for the whole population. Patients with normal radiographs (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 0) were allocated to quartile groups on the basis of spiking to define severity. Odds ratios were then calculated for the association of spiking and knee pain. RESULTS: The majority of the measures of tibial spiking were highly reproducible. There was a significant correlation between tibial spike angulation and the presence of osteophytes, but not joint space narrowing. The correlations for spike height with osteophytes and joint space narrowing were poor. There was an association between spike angulation at the lateral tubercle and reported knee pain (odds ratio 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 2.03)) after adjustment for age, body mass index, and Kellgren and Lawrence score. There was no association between medial spike angulation or spike height and pain. Among the 950 women, 683 (72%) had normal radiographs (Kellgren and Lawrence = 0); in this group there was a similar association between pain and lateral spike angulation, but not medial spike angulation or spike height. CONCLUSIONS: Tibial spiking is associated with the presence of knee osteophytes and is reproducible, but does not have a strong independent relationship with knee pain. In patients with normal radiographs there is no useful correlation between tibial spiking and pain. Isolated tibial spiking is not a reliable sign of early knee OA, and should not routinely be reported.
PMCID: PMC1010103  PMID: 8712859
14.  Incidence and progression of osteoarthritis in women with unilateral knee disease in the general population: the effect of obesity. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(9):565-568.
OBJECTIVES--The natural history of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood. The principal aim was to assess the rate of contralateral knee OA in middle aged women in the general population with existing unilateral disease and to identify the major factors that influence this rate. METHODS--Fifty eight women aged (45-64) from a general population study cohort were identified with unilateral knee OA diagnosed radiologically (Kellgren and Lawrence 2+) (K&L). Follow up AP films were obtained at 24 months and compared with the baseline for K&L grade and individual features of osteophytes and joint space. RESULTS--Twenty women (34%) developed incident disease in the contralateral knee (based on K&L 2+ or osteophyte changes) and 22.4% (n = 13) of women progressed radiologically in the index joint. Obesity at baseline was the most important factor related to incident disease, 47% of women in the top BMI tertile developed OA, compared with 10% in the lowest tertile: relative risk 4.69 (063-34.75). No clear effect was seen for age, physical activity, trauma or presence of hand OA. CONCLUSIONS--Over one third of middle aged women with unilateral disease will progress to bilateral knee OA within two years and a fifth will progress in the index joint. Obesity is a strong and important risk factor in the primary and secondary prevention of OA. These natural history data provide a useful estimate for planning therapeutic intervention trials.
PMCID: PMC1005406  PMID: 7979593
15.  The relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis in the general population: the Chingford Study. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(3):158-162.
OBJECTIVE--A total of 979 women from the Chingford general population survey were studied to examine the hypothesis that osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis are inversely related. METHODS--All women had radiographs of the hands and knees. A total of 579 also had AP radiographs of the lumbar spine which were graded for the presence of osteophytes. All women had bone densitometry performed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Mean bone densities (BMD) were compared between those with disease and those with no disease at any other sites. All results were adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS--All OA groups had significantly higher bone density than controls at the lumbar spine. For distal interphalangeal (DIP) OA (n = 140) the difference was +5.8% (+3.0, +8.6), for carpometacarpal (CMC) OA (n = 160) +3.0% (+0.1, +5.9), for knee OA (n = 118) +7.6% (+4.3, +10.9), and lumbar spine OA (LSOA) (n = 194) +7.8% (+6.0, +8.8). Those with generalised OA (GOA n = 22), a combination of knee, DIP and CMC OA had an increase of +9.3 (+2.0, +16.6). For the femoral neck BMD was also increased significantly ranging from +2.5% for the CMC, +6.2% for the knee and +6.3% in the lumbar spine OA group. The risk of knee OA for women in the top tertile of BMD was 2.13 (1.15-3.93). Additional adjustment for other confounders such as smoking, alcohol, exercise, HRT, social class and spine osteophytes did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that small increases in BMD are present in middle aged women with early radiological OA of the hands, knees and lumbar spine. These data support the hypothesis that the two conditions are inversely related, although the mechanisms remain unclear.
PMCID: PMC1005278  PMID: 8154931
16.  Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid factor in women: evidence for a secular decline. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1993;52(4):254-257.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the current prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and rheumatoid factor positivity in the United Kingdom middle aged female population and to compare this with previous estimates to assess whether the disease is becoming less prevalent. METHODS--A cross sectional prevalence study was undertaken. All women aged 45-64 from the age and sex register of a large 11,000 general practitioner group practice in Chingford, East London were contacted and responders examined clinically and radiographically for the presence of RA by a single observer. Blood was also taken for rheumatoid factor testing (sheep cell agglutination test (SCAT), latex, and IgG). The prevalence in non-attenders was assessed from general practitioner and local hospital records. A diagnosis of definite or classical RA according to 1958 American Rheumatism Association criteria was used, and seropositivity was defined by a SCAT rheumatoid factor of 1/32 or more. RESULTS--From the 1003 women examined (response rate of 78.8%), 12 women had definite RA (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.8). Of these, 7/12 had definite erosive changes on radiography and 3/12 had a positive SCAT (> 1/32). Three cases of RA were also found in the 284 non-responders (prevalence 1.1%) by case-finding techniques. The rate of SCAT positivity in the whole study group was 0.5%. The rates of RA and SCAT positivity currently found in this group were less than those obtained in previous surveys. In the only previous large scale United Kingdom survey, performed in the north of England between 1958 and 1960, 406 women aged 45-64 were examined and 10 cases of definite RA were found, a prevalence of 2.5%. In the patients with RA 68% had erosions and 63% positive SCAT. The population SCAT positive rate in this and other surveys sampled between 1954 and 1961 was in the range of 4-5%, since when there has been a progressive decline according to a number of other studies. CONCLUSIONS--The prevalence of RA and rheumatoid factor in middle aged women is lower than previously believed and supports a variety of other data which indicate that RA is declining in incidence and severity.
PMCID: PMC1005621  PMID: 8484689
17.  How serious is knee osteoarthritis? 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(10):1105-1106.
PMCID: PMC1012412  PMID: 1444621
18.  Changes in the hydrophobic-hydrophilic cell surface character of Halomonas elongata in response to NaCl. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1988;170(1):132-135.
Phase-partitioning studies of the euryhaline bacterium Halomonas elongata demonstrated that the hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature of the cell surface changed as the bacterium grew in different NaCl concentrations. Mid-log-phase cells grown in a high (3.4 M) NaCl concentration were more hydrophilic than were cells grown in a low (0.05 M) NaCl concentration. Mid-log-phase cells from defined medium containing 3.4 M NaCl normally produced a hydrophobicity reading of only 14 (hexadecane hydrophobicity = 100), while corresponding cells from defined medium containing 0.05M NaCl gave a hydrophobicity reading of 90. Compared with cells grown in low salt concentrations, cells grown in high salt concentrations were more hydrophilic at all stages of growth. Rapid suspension of log-phase cells grown in 1.37 M NaCl into a 0.05 or 3.4 M NaCl solution produced no detectable rapid changes in surface hydrophobicity. These data suggest that as H. elongata adapts to different NaCl concentrations, it alters the affinity of its outermost cell surface to water.
PMCID: PMC210616  PMID: 3335480

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