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1.  Neutrophil adhesion in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;96(6):2898-2906.
We have previously reported a newly discovered congenital disorder of neutrophil adhesion, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2 (LAD II). The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are similar to those seen in the classic leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, now designated type 1 (LAD I), but the two syndromes differ in the molecular basis of their adhesion defects. LAD I is caused by a deficiency in the CD18 integrin adhesion molecules while LAD II patients are deficient in expression of sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX), a carbohydrate ligand for selectins. In this report we demonstrate that neutrophils from a LAD II patient bind minimally or not at all to recombinant E-selectin, purified platelet P-selectin, or P-selectin expressed on histamine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but have normal levels of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 integrin, and adhere to and migrate across endothelium when CD11b/CD18 is activated. We compare LAD I and LAD II patient neutrophil function in vitro, demonstrating that integrin and selectin adhesion molecules have distinct but interdependent roles in neutrophil adhesion during an inflammatory response.
PMCID: PMC186001  PMID: 8675661
2.  Identification of surface proteins mediating adherence of CD11/CD18-deficient lymphoblastoid cells to cultured human endothelium. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1990;85(6):2019-2022.
Patients with the severe form of leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome do not express the CD11/CD18 adhesion complex on any of their leukocytes. Nevertheless, their lymphocytes, unlike their phagocytes, emigrate to extravascular sites of inflammation, demonstrating that surface proteins other than CD11/CD18 can mediate lymphocyte adherence to endothelium. Using a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (B-LCL) established from a CD11/CD18-deficient patient and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HEC), we investigated the CD11/CD18-independent mechanism(s) of lymphocyte adherence to endothelium. Monoclonal antibodies directed to the alpha 4 polypeptide (CD49d) and the beta 1 polypeptide (CD29) of the lymphocyte VLA-4 integrin receptor (CD49d/CD29), and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the endothelial cell significantly inhibited the adherence of the CD11/CD18-deficient B-LCL to untreated HEC and to HEC treated with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha. We suggest that the interaction of the lymphocyte receptor VLA-4 with the endothelial ligand VCAM-1 induced by cytokines at sites of inflammation or immune reaction represents a CD11/CD18-independent pathway of lymphocyte emigration.
PMCID: PMC296673  PMID: 1693380
3.  Endothelial Cell E- and P-Selectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Function as Signaling Receptors  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1998;142(5):1381-1391.
Previous studies have shown that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adherence to endothelial cells (EC) induces transient increases in EC cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that are required for PMN transit across the EC barrier (Huang, A.J., J.E. Manning, T.M. Bandak, M.C. Ratau, K.R. Hanser, and S.C. Silverstein. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:1371–1380). To determine whether stimulation of [Ca2+]i changes in EC by leukocytes was induced by the same molecules that mediate leukocyte adherence to EC, [Ca2+]i was measured in Fura2-loaded human EC monolayers. Expression of adhesion molecules by EC was induced by a pretreatment of the cells with histamine or with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and [Ca2+]i was measured in single EC after the addition of mAbs directed against the EC adhesion proteins P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), or platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). Both anti–P- and anti–E-selectin mAb, as well as anti–VCAM-1 mAb, induced transient increases in EC [Ca2+]i that were comparable to those induced by 200 μM histamine. In contrast, no effect was obtained by mAbs directed against the endothelial ICAM-1 or PECAM-1. PMN adherence directly stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i in histamine- or LPS-treated EC. mAbs directed against leukocyte CD18 or PECAM-1, the leukocyte counter-receptors for endothelial ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, respectively, did not inhibit PMN-induced EC activation. In contrast, mAb directed against sialyl Lewis x (sLex), a PMN ligand for endothelial P- and E-selectin, completely inhibited EC stimulation by adherent PMN. Changes in EC [Ca2+]i were also observed after adherence of peripheral blood monocytes to EC treated with LPS for 5 or 24 h. In these experiments, the combined addition of mAbs to sLex and VLA-4, the leukocyte counter-receptor for endothelial VCAM-1, inhibited [Ca2+]i changes in the 5 h–treated EC, whereas the anti–VLA-4 mAb alone was sufficient to inhibit [Ca2+]i changes in the 24 h-treated EC. Again, no inhibitory effect was observed with an anti-CD18 or anti–PECAM-1 mAb. Of note, the conditions that induced changes in EC [Ca2+]i, i.e., mAbs directed against endothelial selectins or VCAM-1, and PMN or monocyte adhesion to EC via selectins or VCAM-1, but not via ICAM-1 or PECAM-1, also induced a rearrangement of EC cytoskeletal microfilaments from a circumferential ring to stress fibers. We conclude that, in addition to their role as adhesion receptors, endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 mediate endothelial stimulation by adhering leukocytes.
PMCID: PMC2149355  PMID: 9732297
endothelial; adherence; signaling; selectin; VCAM-l
4.  Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II is a generalized defect of de novo GDP-fucose biosynthesis. Endothelial cell fucosylation is not required for neutrophil rolling on human nonlymphoid endothelium. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(11):2438-2445.
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II (LAD II) is a recently described syndrome and the two patients with this defect lack fucosylated glycoconjugates. These glycoconjugates include the selectin ligand, sialyl LewisX, and various fucosylated blood group antigens. To date, the molecular anomaly in these patients has not been identified. We localized the defect in LAD II to the de novo pathway of GDP-fucose biosynthesis, by inducing cell-surface expression of fucosylated glycoconjugates after exposure of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the LAD II patients to exogenous fucose. This defect is not restricted to hematopoietic cells, since similar findings were elicited in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and fibroblasts derived from an affected abortus. We have used these LAD II endothelial cells to examine the consequence of fucosylation of endothelial cells on the rolling of normal neutrophils in an in vitro assay. Neutrophil rolling on LPS-treated normal and LAD II HUVEC was inhibited by an E-selectin monoclonal antibody at both high and low shear rates. LAD II HUVEC lacking fucosylated glycoproteins supported leukocyte rolling to a similar degree as normal HUVEC or LAD II cells that were fucose-fed. At low shear rates, an L-selectin antibody inhibited neutrophil rolling to a similar degree whether the LAD II cells had been fucose-fed or not. These findings suggest that fucosylation of nonlymphoid endothelial cells does not play a major role in neutrophil rolling and that fucose is not a critical moiety on the L-selectin ligand(s) on endothelial cells of the systemic vasculature.
PMCID: PMC508833  PMID: 9616215
5.  Blockade of CD49d (alpha4 integrin) on intrapulmonary but not circulating leukocytes inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(12):3083-3092.
Immunized mice after inhalation of specific antigen have the following characteristic features of human asthma: airway eosinophilia, mucus and Th2 cytokine release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. A model of late-phase allergic pulmonary inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice was used to address the role of the alpha4 integrin (CD49d) in mediating the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Local, intrapulmonary blockade of CD49d by intranasal administration of CD49d mAb inhibited all signs of lung inflammation, IL-4 and IL-5 release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In contrast, CD49d blockade on circulating leukocytes by intraperitoneal CD49d mAb treatment only prevented the airway eosinophilia. In this asthma model, a CD49d-positive intrapulmonary leukocyte distinct from the eosinophil is the key effector cell of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.
PMCID: PMC508521  PMID: 9399955
6.  Anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody attenuates reperfusion injury to the rabbit ear. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;92(4):2042-2047.
Neutrophil adherence and/or aggregation has been implicated in ischemia reperfusion injuries. We examined the role of P-selectin in PMN-mediated injury after reperfusion of the rabbit ear. The ear was partially amputated, and then reattached leaving the central artery and vein intact. To induce ischemia the central artery was then occluded. Treatment was at reperfusion with either saline or one of two murine P-selectin mAbs, designated PB1.3 and PNB1.6 mAb PB1.3 cross-reacts with rabbit P-selectin and prevents histamine-induced leukocyte rolling, whereas PNB1.6 does not. Using a peroxidase-antiperoxidase system P-selectin was detected in the ischemic ear, but not in the nonischemic ear. Ear volume increased to 5.3 times baseline in the saline-treated animals (n = 8), 6.6 times baseline in the nonblocking mAb PNB1.6-treated animals (n = 2), and 3.7 times baseline in the blocking mAb PB1.3-treated animals (n = 8). Estimated tissue necrosis of the combined saline- and PNB1.6-treated animals was 46 vs. 2.7% for the mAb PB1.3-treated animals. We conclude that: (a) P-selectin is expressed in ischemia reperfusion; (b) P-selectin participates in PMN-endothelial cell interactions in ischemia reperfusion; and (c) inhibiting P-selectin adhesion significantly reduces reperfusion injury.
PMCID: PMC288372  PMID: 7691890
7.  CD18-independent neutrophil and mononuclear leukocyte emigration into the peritoneum of rabbits. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;92(3):1168-1173.
The CD18 mAb 60.3 and the CD49d mAb HP1/2 were given at the time of intraperitoneal instillation of either protease peptone or live Escherichia coli bacteria and at 12 h. Leukocyte emigration was evaluated at 4 and 24 h. PMN emigration 4 h after protease peptone instillation and injection of both mAbs was 10% of that in saline treatment. It was 15% of that in saline treatment after mAb 60.3 alone and unchanged by mAb HP1/2. At 24 h PMN emigration in response to protease peptone was not prevented by either CD18 or CD49d mAbs, however, when given together emigration was 10% of saline-treated animals. Mononuclear cell emigration to protease peptone was enhanced at 4 h by both CD18 and CD49d mAbs. The CD18 mAb did not augment mononuclear emigration in response to live bacteria. At 24 h, neither the CD18 nor the CD49d mAb alone blocked emigration of mononuclear cells, but the combination of the two did. These studies demonstrate that: (a) early (4 h) PMN emigration is CD11/CD18 dependent; (b) late (24 h) PMN emigration is CD11/CD18 independent; and (c) mononuclear cells utilize the integrins CD18 and CD49d.
PMCID: PMC288254  PMID: 8104195
8.  Mechanisms of eosinophil adherence to cultured vascular endothelial cells. Eosinophils bind to the cytokine-induced ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via the very late activation antigen-4 integrin receptor. 
We have examined the mechanisms involved in the adherence of normal peripheral blood eosinophils to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HEC) under three conditions: (a) adherence in the absence of treatment of HEC or eosinophils with activating agents (basal adherence); (b) adherence induced by stimulation of eosinophils with phorbol ester (eosinophil-dependent adherence); and (c) adherence induced by pretreatment of HEC with LPS, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or IL-1 (endothelial-dependent adherence). A mechanism was identified that was equally active in basal, eosinophil-dependent, and endothelial-dependent adherence. This mechanism was optimally active in the presence of both Ca++ and Mg++, and reduced in the presence of Ca++ only or Mg++ only. Furthermore, like the other mechanisms of eosinophil adherence, it was active at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. A second mechanism of adherence was involved in eosinophil- and in endothelial-dependent adherence. This mechanism was dependent on the CD11/CD18 adhesion complex of eosinophils (i.e., inhibited by anti-CD18 MAb) and it was active in the presence of Ca++ and Mg++ or Mg++ only, but not Ca++ only. The third mechanism of adherence was specific for endothelial-dependent adherence. It involved the endothelial ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the eosinophil receptor very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29, i.e., inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 MAb or anti-VLA-4 MAb). This mechanism was active in the presence of Ca++ and Mg++ but not of Ca++ only or Mg++ only, and was not up- or downregulated when eosinophils were stimulated with phorbol ester. In contrast, the endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), that binds neutrophils and monocytes, was not involved in eosinophil adherence to LPS-, TNF-, or IL-1-stimulated HEC (i.e., not inhibited by anti-ELAM-1 MAb). We conclude that eosinophils, like monocytes and lymphocytes, bind to the cytokine-induced endothelial ligand VCAM-1 via the integrin receptor VLA-4.
PMCID: PMC295997  PMID: 1711540
9.  Increased surface expression of CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) is not required for stimulated neutrophil adherence to cultured endothelium. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1988;81(3):676-682.
The mechanism whereby the human neutrophil membrane heterodimer, CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1, Mo1), mediates neutrophil adherence is not known. We studied the role of CD11b/CD18 surface expression in the promotion of neutrophil adhesiveness. We found that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore (A23187), and FMLP caused a three- to sevenfold increase in surface expression of both CD11b (alpha M) and CD18 (beta) as assayed by binding of MAbs 60.1 (anti-CD11b) and 60.3 (anti-CD18). Increased binding of MAbs was temporally associated with the promotion of neutrophil aggregation and adherence to cultured endothelial monolayers. Pretreatment of neutrophils with the anion channel-blocking agent, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), inhibited the increased surface expression of CD11b and CD18 after stimulation by PMA, A23187, or FMLP and resulted in nearly complete inhibition of neutrophil aggregation. However, pretreatment with DIDS did not diminish either PMA-, A23187-, or FMLP-stimulated neutrophil adherence to endothelial monolayers. We also observed that stimulation of granule-depleted neutrophil cytoplasts by PMA, A23187, or FMLP induced aggregation and adherence to endothelial monolayers without increasing surface expression of CD11b or CD18. We conclude that the increased surface expression of CD11b/CD18 that occurs after stimulation is neither sufficient nor necessary for enhanced adherence to endothelium. Moreover, though both are CD11b/CD18-dependent, the mechanisms involved in neutrophil aggregation are different from those involved in neutrophil adherence to endothelium.
PMCID: PMC442514  PMID: 3278004
10.  A monoclonal antibody to the adherence-promoting leukocyte glycoprotein, CD18, reduces organ injury and improves survival from hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rabbits. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1988;81(3):939-944.
Leukocytes have been shown to play an important role in the development of isolated organ injury after experimental ischemia and reperfusion. To examine the role of leukocytes in generalized ischemia-reperfusion injury we used the MAb 60.3 (directed to the human leukocyte adherence glycoprotein, CD18) to block leukocyte adherence functions in a rabbit model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In control animals subjected to 1 h of shock (mean blood pressure 45 torr and mean cardiac output 30% of baseline) followed by resuscitation, only 29% survived 5 d. All had gross and histologic evidence of injury to lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal mucosa. In contrast, 100% of the MAb 60.3-treated animals survived 5 d (P less than 0.01) and organ injury was absent or markedly attenuated. The control animals also had a persistent acidosis, lost more weight, and had evidence of continued gastrointestinal bleeding in contrast to MAb 60.3-treated animals. We conclude that increased leukocyte adhesiveness plays an important role in the development of multiple organ injury and death after generalized ischemia-reperfusion and that this injury may be significantly reduced by blocking leukocyte adherence functions with the MAb 60.3.
PMCID: PMC442549  PMID: 3278007
11.  Endothelial cell injury due to copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide generation from homocysteine. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1986;77(4):1370-1376.
We have examined whether the toxic effects of homocysteine on cultured endothelial cells could result from the formation and action of hydrogen peroxide. In initial experiments with a cell-free system, micromolar amounts of copper were found to catalyze an oxygen-dependent oxidation of homocysteine. The molar ratio of homocysteine oxidized to oxygen consumed was approximately 4.0, which suggests that oxygen was reduced to water. The addition of catalase, however, decreased oxygen consumption by nearly one-half, which suggests that H2O2 was formed during the reaction. Confirming this hypothesis, H2O2 formation was detected using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of fluorescent scopoletin. Ceruloplasmin was also found to catalyze oxidation of homocysteine and generation of H2O2 in molar amounts equivalent to copper sulfate. Finally, homocysteine oxidation was catalyzed by normal human serum in a concentration-dependent manner. Using cultured human and bovine endothelial cells, we found that homocysteine plus copper could lyse the cells in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was completely prevented by catalase. Homocystine plus copper was not toxic to the cells. Specific injury to endothelial cells was seen only after 4 h of incubation with homocysteine plus copper. Confirming the biochemical studies, ceruloplasmin was also found to be equivalent to Cu++ in its ability to cause injury to endothelial cells in the presence of homocysteine. Since elevated levels of homocysteine have been implicated in premature development of atherosclerosis, these findings may be relevant to the mechanism of some types of chronic vascular injury.
PMCID: PMC424498  PMID: 3514679
12.  Role of hydrogen peroxide in the neutrophil-mediated release of prostacyclin from cultured endothelial cells. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;74(2):442-448.
We have examined the effect of activated neutrophils on the release of prostacyclin (PGI2) from cultured endothelial cells by radioimmunoassay and thin layer chromatography of its stable metabolite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha). Phorbol myristate acetate-activated neutrophils induced a time- and dose-dependent release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from human and bovine endothelial cell monolayers, whereas phorbol myristate acetate alone and neutrophils alone did not. Pretreatment of the endothelial cells with aspirin prevented neutrophil-mediated 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release, indicating that it did not depend upon neutrophil-generated endoperoxides. Phorbol myristate acetate-activated neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease failed to induce endothelial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release. Addition of catalase but not of superoxide dismutase significantly reduced human and bovine endothelial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release by phorbol myristate acetate-activated neutrophils. Catalase-inhibitable endothelial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release was also observed after the addition of the hydrogen peroxide-generating system, glucose-glucose oxidase, to bovine and human endothelial cell monolayers. Bovine endothelial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release induced by exogenously generated hydrogen peroxide was attenuated by the phospholipase inhibitor mepacrine, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide may act by triggering endothelial membrane phospholipase activation. The release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha by enzymatically or neutrophil-generated hydrogen peroxide was not associated with endothelial cell lysis as assessed by 51Cr release. We conclude that exogenously generated hydrogen peroxide or a hydrogen peroxide-derived product mediates rapid nonlytic release of PGI2 from cultured endothelial cells.
PMCID: PMC370495  PMID: 6378974
13.  Glutathione redox cycle protects cultured endothelial cells against lysis by extracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;73(3):706-713.
We have examined the role of the glutathione redox cycle as an antioxidant defense mechanism in cultured bovine and human endothelial cells by disrupting the glutathione redox cycle at several points. Endothelial glutathione reductase was selectively inhibited with 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Cellular stores of reduced glutathione were depleted by reaction with diethylmaleate (DEM) or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) or by inhibition of glutathione synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Whereas several strains of untreated bovine and human endothelial cells were resistant to lysis by enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide, BCNU-treated cells were readily lysed in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Glucose-glucose oxidase-mediated lysis of BCNU-treated bovine endothelial cells was catalase-inhibitable and directly related to BCNU concentration and endogenous glutathione reductase activity. Pretreatment of bovine endothelial cells with BCNU did not potentiate lysis by distilled water, calcium ionophore, lipopolysaccharide, or hypochlorous acid. Depletion of cellular reduced glutathione by reaction with DEM or CDNB or by inhibition of glutathione synthesis by BSO also potentiated endothelial lysis by enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of endothelial glutathione reductase by BCNU or depletion of reduced glutathione by BSO increased endothelial susceptibility to lysis by hydrogen peroxide generated by phorbol myristate acetate-activated neutrophils. We conclude that the glutathione redox cycle plays an important role as an endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in cultured endothelial cells.
PMCID: PMC425072  PMID: 6707200
14.  Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Implications for the mode of progression of advanced coronary atherosclerosis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;92(2):945-951.
Endothelial attachment is the initial step in leukocyte recruitment into developing atherosclerotic lesions. To determine whether vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression may play a role in inflammatory cell recruitment into human atherosclerotic lesions, immunohistochemistry was performed with a polyclonal rabbit antisera, raised against recombinant human VCAM-1, on 24 atherosclerotic coronary plaques and 11 control coronary segments with nonatherosclerotic diffuse intimal thickening from 10 patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on adjacent sections to identify smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. To confirm VCAM-1-expressing cell types, double immunostaining with VCAM-1 antisera and each of the cell-specific markers and in situ hybridization were performed. All atherosclerotic plaques contained some VCAM-1, compared to 45% of control segments. VCAM-1 was found infrequently on endothelial cells at the arterial lumen din both plaques (21%) and in control segments (27%), but was prevalent in areas of neovascularization and inflammatory infiltrate in the base of plaques. Double immunostaining and in situ hybridization confirmed that most VCAM-1 was expressed by subsets of plaque smooth muscle cells and macrophages. The results document the presence of VCAM-1 in human atherosclerosis, demonstrate VCAM-1 expression by human smooth muscle cells in vivo, and suggest that intimal neovasculature may be an important site of inflammatory cell recruitment into advanced coronary lesions.
PMCID: PMC294934  PMID: 7688768
15.  In vivo behavior of neutrophils from two patients with distinct inherited leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(6):2893-2897.
The selectins and the beta 2-integrins (CD11/CD18) mediate distinct adhesive interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells. Selectins are believed to initiate binding by mediating neutrophil rolling, whereas beta 2-integrins are required for subsequent activation-induced firm sticking and emigration. In vitro evidence suggests that two endothelial cell selectins, P- and E-selectin, can mediate rolling by binding to the carbohydrate ligand sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) on neutrophil surface glycoconjugates. To test the relative contribution of selectins and beta 2-integrins in vivo we used intravital microscopy to study the behavior of neutrophils from two patients with distinct inherited leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes. Neutrophils from a patient suffering from CD18 deficiency showed normal rolling behavior but were incapable of sticking or emigrating upon chemotactic stimulation. Neutrophils from a second patient with a newly described adhesion deficiency had normal CD18 but did not express sLex. These neutrophils rolled poorly and also failed to stick in venules under shear force. Under static conditions, however, chemoattractant-induced sticking and emigration could be observed. This demonstrates that both selectin-carbohydrate-mediated initiation of adhesion and subsequent activation-induced beta 2-integrin engagement are essential for the normal function of human neutrophils in vivo.
PMCID: PMC443360  PMID: 7685776
16.  Mechanisms and consequences of leukocyte-endothelial interaction. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1991;155(4):365-369.
Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium is a critical event in host defense against microorganisms and in the repair of tissue damage. Under some circumstances, however, altered leukocyte-endothelial interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune diseases. In a number of experimental models, the inhibition of leukocyte adherence to endothelium substantially reduces vascular and tissue injury. Antiadhesion therapy may represent a novel approach to the treatment of a wide spectrum of clinical disorders.
PMCID: PMC1003014  PMID: 1685284
17.  Antilipopolysaccharide factor from horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, inhibits lipopolysaccharide activation of cultured human endothelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(5):1612-1614.
Antilipopolysaccharide (anti-LPS) factor is a basic protein that is purified from the hemocyte lysate of the Japanese and American horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus tridentatus and Limulus polyphemus). Anti-LPS factor has previously been reported to inhibit LPS-mediated activation of limulus factor C, lyse endotoxin-sensitized erythrocytes, and inhibit the growth of some gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we examine the ability of anti-LPS factor purified from T. tridentatus to inhibit the activation of cultured human endothelial cells by LPS. Anti-LPS factor inhibited the stimulation of endothelial adhesiveness for neutrophils by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum inhibition was achieved when anti-LPS factor was mixed with LPS prior to addition to the endothelial cell monolayers. Anti-LPS factor inhibited endothelial cell activation by LPS derived from Salmonella minnesota Re and Rc mutants as well as from the wild type (smooth), suggesting that it recognizes the lipid A moiety of LPS.
PMCID: PMC313321  PMID: 2707859
18.  Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates in vitro mature human neutrophil and eosinophil function, surface receptor expression, and survival. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1986;78(5):1220-1228.
A purified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rH GM-CSF) was a powerful stimulator of mature human eosinophils and neutrophils. The purified rH GM-CSF enhanced the cytotoxic activity of neutrophils and eosinophils against antibody-coated targets, stimulated phagocytosis of serum-opsonized yeast by both cell types in a dose-dependent manner, and stimulated neutrophil-mediated iodination in the presence of zymosan. In addition, rH GM-CSF enhanced N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine(FMLP)-stimulated degranulation of Cytochalasin B pretreated neutrophils and FMLP-stimulated superoxide production. In contrast, rH GM-CSF did not promote adherence of granulocytes to endothelial cells or plastic surfaces. rH GM-CSF selectively enhanced the surface expression of granulocyte functional antigens 1 and 2, and the Mo1 antigen. rH GM-CSF induced morphological changes and enhanced the survival of both neutrophils and eosinophils by 6 and 9 h, respectively. These experiments show that granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor can selectively stimulate mature granulocyte function.
PMCID: PMC423807  PMID: 3021817
19.  Neutrophil-mediated endothelial injury in vitro mechanisms of cell detachment. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1981;68(6):1394-1403.
Neutrophil-mediated endothelial injury was assessed in vitro using assays of cell lysis and cell detachment. Activation of human peripheral blood neutrophils adherent to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers by serum-treated zymosan produced dose-dependent endothelial cell detachment without concomitant cell lysis. This injury was inhibited by neutral protease inhibitors, but not by catalase or superoxide dismutase. Neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease also produced endothelial cell detachment when activated by serum-treated zymosan similar to normal neutrophils. Endothelial detachment was also produced by cell-free postsecretory media from activated neutrophils or by partially purified human neutrophil granule fraction and was inhibitable by tryptic, elastase, and serine protease inhibitors, but not by an acid protease inhibitor. Analysis of iodinated endothelial cell surface proteins that had been exposed to partially purified neutrophil granule fraction showed complete loss of proteins migrating in the region of fibronectin by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This result was prevented in the presence of neutral protease inhibitors. We conclude that neutrophil-derived neutral proteases mediate endothelial cell detachment in vitro through digestion of endothelial cell surface proteins including fibronectin.
PMCID: PMC370940  PMID: 7033282

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