The spindle checkpoint is the prime cell cycle control mechanism that ensures sister chromatids are bi-oriented before anaphase takes place. Aurora B kinase, the catalytic subunit of the chromosome passenger complex, both destabilises kinetochore attachments that do not generate tension and simultaneously maintains the spindle checkpoint signal. However, it is unclear how the checkpoint is silenced following chromosome bi-orientation. We demonstrate that association of type 1 phosphatase (PP1Dis2) to both the N-terminus of Spc7 and the non-motor domains of the Klp5-Klp6 (Kinesin-8) complex are necessary to counteract Aurora B kinase to efficiently silence the spindle checkpoint. The role of Klp5 and Klp6 in checkpoint silencing is specific to this class of kinesin and independent of their motor activities. These data demonstrate that at least two distinct pools of PP1, one kinetochore associated and the other motor associated, are needed to silence the spindle checkpoint.
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bi-oriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3(BubR1), Bub3 and the kinases Bub1, Mph1(Mps1) and Aurora B . Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension [2-5]. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing de-represses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the poly-ubiquitination of securin and cyclin which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression [6-8]. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC [9-12]. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
A variety of spindle and kinetochore defects have been shown to induce a mitotic delay through activation of the spindle checkpoint. With the aim of identifying novel mitotic defects we carried out a mad1 synthetic lethal screen in budding yeast. In this screen, four novel alleles of sfi1 were isolated. SFI1 is an essential gene, previously identified through its interaction with centrin/CDC31 and shown to be required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. The new mutations were all found in the C-terminal domain of Sfi1p, which has no known function, but it is well conserved among budding yeasts. Analysis of the novel sfi1 mutants, through a combination of light and electron microscopy, revealed duplicated SPBs <0.3 μm apart. Importantly, these SPBs have completed duplication, but they are not separated, suggesting a possible defect in splitting of the bridge. We discuss possible roles for Sfi1p in this step in bipolar spindle assembly.
Defects in chromosome segregation result in aneuploidy, which can lead to disease or cell death [1, 2]. The spindle checkpoint delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules in a bipolar fashion [3, 4]. Mad2 is a key checkpoint component that undergoes conformational activation, catalyzed by a Mad1-Mad2 template enriched at unattached kinetochores . Mad2 and Mad3 (BubR1) then bind and inhibit Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which binds and inhibits the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C). Checkpoint kinases (Aurora, Bub1, and Mps1) are critical for checkpoint signaling, yet they have poorly defined roles and few substrates have been identified [6–8]. Here we demonstrate that a kinase-dead allele of the fission yeast MPS1 homolog (Mph1) is checkpoint defective and that levels of APC/C-associated Mad2 and Mad3 are dramatically reduced in this mutant. Thus, MCC binding to fission yeast APC/C is dependent on Mph1 kinase activity. We map and mutate several phosphorylation sites in Mad2, producing mutants that display reduced Cdc20-APC/C binding and an inability to maintain checkpoint arrest. We conclude that Mph1 kinase regulates the association of Mad2 with its binding partners and thereby mitotic arrest.
► Mph1 kinase activity is required for stable binding of Mad2/3 to Cdc20Slp1-APC/C ► Mph1 kinase phosphorylates Mad2 ► mad2-S92A has reduced APC/C binding and is unable to maintain checkpoint arrest ► mad2-S187D suggests a possible role for Mph1 kinase in checkpoint inhibition
Nsk1 is a novel fission yeast protein that binds the nucleolus during interphase and the nucleoplasm during early mitosis. After anaphase and following dephosphorylation by Clp1, Nsk1 binds the kinetochore–spindle pole junction and maintains accurate chromosome segregation by promoting the association of kinetochores to spindle poles during anaphase B.
Type 1 phosphatase (PP1) antagonizes Aurora B kinase to stabilize kinetochore–microtubule attachments and to silence the spindle checkpoint. We screened for factors that exacerbate the growth defect of Δdis2 cells, which lack one of two catalytic subunits of PP1 in fission yeast, and identified Nsk1, a novel protein required for accurate chromosome segregation. During interphase, Nsk1 resides in the nucleolus but spreads throughout the nucleoplasm as cells enter mitosis. Following dephosphorylation by Clp1 (Cdc14-like) phosphatase and at least one other phosphatase, Nsk1 localizes to the interface between kinetochores and the inner face of the spindle pole body during anaphase. In the absence of Nsk1, some kinetochores become detached from spindle poles during anaphase B. If this occurs late in anaphase B, then the sister chromatids of unclustered kinetochores segregate to the correct daughter cell. These unclustered kinetochores are efficiently captured, retrieved, bioriented, and segregated during the following mitosis, as long as Dis2 is present. However, if kinetochores are detached from a spindle pole early in anaphase B, then these sister chromatids become missegregated. These data suggest Nsk1 ensures accurate chromosome segregation by promoting the tethering of kinetochores to spindle poles during anaphase B.
The spindle checkpoint delays anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Such delays can last for just a few minutes or several hours, but very shortly after all chromosomes achieve bi-orientation, a remarkably synchronous anaphase ensues. We are beginning to understand the pathways involved in silencing spindle checkpoint signals and subsequent activation of the anaphase-promoting complex. Here, we review recent advances made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating this critical cell cycle transition.
Histone variant H2A.Z has a conserved role in genome stability, although it remains unclear how this is mediated. Here we demonstrate in fission yeast that the Swr1 ATPase inserts H2A.Z (Pht1) into chromatin and Kat5 acetyltransferase (Mst1) acetylates it. Deletion or unacetylatable mutation of Pht1 leads to genome instability, primarily caused by chromosome entanglement/breakage at anaphase. This leads to the loss of telomere-proximal markers, though telomere protection and repeat length are unaffected by the absence of Pht1. Strikingly the chromosome entanglement in pht1Δ anaphase cells can be rescued by forcing chromosome condensation prior to anaphase onset. We show that the condensin complex, required for the maintenance of anaphase chromosome condensation, prematurely dissociates from chromatin in the absence of Pht1. This and other findings suggest an important role for H2A.Z in the architecture of anaphase chromosomes.
Chromosome architecture; condensin; H2A.Z; KAT5; RCA; S. pombe
Although critical for spindle checkpoint signaling, the role kinetochores play in anaphase promoting complex (APC) inhibition remains unclear. Here we show that spindle checkpoint proteins are severely depleted from unattached kinetochores in fission yeast cells lacking Bub3p. Surprisingly, a robust mitotic arrest is maintained in the majority of bub3Δ cells, yet they die, suggesting that Bub3p is essential for successful checkpoint recovery. During recovery, two defects are observed: (1) cells mis-segregate chromosomes and (2) anaphase onset is significantly delayed. We show that Bub3p is required to activate the APC upon inhibition of Aurora kinase activity in checkpoint-arrested cells, suggesting that Bub3p is required for efficient checkpoint silencing downstream of Aurora kinase. Together, these results suggest that spindle checkpoint signals can be amplified in the nucleoplasm, yet kinetochore localization of spindle checkpoint components is required for proper recovery from a spindle checkpoint-dependent arrest.
Many cancer cells display a CIN (Chromosome Instability) phenotype, by which they exhibit high rates of chromosome loss or gain at each cell cycle. Over the years, a number of different mechanisms, including mitotic spindle multipolarity, cytokinesis failure, and merotelic kinetochore orientation, have been proposed as causes of CIN. However, a comprehensive theory of how CIN is perpetuated is still lacking. We used CIN colorectal cancer cells as a model system to investigate the possible cellular mechanism(s) underlying CIN. We found that CIN cells frequently assembled multipolar spindles in early mitosis. However, multipolar anaphase cells were very rare, and live-cell experiments showed that almost all CIN cells divided in a bipolar fashion. Moreover, fixed-cell analysis showed high frequencies of merotelically attached lagging chromosomes in bipolar anaphase CIN cells, and higher frequencies of merotelic attachments in multipolar vs. bipolar prometaphases. Finally, we found that multipolar CIN prometaphases typically possessed γ-tubulin at all spindle poles, and that a significant fraction of bipolar metaphase/early anaphase CIN cells possessed more than one centrosome at a single spindle pole. Taken together, our data suggest a model by which merotelic kinetochore attachments can easily be established in multipolar prometaphases. Most of these multipolar prometaphase cells would then bi-polarize before anaphase onset, and the residual merotelic attachments would produce chromosome mis-segregation due to anaphase lagging chromosomes. We propose this spindle pole coalescence mechanism as a major contributor to chromosome instability in cancer cells.
The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance system acting in mitosis to delay anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle [1, 2]. When the checkpoint is activated, the Mad2 and Mad3 proteins directly bind and inhibit Cdc20, which is an essential activator of an E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) . When the checkpoint is satisfied, Cdc20-APC is activated and polyubiquitinates securin and cyclin, leading to the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. Several protein kinases play critical roles in spindle checkpoint signaling, but the mechanism (or mechanisms) by which they inhibit mitotic progression remains unclear . Furthermore, it is not known whether their activity needs to be reversed by protein phosphatases before anaphase onset can occur. Here we employ fission yeast to show that Aurora (Ark1) kinase activity is directly required to maintain spindle checkpoint arrest, even in the presence of many unattached kinetochores. Upon Ark1 inhibition, checkpoint complexes are disassembled and cyclin B is rapidly degraded. Importantly, checkpoint silencing and cyclin B degradation require the kinetochore-localized isoform of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1Dis2). We propose that PP1Dis2-mediated dephosphorylation of checkpoint components forms a novel spindle checkpoint silencing mechanism.
Microtubule arrays are remodeled as cells proceed through the cell cycle. It is important to understand how remodeling is regulated in time and space. In fission yeast, the conserved microtubule associated TACC/TOG complex plays an important role in organizing microtubules throughout the cell cycle. Here we show that this complex undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear import and export signals located in the TACC protein Mia1p/Alp7p. When the Crm1p-dependent nuclear export signal of Mia1p is disabled, Mia1p accumulates in the nucleus while its partner protein Alp14p/TOG is restricted to the cytoplasm. This leads to defects in assembly of both interphase arrays and the mitotic spindle. Artificial targeting of Alp14p to the nucleus partially rescues the mitotic spindle defects caused by lack of Mia1p nuclear export. Interestingly, the nuclear export sequence of Mia1p appears to overlap with the Alp14p binding site. We propose that intricate regulation of the subcellular distribution of TACC/TOG complexes drives microtubule array remodeling as cells progress through the cell cycle.
Kinetochores are considered to be the key structures that physically connect spindle microtubules to the chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Due to different mechanisms of spindle assembly between centrosome-containing mitotic cells and acentrosomal meiotic oocytes, it is unclear how a meiotic spindle generates the poleward forces to drive two rounds of meiotic chromosome segregation to achieve genome haploidization. We took advantage of the fact that DNA beads are able to induce bipolar spindle formation without kinetochores and studied the behavior of DNA beads in the induced spindle in mouse eggs during meiosis II. Interestingly, DNA beads underwent poleward movements that were similar in timing and speed to the meiotic chromosomes, although all the beads moved together to the same spindle pole. Disruption of dynein function abolished the poleward movements of DNA beads but not of the meiotic chromosomes, suggesting the existence of different dynein-dependent and dynein-independent force generation mechanisms for the chromosome poleward movement, and the latter may be dependent on the presence of kinetochores. Consistent with the observed DNA bead poleward movement, sperm haploid chromatin (which also induced bipolar spindle formation after injection to a metaphase egg without forming detectable kinetochore structures) also underwent similar poleward movement at anaphase as DNA beads. The results suggest that in the chromatin-induced meiotic spindles, kinetochore attachments to spindle microtubules are not absolutely required for chromatin poleward movements at anaphase.
It is widely accepted that of the four Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes (defined by the associations of either Rfc1p, Ctf18p, Elg1p or Rad24p with Rfc2p-Rfc5p), only Ctf18-RFC functions in sister chromatid cohesion. This model is based on findings that CTF18 deletion is lethal in combination with mutations in either CTF7ECO1 or MCD1 sister chromatid cohesion genes and that ctf18 mutant cells exhibit cohesion defects. Here, we report that Elg1-RFC not only participates in cohesion but performs a function that is distinct from that of Ctf18-RFC. The results show that deletion of ELG1 rescues both ctf7eco1 mutant cell temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects. Moreover, over-expression of ELG1 enhances ctf7eco1 mutant cell phenotypes. These findings suggest that the balance of Ctf7pEco1p activity depends on both Ctf18-RFC and Elg1-RFC. We also report that ELG1 deletion produces cohesion defects and intensifies the conditional phenotype of mcd1 mutant cells, further supporting a role for Elg1-RFC in cohesion. Attesting to the specificity of these interactions, deletion of RAD24 neither suppressed nor exacerbated cohesion defects in either ctf7eco1 or mcd1 mutant cells. While parallel analyses failed to uncover a similar role in cohesion for Rad24-RFC, it is well known that Rad24-RFC, Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC play key roles in DNA damage responses. We tested and found that Ctf7pEco1p plays a significant role in Rad24-RFC-based DNA response pathways. In combination, these findings challenge current views and document new and distinct roles for RFC complexes in cohesion and for Ctf7pEco1p in DNA repair.
Müller et al. (Reports, 27 October 2006, p. 654) showed that inhibition of the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which led them to suggest that γ-TuRC proteins play molecular roles in SAC activation. Because γ-TuRC inhibition leads to pleiotropic spindle defects, which are well known to activate kinetochore-derived checkpoint signaling, we believe that this conclusion is premature.
Mitotic progression is driven by proteolytic destruction of securin and cyclins. These proteins are labeled for destruction by an ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3) known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C requires activators (Cdc20 or Cdh1) to efficiently recognize its substrates, which are specified by destruction (D box) and/or KEN box signals. The spindle assembly checkpoint responds to unattached kinetochores and to kinetochores lacking tension, both of which reflect incomplete biorientation of chromosomes, by delaying the onset of anaphase. It does this by inhibiting Cdc20-APC/C. Certain checkpoint proteins interact directly with Cdc20, but it remains unclear how the checkpoint acts to efficiently inhibit Cdc20-APC/C activity. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we find that the Mad3 and Mad2 spindle checkpoint proteins interact stably with the APC/C in mitosis. Mad3 contains two KEN boxes, conserved from yeast Mad3 to human BubR1, and mutation of either of these abrogates the spindle checkpoint. Strikingly, mutation of the N-terminal KEN box abolishes incorporation of Mad3 into the mitotic checkpoint complex (Mad3-Mad2-Slp1 in S. pombe, where Slp1 is the Cdc20 homolog that we will refer to as Cdc20 hereafter) and stable association of both Mad3 and Mad2 with the APC/C. Our findings demonstrate that this Mad3 KEN box is a critical mediator of Cdc20-APC/C inhibition, without which neither Mad3 nor Mad2 can associate with the APC/C or inhibit anaphase onset.
The spindle checkpoint delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes have attached in a bi-polar manner to the mitotic spindle. Mad and Bub proteins are recruited to unattached kinetochores, and generate diffusible anaphase inhibitors. Checkpoint models propose that Mad1 and Bub1 act as stable kinetochore-bound scaffolds, to enhance recruitment of Mad2 and Mad3/BubR1, but this remains untested for Bub1. Here, fission yeast FRAP experiments confirm that Bub1 stably binds kinetochores, and by tethering Bub1 to telomeres we demonstrate that it is sufficient to recruit anaphase inhibitors in a kinase-independent manner. We propose that the major checkpoint role for Bub1 is as a signalling scaffold.
During cell division all chromosomes must be segregated accurately to each daughter cell. Errors in this process give rise to aneuploidy, which leads to birth defects and is implicated in cancer progression. The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures high fidelity of chromosome segregation by inhibiting anaphase until all kinetochores have established bipolar attachments to spindle microtubules. Bub1 kinase is a core component of the spindle checkpoint, and cells lacking Bub1 fail to arrest in response to microtubule drugs and precociously segregate their DNA. The mitotic role(s) of Bub1 kinase activity remain elusive, and it is controversial whether this C-terminal domain of Bub1p is required for spindle checkpoint arrest. Here we make a detailed analysis of budding yeast cells lacking the kinase domain (bub1ΔK). We show that despite being able to arrest in response to microtubule depolymerisation and kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects, bub1ΔK cells are sensitive to microtubule drugs. This is because bub1ΔK cells display significant chromosome mis-segregation upon release from nocodazole arrest. bub1ΔK cells mislocalise Sgo1p, and we demonstrate that both the Bub1 kinase domain and Sgo1p are required for accurate chromosome biorientation after nocodazole treatment. We propose that Bub1 kinase and Sgo1p act together to ensure efficient biorientation of sister chromatids during mitosis.
Many human diseases, including birth defects and cancer, are associated with aneuploidy. This is where cells have an incorrect number of chromosomes, because of a failure to segregate their genetic material accurately during cell division. Cells employ many control mechanisms to ensure an extremely high fidelity of chromosome segregation. One way that they do this is to hold the replicated copies of their chromosomes (known as sister chromatids) together until they are all attached properly to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. All pairs of sister chromatids must have one sister attached to each of the two spindle poles, a process known as biorientation. Here we demonstrate that the Bub1 kinase domain acts to target Sgo1 to budding yeast centromeres, and that both of these proteins are required for efficient biorientation of chromosomes in yeast mitosis. Bub1 kinase and Sgo1 functions become particularly important during spindle reassembly after antimicrotubule drug treatment. We propose that this is because the mutant cells fail to respond to kinetochores that are not under tension, and that they are unable to correct syntelic attachments where both sister chromatids attach to microtubules from the same spindle pole.
Fission yeast has two members of the Shugoshin family, Sgo1 and Sgo2. Although Sgo1 has clearly been established as a protector of centromere cohesion in meiosis I, the roles of Sgo2 remain elusive. Here we show that Sgo2 is required to ensure proper chromosome biorientation upon recovery from a prolonged spindle checkpoint arrest. Consistent with this, Sgo2 is essential for maintaining the Passenger proteins on centromeres upon checkpoint activation. Interestingly, lack of Sgo2 has a more penetrant effect on the localization of Survivin than on the two other Passenger proteins INCENP and Aurora B, and the Survivin-INCENP complex but not the INCENP-Aurora B complex is destabilized in the absence of Sgo2. Finally we show that the conserved C-terminus of Sgo2 is crucial to maintain Sgo2 and Passenger proteins localization on centromeres upon prolonged checkpoint activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sgo2 is important for chromosome biorientation and that it controls docking of the Passenger proteins on chromosomes in early mitotic cells.
Mitotic progression is controlled by proteolytic destruction of securin and cyclin. The mitotic E3 ubiquitin ligase, known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in partnership with its activators Cdc20p and Cdh1p, targets these proteins for degradation. In the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule interactions, APC/CCdc20 is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint, thereby delaying anaphase onset and providing more time for spindle assembly. Cdc20p interacts directly with Mad2p, and its levels are subject to careful regulation, but the precise mode(s) of APC/C Cdc20 inhibition remain unclear. The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC, consisting of Mad3p, Mad2p, Bub3p and Cdc20p in budding yeast) is a potent APC/C inhibitor. Here we focus on Mad3p and how it acts, in concert with Mad2p, to efficiently inhibit Cdc20p. We identify and analyse the function of two motifs in Mad3p, KEN30 and KEN296, which are conserved from yeast Mad3p to human BubR1. These KEN amino acid sequences resemble ‘degron’ signals that confer interaction with APC/C activators and target proteins for degradation. We show that both Mad3p KEN boxes are necessary for spindle checkpoint function. Mutation of KEN30 abolished MCC formation and stabilised Cdc20p in mitosis. In addition, mutation of Mad3-KEN30, APC/C subunits, or Cdh1p, stabilised Mad3p in G1, indicating that the N-terminal KEN box could be a Mad3p degron. To determine the significance of Mad3p turnover, we analysed the consequences of MAD3 overexpression and found that four-fold overproduction of Mad3p led to chromosome bi-orientation defects and significant chromosome loss during recovery from anti-microtubule drug induced checkpoint arrest. In conclusion, Mad3p KEN30 mediates interactions that regulate the proteolytic turnover of Cdc20p and Mad3p, and the levels of both of these proteins are critical for spindle checkpoint signaling and high fidelity chromosome segregation.
During mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) responds to faulty attachments between kinetochores and the mitotic spindle by imposing a metaphase arrest until the defect is corrected, thereby preventing chromosome missegregation. A genetic screen to isolate SAC mutants in fission yeast yielded point mutations in three fission yeast SAC genes: mad1, bub3, and bub1. The bub1-A78V mutant is of particular interest because it produces a wild-type amount of protein that is mutated in the conserved but uncharacterized Mad3-like region of Bub1p. Characterization of mutant cells demonstrates that the alanine at position 78 in the Mad3-like domain of Bub1p is required for: 1) cell cycle arrest induced by SAC activation; 2) kinetochore accumulation of Bub1p in checkpoint-activated cells; 3) recruitment of Bub3p and Mad3p, but not Mad1p, to kinetochores in checkpoint-activated cells; and 4) nuclear accumulation of Bub1p, Bub3p, and Mad3p, but not Mad1p, in cycling cells. Increased targeting of Bub1p-A78V to the nucleus by an exogenous nuclear localization signal does not significantly increase kinetochore localization or SAC function, but GFP fused to the isolated Bub1p Mad 3-like accumulates in the nucleus. These data indicate that Bub1p-A78V is defective in both nuclear accumulation and kinetochore targeting and that a threshold level of nuclear Bub1p is necessary for the nuclear accumulation of Bub3p and Mad3p.
Several lines of evidence suggest that kinetochores are organizing centers for the spindle checkpoint response and the synthesis of a “wait anaphase” signal in cases of incomplete or improper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Here we characterize Schizosaccharomyces pombe Bub3p and study the recruitment of spindle checkpoint components to kinetochores. We demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation that they all interact with the central domain of centromeres, consistent with their role in monitoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Bub1p and Bub3p are dependent upon one another, but independent of the Mad proteins, for their kinetochore localization. We demonstrate a clear role for the highly conserved N-terminal domain of Bub1p in the robust targeting of Bub1p, Bub3p, and Mad3p to kinetochores and show that this is crucial for an efficient checkpoint response. Surprisingly, neither this domain nor kinetochore localization is required for other functions of Bub1p in chromosome segregation.
The spindle checkpoint plays a central role in the fidelity of chromosome transmission by ensuring that anaphase is initiated only after kinetochore-microtubule associations of all sister chromatid pairs are complete. In this study, we find that known spindle checkpoint proteins do not contribute equally to chromosome segregation fidelity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Loss of Bub1 or Bub3 protein elicits the largest effect. Analysis of Bub1p reveals the presence of two molecular functions. An N-terminal 608-amino acid (nonkinase) portion of the protein supports robust checkpoint activity, and, as expected, contributes to chromosome segregation. A C-terminal kinase-encoding segment independently contributes to chromosome segregation through an unknown mechanism. Both molecular functions depend on association with Bub3p. A 156-amino acid fragment of Bub1p functions in Bub3p binding and in kinetochore localization by one-hybrid assay. An adjacent segment is required for Mad1p binding, detected by deletion analysis and coimmunoprecipitation. Finally, overexpression of wild-type BUB1 or MAD3 genes leads to chromosome instability. Analysis of this activity indicates that the Bub3p-binding domain of Bub1p contributes to this phenotype through disruption of checkpoint activity as well as through introduction of kinetochore or spindle damage.
The spindle checkpoint delays the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in response to spindle and kinetochore defects. Genetic screens in budding yeast identified the Mad and Bub proteins as key components of this conserved regulatory pathway. Here we present the fission yeast homologue of Mad3p. Cells devoid of mad3+ are unable to arrest their cell cycle in the presence of microtubule defects. Mad3p coimmunoprecipitates Bub3p, Mad2p, and the spindle checkpoint effector Slp1/Cdc20p. We demonstrate that Mad3p function is required for the overexpression of Mad2p to result in a metaphase arrest. Mad1p, Bub1p, and Bub3p are not required for this arrest. Thus, Mad3p appears to have a crucial role in transducing the inhibitory “wait anaphase” signal to the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Mad3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) is recruited to unattached kinetochores early in mitosis and accumulates there upon prolonged checkpoint activation. For the first time, we have systematically studied the dependency of Mad3/BubR1 protein recruitment to kinetochores. We find Mad3-GFP kinetochore localization to be dependent upon Bub1p, Bub3p, and the Mph1p kinase, but not upon Mad1p or Mad2p. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of our current understanding of spindle checkpoint function.
The activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), Cdc28, inhibits the transition from anaphase to G1 in budding yeast. CDC28-T18V, Y19F (CDC28-VF), a mutant that lacks inhibitory phosphorylation sites, delays the exit from mitosis and is hypersensitive to perturbations that arrest cells in mitosis. Surprisingly, this behavior is not due to a lack of inhibitory phosphorylation or increased kinase activity, but reflects reduced activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a defect shared with other mutants that lower Cdc28/Clb activity in mitosis. CDC28-VF has reduced Cdc20- dependent APC activity in mitosis, but normal Hct1- dependent APC activity in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The defect in Cdc20-dependent APC activity in CDC28-VF correlates with reduced association of Cdc20 with the APC. The defects of CDC28-VF suggest that Cdc28 activity is required to induce the metaphase to anaphase transition and initiate the transition from anaphase to G1 in budding yeast.
anaphase-promoting complex; Hct1; Cdc20; Pds1; sister chromatid separation
We show that MAD3 encodes a novel 58-kD nuclear protein which is not essential for viability, but is an integral component of the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast. Sequence analysis reveals two regions of Mad3p that are 46 and 47% identical to sequences in the NH2-terminal region of the budding yeast Bub1 protein kinase. Bub1p is known to bind Bub3p (Roberts et al. 1994) and we use two-hybrid assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments to show that Mad3p can also bind to Bub3p. In addition, we find that Mad3p interacts with Mad2p and the cell cycle regulator Cdc20p. We show that the two regions of homology between Mad3p and Bub1p are crucial for these interactions and identify loss of function mutations within each domain of Mad3p. We discuss roles for Mad3p and its interactions with other spindle checkpoint proteins and with Cdc20p, the target of the checkpoint.
MAD3; checkpoint; BUB3; CDC20; MAD2