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1.  An Image-Based Algorithm for Precise and Accurate High Throughput Assessment of Drug Activity against the Human Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87188.
We present a customized high content (image-based) and high throughput screening algorithm for the quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in host cells. Based solely on DNA staining and single-channel images, the algorithm precisely segments and identifies the nuclei and cytoplasm of mammalian host cells as well as the intracellular parasites infecting the cells. The algorithm outputs statistical parameters including the total number of cells, number of infected cells and the total number of parasites per image, the average number of parasites per infected cell, and the infection ratio (defined as the number of infected cells divided by the total number of cells). Accurate and precise estimation of these parameters allow for both quantification of compound activity against parasites, as well as the compound cytotoxicity, thus eliminating the need for an additional toxicity-assay, hereby reducing screening costs significantly. We validate the performance of the algorithm using two known drugs against T.cruzi: Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. Also, we have checked the performance of the cell detection with manual inspection of the images. Finally, from the titration of the two compounds, we confirm that the algorithm provides the expected half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the anti-T. cruzi activity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087188
PMCID: PMC3913590  PMID: 24503652
2.  Identification of Novel Compounds Inhibiting Chikungunya Virus-Induced Cell Death by High Throughput Screening of a Kinase Inhibitor Library 
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting weeks to years. The re-emergence of CHIKV has resulted in numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere, and threatens to expand in the foreseeable future. Unfortunately, no effective treatment is currently available. The present study reports the use of resazurin in a cell-based high-throughput assay, and an image-based high-content assay to identify and characterize inhibitors of CHIKV-infection in vitro. CHIKV is a highly cytopathic virus that rapidly kills infected cells. Thus, cell viability of HuH-7 cells infected with CHIKV in the presence of compounds was determined by measuring metabolic reduction of resazurin to identify inhibitors of CHIKV-associated cell death. A kinase inhibitor library of 4,000 compounds was screened against CHIKV infection of HuH-7 cells using the resazurin reduction assay, and the cell toxicity was also measured in non-infected cells. Seventy-two compounds showing ≥50% inhibition property against CHIKV at 10 µM were selected as primary hits. Four compounds having a benzofuran core scaffold (CND0335, CND0364, CND0366 and CND0415), one pyrrolopyridine (CND0545) and one thiazol-carboxamide (CND3514) inhibited CHIKV-associated cell death in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values between 2.2 µM and 7.1 µM. Based on image analysis, these 6 hit compounds did not inhibit CHIKV replication in the host cell. However, CHIKV-infected cells manifested less prominent apoptotic blebs typical of CHIKV cytopathic effect compared with the control infection. Moreover, treatment with these compounds reduced viral titers in the medium of CHIKV-infected cells by up to 100-fold. In conclusion, this cell-based high-throughput screening assay using resazurin, combined with the image-based high content assay approach identified compounds against CHIKV having a novel antiviral activity - inhibition of virus-induced CPE - likely by targeting kinases involved in apoptosis.
Author Summary
Recent outbreaks and expanding global distribution of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in different regions of Asia, Africa and Europe necessitates the development of effective therapeutic interventions. At present, only two antiviral compounds (chloroquine and ribavirin) that inhibit viral infection in vitro have been used in clinical cases of chikungunya infections. However, neither of these compounds have shown strong efficacy in vivo. Recent attempts to identify new antiviral candidates for CHIKV using cell-based phenotypic approach have been reported. In this study, we developed a simple cell-based high-throughput assay using resazurin to identify potential anti-CHIKV compounds. This high-throughput assay is based on the metabolic reduction of resazurin to the highly fluorescent resorufin by viable cells as an indicator of activity against CHIKV-induced CPE. We screened 4,000 small molecules belonging to the BioFocus kinase inhibitor chemical library and found a cluster of related molecules with antiviral activity against CHIKV. Finally, we characterized the putative mode of action of these active compounds using an image-based high content assay and conventional virological methods (i.e., virus yield reduction assay, microneutralization assay).
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002471
PMCID: PMC3814572  PMID: 24205414
3.  An Image Analysis Algorithm for Malaria Parasite Stage Classification and Viability Quantification 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61812.
With more than 40% of the world’s population at risk, 200–300 million infections each year, and an estimated 1.2 million deaths annually, malaria remains one of the most important public health problems of mankind today. With the propensity of malaria parasites to rapidly develop resistance to newly developed therapies, and the recent failures of artemisinin-based drugs in Southeast Asia, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial compounds with novel mechanisms of action to be developed against multidrug resistant malaria. We present here a novel image analysis algorithm for the quantitative detection and classification of Plasmodium lifecycle stages in culture as well as discriminating between viable and dead parasites in drug-treated samples. This new algorithm reliably estimates the number of red blood cells (isolated or clustered) per fluorescence image field, and accurately identifies parasitized erythrocytes on the basis of high intensity DAPI-stained parasite nuclei spots and Mitotracker-stained mitochondrial in viable parasites. We validated the performance of the algorithm by manual counting of the infected and non-infected red blood cells in multiple image fields, and the quantitative analyses of the different parasite stages (early rings, rings, trophozoites, schizonts) at various time-point post-merozoite invasion, in tightly synchronized cultures. Additionally, the developed algorithm provided parasitological effective concentration 50 (EC50) values for both chloroquine and artemisinin, that were similar to known growth inhibitory EC50 values for these compounds as determined using conventional SYBR Green I and lactate dehydrogenase-based assays.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061812
PMCID: PMC3634010  PMID: 23626733
4.  Transcription Sites Are Developmentally Regulated during the Asexual Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55539.
Increasing evidence shows that the spatial organization of transcription is an important epigenetic factor in eukaryotic gene regulation. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum shows a remarkably complex pattern of gene expression during the erythrocytic cycle, paradoxically contrasting with the relatively low number of putative transcription factors encoded by its genome. The spatial organization of nuclear subcompartments has been correlated with the regulation of virulence genes. Here, we investigate the nuclear architecture of transcription during the asexual cycle of malaria parasites. As in mammals, transcription is organized into discrete nucleoplasmic sites in P. falciparum, but in a strikingly lower number of foci. An automated analysis of 3D images shows that the number and intensity of transcription sites vary significantly between rings and trophozoites, although the nuclear volume remains constant. Transcription sites are spatially reorganized during the asexual cycle, with a higher proportion of foci located in the outermost nuclear region in rings, whereas in trophozoites, foci are evenly distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. As in higher eukaryotes, transcription sites are predominantly found in areas of low chromatin density. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that transcription sites form an exclusive nuclear compartment, different from the compartments defined by the silenced or active chromatin markers. In conclusion, these data suggest that transcription is spatially contained in discrete foci that are developmentally regulated during the asexual cycle of malaria parasites and located in areas of low chromatin density.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055539
PMCID: PMC3567098  PMID: 23408998
5.  An Image-Based Drug Susceptibility Assay Targeting the Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41765.
Placental malaria is a significant cause of all malaria-related deaths globally for which no drugs have been developed to specifically disrupt its pathogenesis. To facilitate the discovery of antimalarial drugs targeting the cytoadherence process of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes in the placenta microvasculature, we have developed an automated image-based assay for high-throughput screening for potent cytoadherence inhibitors in vitro. Parasitized erythrocytes were drug-treated for 24 h and then allowed to adhere on a monolayer of placental BeWo cells prior to red blood cell staining with glycophorin A antibodies. Upon image-acquisition, drug effects were quantified as the proportion of treated parasitized erythrocytes to BeWo cells compared to the binding of untreated iRBCs. We confirmed the reliability of this new assay by comparing the binding ratios of CSA- and CD36-panned parasites on the placental BeWo cells, and by quantifying the effects of chondroitin sulfate A, brefeldin A, and artemisinin on the binding. By simultaneously examining the drug effects on parasite viability, we could discriminate between cytoadherence-specific inhibitors and other schizonticidal compounds. Taken together, our data establish that the developed assay is highly suitable for drug studies targeting placental malaria, and will facilitate the discovery and rapid development of new therapies against malaria.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041765
PMCID: PMC3430655  PMID: 22952585
6.  Extending Transfer Entropy Improves Identification of Effective Connectivity in a Spiking Cortical Network Model 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27431.
Transfer entropy (TE) is an information-theoretic measure which has received recent attention in neuroscience for its potential to identify effective connectivity between neurons. Calculating TE for large ensembles of spiking neurons is computationally intensive, and has caused most investigators to probe neural interactions at only a single time delay and at a message length of only a single time bin. This is problematic, as synaptic delays between cortical neurons, for example, range from one to tens of milliseconds. In addition, neurons produce bursts of spikes spanning multiple time bins. To address these issues, here we introduce a free software package that allows TE to be measured at multiple delays and message lengths. To assess performance, we applied these extensions of TE to a spiking cortical network model (Izhikevich, 2006) with known connectivity and a range of synaptic delays. For comparison, we also investigated single-delay TE, at a message length of one bin (D1TE), and cross-correlation (CC) methods. We found that D1TE could identify 36% of true connections when evaluated at a false positive rate of 1%. For extended versions of TE, this dramatically improved to 73% of true connections. In addition, the connections correctly identified by extended versions of TE accounted for 85% of the total synaptic weight in the network. Cross correlation methods generally performed more poorly than extended TE, but were useful when data length was short. A computational performance analysis demonstrated that the algorithm for extended TE, when used on currently available desktop computers, could extract effective connectivity from 1 hr recordings containing 200 neurons in ∼5 min. We conclude that extending TE to multiple delays and message lengths improves its ability to assess effective connectivity between spiking neurons. These extensions to TE soon could become practical tools for experimentalists who record hundreds of spiking neurons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027431
PMCID: PMC3216957  PMID: 22102894

Results 1-6 (6)