circular RNAs; MicroRNAs; Databases; Genetic; Parkinson disease; cancer
Metformin is an oral biguanide commonly used for the treatment of type II diabetes and has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-proliferative properties that can be exploited for the prevention and treatment of a variety of cancers. The mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, we examined the effects of metformin on endometrial tumors with defined aberrations in the PI3K/PTEN/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways to understand metformin mechanism of action and identify clinically useful predictors of response to this agent. In vitro assays of proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis were used to quantify the effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cell lines with mutations in the PI3K/PTEN/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. The in vivo effects of oral metformin on tumor progression were further examined using xenograft mouse models of endometrial cancer. K-Ras localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy using GFP-labeled oncogenic K-Ras and by immunoblot following subcellular fractionation. Metformin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased tumor growth in preclinical endometrial cancer models, with the greatest response observed in cells harboring activating mutations in K-Ras. Furthermore, metformin displaces constitutively active K-Ras from the cell membrane, causing uncoupling of the MAPK signaling pathway. These studies provide a rationale for clinical trials using metformin in combination with PI3K targeted agents for tumors harboring activating K-Ras mutations, and reveal a novel mechanism of action for metformin.
metformin; endometrial cancer; K-Ras; PTEN
Caveolae transduce mechanical stress into plasma membrane lipid alterations that disrupt Ras organization in an isoform-specific manner and modulate downstream signal transduction.
The molecular mechanisms whereby caveolae exert control over cellular signaling have to date remained elusive. We have therefore explored the role caveolae play in modulating Ras signaling. Lipidomic and gene array analyses revealed that caveolin-1 (CAV1) deficiency results in altered cellular lipid composition, and plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylserine distribution. These changes correlated with increased K-Ras expression and extensive isoform-specific perturbation of Ras spatial organization: in CAV1-deficient cells K-RasG12V nanoclustering and MAPK activation were enhanced, whereas GTP-dependent lateral segregation of H-Ras was abolished resulting in compromised signal output from H-RasG12V nanoclusters. These changes in Ras nanoclustering were phenocopied by the down-regulation of Cavin1, another crucial caveolar structural component, and by acute loss of caveolae in response to increased osmotic pressure. Thus, we postulate that caveolae remotely regulate Ras nanoclustering and signal transduction by controlling PM organization. Similarly, caveolae transduce mechanical stress into PM lipid alterations that, in turn, modulate Ras PM organization.
Lipid-anchored Ras GTPases form transient, spatially segregated nanoclusters on the plasma membrane that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission. The lipid composition of Ras nanoclusters, however, has not previously been investigated. High-resolution spatial mapping shows that different Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions, indicating that Ras proteins engage in isoform-selective lipid sorting and accounting for different signal outputs from different Ras isoforms. Phosphatidylserine is a common constituent of all Ras nanoclusters but is only an obligate structural component of K-Ras nanoclusters. Segregation of K-Ras and H-Ras into spatially and compositionally distinct lipid assemblies is exquisitely sensitive to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine levels. Phosphatidylserine spatial organization is also modified by Ras nanocluster formation. In consequence, Ras nanoclusters engage in remote lipid-mediated communication, whereby activated H-Ras disrupts the assembly and operation of spatially segregated K-Ras nanoclusters. Computational modeling and experimentation reveal that complex effects of caveolin and cortical actin on Ras nanoclustering are similarly mediated through regulation of phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that phosphatidylserine maintains the lateral segregation of diverse lipid-based assemblies on the plasma membrane and that lateral connectivity between spatially remote lipid assemblies offers important previously unexplored opportunities for signal integration and signal processing.
The Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is an important signaling module in cells. One regulator of the Ras-ERK cascade is phosphatidic acid (PA) generated by phospholipase D (PLD) and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Using a newly developed PA biosensor, PASS (phosphatidic acid biosensor with superior sensitivity), we found that PA was generated sequentially by PLD and DGK in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HCC1806 breast cancer cells. Inhibition of PLD2, one of the two PLD members, was sufficient to eliminate most of the PA production, whereas inhibition of DGK decreased PA production only at the later stages of EGF stimulation, suggesting that PLD2 precedes DGK activation. The temporal production of PA by PLD2 is important for the nuclear activation of ERK. While inhibition of both PLD and DGK had no effect on the overall ERK activity, inhibition of PLD2 but not PLD1 or DGK blocked the nuclear ERK activity in several cancer cell lines. The decrease of active ERK in the nucleus inhibited the activation of Elk1, c-fos, and Fra1, the ERK nuclear targets, leading to decreased proliferation of HCC1806 cells. Together, these findings reveal that PA production by PLD2 determines the output of ERK in cancer cell growth factor signaling.
ontologies; phenotype; data representation; phenotype measurement; measurement ontologies
semantic biology; biological ontologies; semantic web; data representation; data analysis
In mammalian cells three closely related cavin proteins cooperate with the scaffolding protein caveolin to form membrane invaginations known as caveolae. Here we have developed a novel single-molecule fluorescence approach to directly observe interactions and stoichiometries in protein complexes from cell extracts and from in vitro synthesized components. We show that up to 50 cavins associate on a caveola. However, rather than forming a single coat complex containing the three cavin family members, single-molecule analysis reveals an exquisite specificity of interactions between cavin1, cavin2 and cavin3. Changes in membrane tension can flatten the caveolae, causing the release of the cavin coat and its disassembly into separate cavin1-cavin2 and cavin1-cavin3 subcomplexes. Each of these subcomplexes contain 9 ± 2 cavin molecules and appear to be the building blocks of the caveolar coat. High resolution immunoelectron microscopy suggests a remarkable nanoscale organization of these separate subcomplexes, forming individual striations on the surface of caveolae.
If you could look closely enough at the surface of some animal cells, especially fat or muscle cells, you would see that they are covered with pocket-like indents called ‘caveolae’. These structures are thought to help the cells communicate with the outside world, but they can also be used by viruses to gain entry into living cells.
Examining these caveolae even closer would reveal that these pockets contain proteins called caveolins that bind to each other—and also to cholesterol and fatty acids—to form a scaffold that help to maintain the shape of the caveolae from inside the cell. Each caveolae in a mammalian cell typically contains over 100 caveolin proteins. Caveolar coat proteins, or cavins for short, are also important building blocks for caveolae: however, we know relatively little about the interactions between caveolins and cavins.
Now, Gambin et al. have used powerful new single-molecule techniques to study these interactions. These experiments looked at the three main types of cavin proteins that associate with caveolae, and by tracking individual protein molecules they showed that cavin1 can interact with either cavin2 or cavin3, but that cavin2 and cavin3 do not interact with each other. Furthermore, cavin2 and cavin3 exist in separate stripes on a caveolae. Gambin et al. also stretched the cell membrane by forcing cells to take in extra water, and showed that this caused the cavin coat to peel away from the caveolae and break down into distinct cavin1-cavin2 and cavin1-cavin3 building blocks.
Faulty versions of caveolins and cavins have both been associated with several diseases in humans, including heart disease and muscle disorders. As such, an improved understanding of the formation and break down of caveolae may prove useful for developing treatments for these conditions.
caveolae; single-molecule; cell-free protein expression; human
Ras proteins on the plasma membrane are laterally segregated into transient nanoclusters that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission by the Ras/MAPK cascade. The dynamics of Ras nanocluster assembly and disassembly control MAPK signal output. BRaf inhibitors paradoxically activate CRaf and MAPK signaling in Ras-transformed cells. In our recent study, we showed that BRaf inhibition significantly enhances nanoclustering of oncogenic K- and N-Ras, but not H-Ras by increasing the frequency of Ras nanocluster formation. This disrupted spatiotemporal dynamics of Ras nanocluster fully accounts for the observed effects of Raf inhibitors on Ras signal transmission. Here together with other studies, we propose that the dynamics of Ras nanoclusters may represent a novel target for future therapeutic intervention.
ras proteins; nanocluster; plasma membrane; BRaf inhibitors; pharmacological target
The beta amyloid (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been a drug target for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) since 1999 with lead inhibitors now entering clinical trials. In 2011, the paralog, BACE2, became a new target for type II diabetes (T2DM) having been identified as a TMEM27 secretase regulating pancreatic β cell function. However, the normal roles of both enzymes are unclear. This study outlines their evolutionary history and new opportunities for functional genomics. We identified 30 homologs (UrBACEs) in basal phyla including Placozoans, Cnidarians, Choanoflagellates, Porifera, Echinoderms, Annelids, Mollusks and Ascidians (but not Ecdysozoans). UrBACEs are predominantly single copy, show 35–45% protein sequence identity with mammalian BACE1, are ~100 residues longer than cathepsin paralogs with an aspartyl protease domain flanked by a signal peptide and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. While multiple paralogs in Trichoplax and Monosiga pre-date the nervous system, duplication of the UrBACE in fish gave rise to BACE1 and BACE2 in the vertebrate lineage. The latter evolved more rapidly as the former maintained the emergent neuronal role. In mammals, Ka/Ks for BACE2 is higher than BACE1 but low ratios for both suggest purifying selection. The 5' exons show higher Ka/Ks than the catalytic section. Model organism genomes show the absence of certain BACE human substrates when the UrBACE is present. Experiments could thus reveal undiscovered substrates and roles. The human protease double-target status means that evolutionary trajectories and functional shifts associated with different substrates will have implications for the development of clinical candidates for both AD and T2DM. A rational basis for inhibition specificity ratios and assessing target-related side effects will be facilitated by a more complete picture of BACE1 and BACE2 functions informed by their evolutionary context.
BACE1; BACE2; Alzheimer's Disease; type II diabetes; protein family evolution
The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms.
We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems.
Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains.
Mouse inbred lines; sequence variation; mouse phenotyping; gene knockout; C57BL/6
Caveolin proteins drive formation of caveolae, specialized cell-surface microdomains that influence cell signaling. Signaling proteins are proposed to use conserved caveolin-binding motifs (CBMs) to associate with caveolae via the caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD). However, structural and bioinformatic analyses argue against such direct physical interactions: In the majority of signaling proteins, the CBM is buried and inaccessible. Putative CBMs do not form a common structure for caveolin recognition, are not enriched amongst caveolin-binding proteins, and are even more common in yeast, which lack caveolae. We propose that CBM/CSD-dependent interactions are unlikely to mediate caveolar signaling, and the basis for signaling effects should therefore be reassessed.
Ras proteins regulate signaling pathways important for cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Oncogenic mutant Ras proteins are commonly expressed in human tumors, with mutations of the K-Ras isoform being most prevalent. To be active, K-Ras must undergo posttranslational processing and associate with the plasma membrane. We therefore devised a high-content screening assay to search for inhibitors of K-Ras plasma membrane association. Using this assay, we identified fendiline, an L-type calcium channel blocker, as a specific inhibitor of K-Ras plasma membrane targeting with no detectable effect on the localization of H- and N-Ras. Other classes of L-type calcium channel blockers did not mislocalize K-Ras, suggesting a mechanism that is unrelated to calcium channel blockade. Fendiline did not inhibit K-Ras posttranslational processing but significantly reduced nanoclustering of K-Ras and redistributed K-Ras from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and cytosol. Fendiline significantly inhibited signaling downstream of constitutively active K-Ras and endogenous K-Ras signaling in cells transformed by oncogenic H-Ras. Consistent with these effects, fendiline blocked the proliferation of pancreatic, colon, lung, and endometrial cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic mutant K-Ras. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibitors of K-Ras plasma membrane localization may have utility as novel K-Ras-specific anticancer therapeutics.
Cells in some tissues acquire a polarisation in the plane of the tissue in addition to apical-basal polarity. This polarisation is commonly known as planar cell polarity and has been found to be important in developmental processes, as planar polarity is required to define the in-plane tissue coordinate system at the cellular level.
We have built an in-silico functional model of cellular polarisation that includes cellular asymmetry, cell-cell signalling and a response to a global cue. The model has been validated and parameterised against domineering non-autonomous wing hair phenotypes in Drosophila.
We have carried out a systematic comparison of in-silico polarity phenotypes with patterns observed in vivo under different genetic manipulations in the wing. This has allowed us to classify the specific functional roles of proteins involved in generating cell polarity, providing new hypotheses about their specific functions, in particular for Pk and Dsh. The predictions from the model allow direct assignment of functional roles of genes from genetic mosaic analysis of Drosophila wings.
Planar polarity; PCP; Mathematical modelling; Self organisation; Drosophila; In-silico phenotyping
The Ras GTPases comprising three main isoforms H-, N- and K-Ras operate at the plasma membrane as molecular switches in essential signaling pathways. Active concentration of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylserine in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contributes to the electrostatic potential that is required for K-Ras anchoring to the plasma membrane. We recently observed that staurosporine and related analogs: 7-oxostaurosporine, UCN-01 and UCN-02, long known as relatively non-specific protein kinase inhibitors, block endosomal sorting and recycling of phosphatidylserine, resulting in redistribution of phosphatidylserine to endosomes and endomembranes with concomitant mislocalization of K-Ras. Staurosporines are therefore a new tool to study phosphatidylserine trafficking. We discuss whether the mechanism of action of UCN-01, an FDA-approved staurosporine analog used as an anti-cancer therapeutic, is related to effects on phosphatidylserine subcellular distribution. Given the high prevalence of expression of constitutively active K-Ras in human cancers, we ask whether inhibitors of phosphatidylserine trafficking may have important therapeutic applications.
Ras GTPase; phosphatidylserine; lipid recycling; staurosporine; UCN-01
Motivation: The identification of nucleosomes along the chromatin is key to understanding their role in the regulation of gene expression and other DNA-related processes. However, current experimental methods (MNase-ChIP, MNase-Seq) sample nucleosome positions from a cell population and contain biases, making thus the precise identification of individual nucleosomes not straightforward. Recent works have only focused on the first point, where noise reduction approaches have been developed to identify nucleosome positions.
Results: In this article, we propose a new approach, termed NucleoFinder, that addresses both the positional heterogeneity across cells and experimental biases by seeking nucleosomes consistently positioned in a cell population and showing a significant enrichment relative to a control sample. Despite the absence of validated dataset, we show that our approach (i) detects fewer false positives than two other nucleosome calling methods and (ii) identifies two important features of the nucleosome organization (the nucleosome spacing downstream of active promoters and the enrichment/depletion of GC/AT dinucleotides at the centre of in vitro nucleosomes) with equal or greater ability than the other two methods.
Availability: The R code of NucleoFinder, an example datafile and instructions are available for download from https://sites.google.com/site/beckerjeremie/
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
defense responses; hormones; nitric oxide; post-translational modifications; ROS; signaling
Ras proteins are proto-oncogenes that are frequently mutated in human cancers. Three closely related isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are expressed in all cells and have overlapping but distinctive functions. Recent work has revealed how differences between the Ras isoforms in their trafficking, localization and protein-membrane orientation enable signalling specificity to be determined. We review the various strategies used to characterize compartmentalized Ras localization and signalling. Localization is an important contextual modifier of signalling networks and insights from the Ras system are of widespread relevance for researchers interested in signalling initiated from membranes.
palmitoylation; GTPase; isoforms; organelle; plasma membrane; microdomains; nanoclusters
Caveolin-1 and caveolae are differentially polarized in migrating cells in various models, and caveolin-1 expression has been shown to quantitatively modulate cell migration. PTRF/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein now established to be also necessary for caveola formation. Here we tested the effect of PTRF expression on cell migration. Using fluorescence imaging, quantitative proteomics, and cell migration assays we show that PTRF/cavin-1 modulates cellular polarization, and the subcellular localization of Rac1 and caveolin-1 in migrating cells as well as PKCα caveola recruitment. PTRF/cavin-1 quantitatively reduced cell migration, and induced mesenchymal epithelial reversion. Similar to caveolin-1, the polarization of PTRF/cavin-1 was dependent on the migration mode. By selectively manipulating PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1 expression (and therefore caveola formation) in multiple cell systems, we unveil caveola-independent functions for both proteins in cell migration.
This paper describes an approach to providing computer-interpretable logical definitions for the terms of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) using PATO, the ontology of phenotypic qualities, to link terms of the HPO to the anatomic and other entities that are affected by abnormal phenotypic qualities. This approach will allow improved computerized reasoning as well as a facility to compare phenotypes between different species. The PATO mapping will also provide direct links from phenotypic abnormalities and underlying anatomic structures encoded using the Foundational Model of Anatomy, which will be a valuable resource for computational investigations of the links between anatomical components and concepts representing diseases with abnormal phenotypes and associated genes.
Ras isoform-specific signaling from the plasma membrane appears to be regulated by interactions with distinct functional microdomains. We have developed protocols allowing the generation of 2-D spatial maps describing cell surface microdomain distributions. The combined electron microscopic (EM)-statistics approach provides nanometer scale resolution allowing both inner and outer leaflet domains to be visualized and cross-correlated with each other or with a protein of interest. In particular, the technique has allowed the interaction of Ras isoforms with signaling microdomains and proteins regulating these compartments to be screened. By allowing detailed monitoring of cell surface organization and compartmentalization the approach has widespread potential for studies of plasma membrane-dependent cell biology, including regulated signaling and membrane trafficking.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been reported to be a signaling molecule in plants. It has been well established that is has such roles in animals and it has been suggested that it is included into the group of gasotransmitters. We have recently shown that hydrogen sulfide causes stomatal opening in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. H2S can be supplied to the plant tissues from donors such as sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) or more recently from slow release H2S donor molecules such as GYY4137. Both give similar effects, that is, they cause stomatal opening. Furthermore both H2S donors reduced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) induced by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment of leaf tissues. Here similar work has been repeated in a crop plant, Capsicum anuum, and similar data has been obtained, suggesting that such effects of hydrogen sulfide on plants is not confined to model species.
abscisic acid; GYY4137; hydrogen sulfide; nitric oxide; stomatal aperture
Hydroxmethylglutaryl (HMG)-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) lower serum cholesterol but exhibit pleiotropic biological effects that are difficult to ascribe solely to cholesterol depletion. Here, we investigated the effect of lovastatin on protein prenylation and cell signaling. We show that high concentrations (50 μM) of lovastatin inhibit Ras, Rho, and Rap prenylation but that therapeutic levels of lovastatin (50 nM to 500 nM) do not. In contrast, depletion of cellular cholesterol by therapeutic levels of lovastatin increased Ras GTP loading and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rodent fibroblasts. Elevated Ras signaling was not seen in statin-treated cells if cholesterol levels were maintained by supplementation. Activation of Ras-MAPK signaling was a consequence of, and dependent on, activation of phospholipase D2 (PLD2). Expression of dominant interfering PLD2 or biochemical inhibition of PLD2 abrogated Ras and MAPK activation induced by lovastatin. In contrast, ectopic expression of wild-type PLD2 enhanced Ras and MAPK activation in response to therapeutic levels of lovastatin. Statin-induced cholesterol depletion also modestly activated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), resulting in downregulation of EGFR expression. These results suggest that statins modulate key cell signaling pathways as a direct consequence of cholesterol depletion and identify the EGFR-PLD2-Ras-MAPK axis as an important statin target.
To evaluate how well current anatomical ontologies fit the way real-world users apply anatomy terms in their data annotations.
Annotations from three diverse multi-species public-domain datasets provided a set of use cases for matching anatomical terms in two major anatomical ontologies (the Foundational Model of Anatomy and Uberon), using two lexical-matching applications (Zooma and Ontology Mapper).
Approximately 1500 terms were identified; Uberon/Zooma mappings provided 286 matches, compared to the control and Ontology Mapper returned 319 matches. For the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Zooma returned 312 matches, and Ontology Mapper returned 397.
Our results indicate that for our datasets the anatomical entities or concepts are embedded in user-generated complex terms, and while lexical mapping works, anatomy ontologies do not provide the majority of terms users supply when annotating data. Provision of searchable cross-products for compositional terms is a key requirement for using ontologies.
Although we have amassed extensive catalogues of signalling network components, our understanding of the spatiotemporal control of emergent network structures has lagged behind. Dynamic behaviour is starting to be explored throughout the genome, but analysis of spatial behaviours is still confined to individual proteins. The challenge is to reveal how cells integrate temporal and spatial information to determine specific biological functions. Key findings are the discovery of molecular signalling machines such as Ras nanoclusters, spatial activity gradients and flexible network circuitries that involve transcriptional feedback. They reveal design principles of spatiotemporal organization that are crucial for network function and cell fate decisions.