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1.  Gastric ischemia after epinephrine injection in a patient with liver cirrhosis 
Endoscopic epinephrine injection is relatively easy, quick and inexpensive. Furthermore, it has a low rate of complications, and it is widely used for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There have been several case reports of gastric ischemia after endoscopic injection therapy. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection may result in either spasm or thrombosis, leading to subsequent tissue ischemia or necrosis, although the stomach has a rich vascular supply and the vascular reserve of the intramural anastomosis. In addition to endoscopic injection therapy, smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis are risk factors of gastric ischemia. We report a case of gastric ischemia after submucosal epinephrine injection in a 51-year-old woman with hypertension and liver cirrhosis.
PMCID: PMC3554828  PMID: 23372366
Hematemesis; Epinephrine; Gastric ischemia; Liver cirrhosis; Hypertension
2.  Colonic Stent-Related Complications and Their Management 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(5):415-419.
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has been increasingly used for the management of malignant colorectal obstruction, not only as a palliative method but also as a preoperative treatment in surgical candidates. However, more recently, concerns have been raised over stent complication rates. Early complications include pain, perforation, and rectal bleeding, and late complications include stent migration and stent obstruction. With the increasing use of SEMS for treatment, physicians need to be more aware of complications occurring after the placement of these stents. This review covers the technical considerations and management of complications after colonic stenting.
PMCID: PMC4198557  PMID: 25325000
Colon; Stents; Complications
3.  Differential Growth of the Reproductive Organs during the Peripubertal Period in Male Rats 
Development & Reproduction  2013;17(4):469-475.
In mammals, puberty is a process of acquiring reproductive competence, triggering by activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin (KiSS)-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal circuit. During peripubertal period, not only the external genitalia but the internal reproductive organs have to be matured in response to the hormonal signals from hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. In the present study, we evaluated the maturation of male rat accessory sex organs during the peripubertal period using tissue weight measurement, histological analysis and RT-PCR assay. Male rats were sacrificed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 70 postnatal days (PND). The rat accessory sex organs exhibited differential growth patterns compared to those of non-reproductive organs. The growth rate of the accessory sex organs were much higher than the those of non-reproductive organs. Also, the growth spurts occurred differentially even among the accessory sex organs; the order of prepubertal organ growth spurts is testis = epididymis > seminal vesicle = prostate. Histological study revealed that the presence of sperms in seminiferous tubules and epididymal ducts at day 50, indicating the puberty onset. The number of duct and the volume of duct in epididymis and prostate were inversely correlated during the experimental period. Our RT-PCR revealed that the levels of hypothalamic GnRH transcript were increased significantly on PND 40, suggesting the activation of hypothalamic GnRH pulse-generator before puberty onset. Studies on the peripubertal male accessory sex organs will provide useful references on the growth regulation mechanism which is differentially regulated during the period in andevrepogen-sensitive organs. The detailed references will render easier development of endocrine disruption assay.
PMCID: PMC4382944  PMID: 25949164
Male rat; Accessory sex organs; Peripubertal period; Differential growth spurts.
4.  Clinical use of a ceramide-based moisturizer for treating dogs with atopic dermatitis 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(2):199-205.
In humans, skin barrier dysfunction is thought to be responsible for enhanced penetration of allergens. Similar to conditions seen in humans, canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is characterized by derangement of corneocytes and disorganization of intercellular lipids in the stratum corenum (SC) with decreased ceramide levels. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a moisturizer containing ceramide on dogs with CAD. Dogs (n = 20, 3~8 years old) with mild to moderate clinical signs were recruited and applied a moisturizer containing ceramide for 4 weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, pruritus index for canine atopic dermatitis (PICAD) scores, and canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI) scores of all dogs were evaluated. Skin samples from five dogs were also examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ruthenium tetroxide. TEWL, PICAD, and CADESI values decreased (p < 0.05) and skin hydration increased dramatically over time (p < 0.05). Electron micrographs showed that the skin barrier of all five dogs was partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that moisturizer containing ceramide was effective for treating skin barrier dysfunction and CAD symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3694192  PMID: 23814473
atopic dermatitis; ceramide; dog; skin barrier dysfunction; transmission electron microscopy
5.  Effect of Manganese Exposure on the Reproductive Organs in Immature Female Rats 
Manganese (Mn2+) is a trace element that is essential for normal physiology, and is predominantly obtained from food. Several lines of evidence, however, demonstrated that overexposure to MnCl2 exerts serious neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity and developmental toxicity, particularly in male. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 0, 1.0, 3.3, and 10 mg/kg/day doses of MnCl2 on the reproductive organs in the immature female rats. Rats (PND 22; S.D. strain) were exposed to MnCl2 (MnCl2 ∙ 4H2O) dissolved in drinking water for 2 weeks. The animals were sacrificed on PND 35, then the tissues were immediately removed and weighed. Histological studies were performed using the uteri tissue samples. Serum LH and FSH levels were measured with the specific ELISA kits. Body weights of the experimental group animals were not significantly different from those of control group animals. However, ovarian tissue weights in 1 mg and 3.3 mg MnCl2 dose groups were significantly lower than those of control animals (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Uterine tissue weights of 3.3 mg dose MnCl2 groups were significantly lower than those of control animals (p<0.01), while the 1 mg MnCl2 dose and 10 mg MnCl2 dose failed to induce any change in uterine weight. Similarly, only 3.3 mg MnCl2 dose could induce the significant decrease in the oviduct weight compared to the control group (p<0.05). Non-reproductive tissues such as adrenal and kidney failed to respond to all doses of MnCl2 exposure. The uterine histology revealed that the MnCl2 exposure could affect the myometrial cell proliferation particularly in 3.3 mg dose and 10mg dose group. Serum FSH levels were significantly decreased in 1mg MnCl2 dose and 10 MnCl2 mg groups (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In contrast, treatment with 1 mg MnCl2 dose induced a significant increment of serum LH level (p<0.05). The present study demonstrated that MnCl2 exposure is capable of inducing abnormal development of reproductive tissues, at least to some extent, and altered gonadotropin secretions in immature female rats. Combined with the well-defined actions of this metal on GnRH and prolactin secretion, one can suggest the Mn2+ might be a potential environmental mediator which is involved in the female pubertal process.
PMCID: PMC4282234  PMID: 25949103
Manganese (Mn2+); Immature female rats; Ovary; Uterus; Gonadotropins; Pubertal process
6.  Evaluation of the effect of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray on clinical signs and skin barrier function in dogs with atopic dermatitis 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2012;13(2):187-191.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a topical spray containing 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) on canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) and to evaluate the skin barrier function during the treatment of CAD. Twenty-one dogs that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for CAD were included in this study. The HCA spray was applied once a day to the lesions of all dogs for 7 or 14 days. Clinical assessment was performed before (day 0) and after treatment (day 14), and clinical responses were correlated with changes in skin barrier function. CAD severity significantly decreased after 14 days of HCA treatment based on the lesion scores (p < 0.0001), which were determined using the CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) and pruritus scores (p < 0.0001) calculated using a pruritus visual analog scale. Transepidermal water loss, a biomarker of skin barrier function, was significantly reduced compared to baseline (day 0) measurements (p = 0.0011). HCA spray was shown to be effective for significantly improving the condition of dogs suffering from CAD. This treatment also significantly improved cutaneous hydration and skin barrier function in the animals.
PMCID: PMC3386344  PMID: 22705741
atopic dermatitis; canine; hydrocortisone aceponate; transepidermal water loss
7.  Response of osteoblast-like cells cultured on zirconia to bone morphogenetic protein-2 
The aim of this study was to compare osteoblast behavior on zirconia and titanium under conditions cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2.
MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on sandblasted zirconia and sandblasted/etched titanium discs. At 24 hours after seeding MC3T3-E1, the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) gel alone and the DBM gel with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were added to the culture medium. The surface topography was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular proliferation was measured at 1, 4, and 7 days after gel loading. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured at 7 days after gel loading. The mRNA expression of ALPase, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin, and osterix were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 4 days and 7 days.
At 1, 4, and 7 days after loading the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2, cellular proliferation on the zirconia and titanium discs was similar and that of the groups cultured with the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2 was not significantly different, except for titanium with BMP-2 gel. ALPase activity was higher in the cells cultured with BMP-2 than in the other groups, but there was no difference between the zirconia and titanium. In ALPase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, Runx-2 and osterix gene expression, that of cells on zirconia or titanium with BMP-2 gel was much more highly increased than titanium without gel at day 7. The gene expression level of cells cultured on zirconia with BMP-2 was higher than that on titanium with BMP-2 at day 7.
The data in this study demonstrate that the osteoblastic cell attachment and proliferation of zirconia were comparable to those of titanium. With the stimulation of BMP-2, zirconia has a more pronounced effect on the proliferation and differentiation of the osteoblastic cells compared with titanium.
PMCID: PMC3213233  PMID: 22087413
Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Cell differentiation; Cell proliferation; Zirconium oxide
8.  Regulation of the PIS1-encoded Phosphatidylinositol Synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Zinc* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2005;280(32):29017-29024.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mineral zinc is essential for growth and metabolism. Depletion of zinc from the growth medium of wild type cells results in changes in phospholipid metabolism including an increase in phosphatidylinositol content (Iwanyshyn, W.M., Han, G.-S., and Carman, G.M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 21976–21983). We examined the effects of zinc depletion on the regulation of the PIS1-encoded phosphatidylinositol synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylinositol from CDP-diacylglycerol and inositol. Phosphatidylinositol synthase activity increased when zinc was depleted from the growth medium. Analysis of a zrt1Δ zrt2Δ mutant defective in plasma membrane zinc transport indicated that the cytoplasmic levels of zinc were responsible for the regulation of phosphatidylinositol synthase. PIS1 mRNA, its encoded protein Pis1p, and the β-galactosidase activity driven by the PPIS1-lacZ reporter gene were elevated in zinc-depleted cells. This indicated that the increase in phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was due to a transcriptional mechanism. The zinc-mediated induction of the PPIS1-lacZ reporter gene, Pis1p, and phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was lost in zap1Δ mutant cells. These data indicated that the regulation of PIS1 gene expression by zinc depletion was mediated by the zinc-regulated transcription factor Zap1p. Direct interaction between GST-Zap1p687–880 and a putative UASZRE in the PIS1 promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Mutations in the UASZRE in the PIS1 promoter abolished the GST-Zap1p687–880-DNA interaction in vitro and abolished the zinc-mediated regulation of the PIS1 gene in vivo. This work advances understanding of phospholipid synthesis regulation by zinc and the transcription control of the PIS1 gene.
PMCID: PMC1201514  PMID: 15980062

Results 1-8 (8)