Scrotal leiomyoma is a benign tumor derived from the scrotal dartos muscle; it is rare in clinical findings. The cause of the disease is not yet clear. Here, we present the case of a patient with no typical clinical features, but with some typical pathological changes. A middle-aged male patient saw a doctor for paroxysmal itching and burning of the scrotum. The physical examination revealed 3 × 5-cm2, ill-defined, pink plaques, an uneven surface, and basal infiltration with pigmentation defects in the center. Pathology results showed dermal spindle cells in nodular hyperplasia. The nucleus was round at both ends, a perinuclear halo could be seen, and staining was positive for actin and negative for S100. Therefore, the diagnosis of scrotal myoma was made.
Leiomyoma of the scrotum; Actin; S100
Primary malignant lymphoma of the prostate is exceedingly rare. Here we report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with increased urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and urinary incontinence for two years. Benign prostatic hypertrophy was suspected at primary impression. Ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic lesion of the prostate. The total serum prostate-specific antigen was within normal range. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) showed a hypermetabolic prostatic lesion. Prostate biopsy was consistent with a non-germinal center diffuse large B cell lymphoma. There was complete remission of the prostatic lesion following six cycles of chemotherapy as shown on the second PET/CT imaging. 18F-fluoro-deoxy glucose PET/CT is not only a complement to conventional imaging, but also plays a significant role in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response of prostatic lymphoma.
Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose; Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Prostatic lymphoma; Evaluation
Antiflammin-1 (AF-1), a derivative of uteroglobin (UG), is a synthetic nonapeptide with diverse biological functions. In the present study, we investigated whether AF-1 has a protective effect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
C57BL/6 mice were injected with bleomycin intratracheally to create an animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On Day 7 and Day 28, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect and antifibrotic effect, respectively, of AF-1 on the bleomycin-treated mice. The effects of AF-1 on the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were examined by a bromodeoxycytidine (BrdU) incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis.
Severe lung inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the bleomycin-treated mice on Day 7 and Day 28, respectively. Administration of AF-1 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the lung homogenates on Day 7. Histological examination revealed that AF-1 markedly reduced the number of infiltrating cells on Day 7 and attenuated the collagen deposition and destruction of lung architecture on Day 28. The hydroxyproline (HYP) content was significantly decreased in the AF-1-treated mice. In vitro, AF-1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, which was mediated by the UG receptor.
AF-1 has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in bleomycin-induced lung injury. We propose that the antifibrotic effect of AF-1 might be related to its suppression of fibroblast growth in bleomycin-treated lungs and that AF-1 has potential as a new therapeutic tool for pulmonary fibrosis.
Bleomycin; Pulmonary fibrosis; Antiflammin-1; Uteroglobin receptor
Environmental pollution with toxic heavy metals can lead to the possible contamination of the rice. Selected metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and their accumulation in rice collected from Zhejiang, China were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local adults and children. The mean levels found in rice were as follows: As, 0.080 mg/kg; Cd, 0.037 mg/kg; Hg, 0.005 mg/kg; Pb, 0.060 mg/kg. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated in combination of the rice consumption data. The mean intakes of As, Cd, Hg and Pb through rice were estimated to be 0.49, 0.23, 0.03 and 0.37 µg/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.34, 0.29, 0.04 and 0.47 µg/kg bw/day for children. The 97.5th percentile (P97.5) daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 1.02, 0.64, 0.37 and 1.26 µg/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.63, 0.83, 0.47 and 1.63 µg/kg bw/day for children. The risk assessment in mean levels showed that health risk associated with these elements through consumption of rice was absent. However, estimates in P97.5 level of Cd and Pb for children, and Hg for adults have exceeded the respective safe limits.
Peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) plays an important role in cancer development. The relationship between PIN1 −842G/C (rs2233678) polymorphism and cancer risk was inconclusive according to published literature.
A literature search, up to February 2013, was carried out using PubMed, EMBASE and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. A total of 10 case-control studies including 4619 cases and 4661 controls contributed to the quantitative analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. Overall, individuals with the variant CG (OR = 0.728, 95% CI: 0.585,0.906; Pheterogeneity<0.01) and CG/CC (OR = 0.731, 95% CI: 0.602,0.888; Pheterogeneity<0.01) genotypes were associated with a significantly reduced cancer risk compared with those with wild GG genotype. Sub-group analysis revealed that the variant CG (OR = 0.635, 95% CI: 0.548,0.735; Pheterogeneity = 0.240) and CG/CC (OR = 0.645, 95% CI: 0.559,0.744, Pheterogeneity = 0.258) genotypes still showed an reduced risk of cancer in Asians; while no significant association was observed in Caucasians (CG vs.GG: OR = 0.926, 95% CI: 0.572,1.499, Pheterogeneity<0.01; CG/CC vs. GG: OR = 0.892, 95% CI: 0.589,1.353; Pheterogeneity<0.01). Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test did not reveal any publication bias.
This meta-analysis suggests that the PIN1 −842G/C polymorphism is associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer, especially in Asian populations.
Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation.
Extant cubozoans are voracious predators characterized by their square shape, four evenly spaced outstretched tentacles and well-developed eyes. A few cubozoan fossils are known from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah and the well-known Carboniferous Mazon Creek Formation of Illinois. Undisputed cubozoan fossils were previously unknown from the early Cambrian; by that time probably all representatives of the living marine phyla, especially those of basal animals, should have evolved.
Microscopic fossils were recovered from a phosphatic limestone in the Lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation of South China using traditional acetic-acid maceration. Seven of the pre-hatched pentamerous cubozoan embryos, each of which bears five pairs of subumbrellar tentacle buds, were analyzed in detail through computed microtomography (Micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) without coating.
The figured microscopic fossils are unequivocal pre-hatching embryos based on their spherical fertilization envelope and the enclosed soft-tissue that has preserved key anatomical features arranged in perfect pentaradial symmetry, allowing detailed comparison with modern cnidarians, especially medusozoans. A combination of features, such as the claustrum, gonad-lamella, suspensorium and velarium suspended by the frenula, occur exclusively in the gastrovascular system of extant cubozoans, indicating a cubozoan affinity for these fossils. Additionally, the interior anatomy of these embryonic cubozoan fossils unprecedentedly exhibits the development of many new septum-derived lamellae and well-partitioned gastric pockets unknown in living cubozoans, implying that ancestral cubozoans had already evolved highly specialized structures displaying unexpected complexity at the dawn of the Cambrian. The well-developed endodermic lamellae and gastric pockets developed in the late embryonic stages of these cubozoan fossils are comparable with extant pelagic juvenile cubomedusae rather than sessile cubopolyps, whcih indicates a direct development in these fossil taxa, lacking characteristic stages of a typical cnidarian metagenesis such as planktonic planula and sessile polyps.
With the completion of genome sequencing projects for more than 30 plant species, large volumes of genome sequences have been produced and stored in online databases. Advancements in sequencing technologies have reduced the cost and time of whole genome sequencing enabling more and more plants to be subjected to genome sequencing. Despite this, genome sequence qualities of multiple plants have not been evaluated.
Integrity and accuracy were calculated to evaluate the genome sequence quality of 32 plants. The integrity of a genome sequence is presented by the ratio of chromosome size and genome size (or between scaffold size and genome size), which ranged from 55.31% to nearly 100%. The accuracy of genome sequence was presented by the ratio between matched EST and selected ESTs where 52.93% ∼ 98.28% and 89.02% ∼ 98.85% of the randomly selected clean ESTs could be mapped to chromosome and scaffold sequences, respectively. According to the integrity, accuracy and other analysis of each plant species, thirteen plant species were divided into four levels. Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays had the highest quality, followed by Brachypodium distachyon, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Glycine max, Sorghum bicolor, Solanum lycopersicum and Fragaria vesca, and Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Malus × domestica in that order. Assembling the scaffold sequences into chromosome sequences should be the primary task for the remaining nineteen species. Low GC content and repeat DNA influences genome sequence assembly.
The quality of plant genome sequences was found to be lower than envisaged and thus the rapid development of genome sequencing projects as well as research on bioinformatics tools and the algorithms of genome sequence assembly should provide increased processing and correction of genome sequences that have already been published.
Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and has been associated with severe neurological disease and even death in infants and young children. The pathogenesis of EV71 infection in the human central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, human whole genome microarray was employed to perform transcriptome profiling in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells infected with EV71. The results indicated that EV71 infection lead to altered expression of 161 human mRNAs, including 74 up-regulated genes and 87 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the possible roles of the differentially regulated mRNAs in selected pathways, including cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine/chemokine responses. Finally, the microarray results were validated using real-time RT-PCR with high identity. Overall, our results provided fundamental information regarding the host response to EV71 infection in human neuroblastoma cells, and this finding will help explain the pathogenesis of EV71 infection and virus-host interaction.
The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species – the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3′-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the ‘replication slippage’ of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study.
Circuit simulation is a powerful methodology to generate differential mathematical models. Due to its highly accurate modeling capability, circuit simulation can be used to investigate interactions between the parts and processes of a cellular system. Circuit simulation has become a core technology for the field of electrical engineering, but its application in biology has not yet been fully realized. As a case study for evaluating the more advanced features of a circuit simulation tool called Advanced Design System (ADS), we collected and modeled laboratory data for iron metabolism in mouse kidney cells for a H ferritin (HFt) receptor, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-2 (TIM-2). The internal controlling parameters of TIM-2 associated iron metabolism were extracted and the ratios of iron movement among cellular compartments were quantified by ADS. The differential model processed by circuit simulation demonstrated a capability to identify variables and predict outcomes that could not be readily measured by in vitro experiments. For example, an initial rate of uptake of iron-loaded HFt (Fe-HFt) was 2.17 pmol per million cells. TIM-2 binding probability with Fe-HFt was 16.6%. An average of 8.5 min was required for the complex of TIM-2 and Fe-HFt to form an endosome. The endosome containing HFt lasted roughly 2 h. At the end of endocytosis, about 28% HFt remained intact and the rest was degraded. Iron released from degraded HFt was in the labile iron pool (LIP) and stimulated the generation of endogenous HFt for new storage. Both experimental data and the model showed that TIM-2 was not involved in the process of iron export. The extracted internal controlling parameters successfully captured the complexity of TIM-2 pathway and the use of circuit simulation-based modeling across a wider range of cellular systems is the next step for validating the significance and utility of this method.
circuit simulator; export; ferritin; iron; model; storage; TIM-2; uptake
We report here the complete genome sequence of a human echovirus type 30 strain ECV30/GX10/05 isolated in Guangxi, China, in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ECV30/GX10/05 was closely related to a Korean strain isolated in 2008. The sequence information will help in an understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of echovirus.
H19 is a paternally imprinted gene that has been shown to be highly expressed in the trophoblast tissue. Results from previous studies have initiated a debate as to whether noncoding RNA H19 acts as a tumor suppressor or as a tumor promotor in trophoblast tissue. In the present study, we developed lentiviral vectors expressing H19-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically block the expression of H19 in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. Using this approach, we investigated the impact of the H19 gene on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of JAR cells. Moreover, we examined the effect of H19 knockdown on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1 (HES-1) and dual-specific phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) genes.
H19 knockdown inhibited apoptosis and proliferation of JAR cells, but had no significant impact on cell invasion. In addition, H19 knockdown resulted in significant upregulation of HES-1 and DUSP5 expression, but not IGF2 expression in JAR cells.
The finding that H19 downregulation could simultaneously inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of JAR cells highlights a putative dual function for H19 in choriocarcinoma and may explain the debate on whether H19 acts as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promotor in trophoblast tissue. Furthermore, upregulation of HES-1 and DUSP5 may mediate H19 downregulation-induced suppression of proliferation and apoptosis of JAR cells.
H19; JAR cells; Choriocarcinoma; HES-1; DUSP5; IGF2
The emerging human enterovirus 71 (EV71) represents a growing threat to public health, and no vaccine or specific antiviral is currently available. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is clinical used in treating severe EV71 infections. However, the discovery of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of EV71 infection illustrates the complex roles of antibody in controlling EV71 infection. In this study, to identify the distinct role of each IgG subclass on neutralization and enhancement of EV71 infection, different lots of pharmaceutical IVIG preparations manufactured from Chinese donors were used for IgG subclass fractionation by pH gradient elution with the protein A-conjugated affinity column. The neutralization and ADE capacities on EV71 infection of each purified IgG subclass were then assayed, respectively. The neutralizing activity of human IVIG is mainly mediated by IgG1 subclass and to less extent by IgG2 subclass. Interestingly, IgG3 fraction did not have neutralizing activity but enhanced EV71 infection in vitro. These results revealed the different roles of human IgG subclasses on EV71 infection, which is of critical importance for the rational design of immunotherapy and vaccines against severe EV71 diseases.
The recent discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in rabbits in the People’s Republic of China and the United States revealed that rabbits are another noteworthy reservoir of HEV. However, whether HEV from rabbits can infect humans is unclear. To study the zoonotic potential for and pathogenesis of rabbit HEV, we infected 2 cynomolgus macaques and 2 rabbits with an HEV strain from rabbits in China. Typical hepatitis developed in both monkeys; they exhibited elevated liver enzymes, viremia, virus shedding in fecal specimens, and seroconversion. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of HEV passed in the macaques with that of the inoculum showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Rabbit HEV RNA (positive- and negative-stranded) was detectable in various tissues from the experimentally infected rabbits, indicating that extrahepatic replication may be common. Thus, HEV is transmissible from rabbits to cynomolgus macaques, which suggests that rabbits may be a new source of human HEV infection.
rabbit hepatitis E virus; zoonoses; cross-species transmission; Cynomolgus macaques; extrahepatic replication, viruses
The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of an ROC curve of the antepartum foramen ovale (AFO) size and the ratio of FO size to aorta (AO) size (FO/AO) for the prediction of puerperal atrial septal defect in different gestational weeks (DGWs). A total of 958 cases were divided into five groups according to number of gestational weeks. Comparisons of FO size, AO size and FO/AO were determined by variance analysis. The correlations between FO size, AO size and gestational age were determined using regression analysis and comparisons between atrial septal defect (ASD) diagnosed in DGWs and normal cardiac FO size and FO/AO were analyzed by t-test. ROC curve analysis was used for FO size and FO/AO to predict the demarcation point of puerperal ASD (pASD). The differences between FO size and AO size in the five groups at DGWs were statistically significant (P=0.000). The sizes of FO and AO increased with gestational age. The differences among pASD, normal cardiac FO size and FO/AO were statistically significant (P=0.000). FO size in the five DGW groups (18–22, 23–26, 27–30, 31–34 and 35–40 weeks) was able to predict the demarcation points of pASD, which were 5.02, 5.15, 6.55, 8.55 and 7.90 mm, respectively. The prediction of pASD with AFO size and FO/AO was accurate and may provide reliable reference values in the clinic.
foramen ovale; atrial septal defect; antepartum diagnosis; ROC curve
To assess the association between MTHFR polymorphism and cervical cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed.
Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MTHFR polymorphism and cervical cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
A total of 12 studies with 2,924 cases (331 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, 742 CIN II/III, 1851 invasive cervical cancer) and 2,581 controls were identified. There was no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CIN I risk (T vs. C, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.92–1.31; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.78–1.68; TT+CT vs. CC, OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.94–1.58; TT vs. CT+CC, OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.70–1.40). For the CIN II/III, lack of an association was also found (T vs. C, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95–1.23; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.87–1.52; TT+CT vs. CC, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.94–1.35; TT vs. CT+CC, OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.83–1.38). The T allele had significant association to susceptibility of invasive cervical cancer in recessive model (TT vs. CT+CC, OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02–1.49). On subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similarly significant differences in T vs. C, TT vs. CC, and recessive model were found in Asians.
The present meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism were to substantially contribute to invasive cervical cancer in recessive model.
The Lophotrochozoa includes disparate tentacle-bearing sessile protostome animals, which apparently appeared in the Cambrian explosion, but lack an uncontested fossil record. Here we describe abundant well preserved material of Cotyledion tylodes Luo et Hu, 1999, from the Cambrian (Series 2) Chengjiang deposits, reinterpreted here as a stem-group entoproct. The entoproct affinity is supported by the sessile body plan and interior soft anatomy. The body consists of an upper calyx and a lower elongate stalk with a distal holdfast. The soft anatomy includes a U-shaped gut with a mouth and aboral anus ringed by retractable marginal tentacles. Cotyledion differs from extant entoprocts in being larger, and having the calyx and the stalk covered by numerous loosely-spaced external sclerites. The description of entoprocts from the Chengjiang biota traces the ancestry of yet another lophotrochozoan phylum back to the Cambrian radiation, and has important implications for the earliest evolution of lophotrochozoans.
Primary hepatic lymphoma is extremely rare, and only a few cases have been described on positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the English literature. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with low-grade fever and weight loss of three months. On CT scanning, a mass was identified which appeared to be a hypoattenuating lesion, on ultrasonographic imaging, the mass was hypoechoic, therefore, liver abscess or hepatic metastasis from a gastrointestinal primary was initially suspected. Tumor markers such as alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were within normal limits. PET/CT demonstrated a large abnormal ring-like hypermetabolic focus in the right liver lobe. The lesion was resected and the histopathological findings were consistent with lymphoma. The patient was discharged two weeks after surgery and did not receive any further treatment. After 25 mo follow-up, she is in good health. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is useful in confirming the diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma by demonstrating no other foci with high uptake in other parts of the body.
Fluorodeoxyglucose; Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography; Primary hepatic lymphoma; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Solitary lesion
Giardia lamblia is an “important” pathogen of humans, but as a diplomonad excavate it is evolutionarily distant from other eukaryotes and relatively little is known about its core metabolic pathways. KEGG, the widely referenced site for providing information of metabolism, does not yet include many enzymes from Giardia species. Here we identify Giardia's core sugar metabolism using standard bioinformatic approaches. By comparing Giardia proteomes with known enzymes from other species, we have identified enzymes in the glycolysis pathway, as well as some enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. However, the majority of enzymes from the latter two pathways were not identifiable, indicating the likely absence of these functionalities. We have also found enzymes from the Giardia glycolysis pathway that appear more similar to those from bacteria. Because these enzymes are different from those found in mammals, the host organisms for Giardia, we raise the possibility that these bacteria-like enzymes could be novel drug targets for treating Giardia infections.
Vetulicolians are a group of Cambrian metazoans whose distinctive bodyplan continues to present a major phylogenetic challenge. Thus, we see vetulicolians assigned to groups as disparate as deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. This divergence of opinions revolves around a strikingly arthropod-like body, but one that also bears complex lateral structures on its anterior section interpreted as pharyngeal openings. Establishing the homology of these structures is central to resolving where vetulicolians sit in metazoan phylogeny.
New material from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte helps to resolve this issue. Here, we demonstrate that these controversial structures comprise grooves with a series of openings. The latter are oval in shape and associated with a complex anatomy consistent with control of their opening and closure. Remains of what we interpret to be a musculature, combined with the capacity for the grooves to contract, indicate vetulicolians possessed a pumping mechanism that could process considerable volumes of seawater. Our observations suggest that food captured in the anterior cavity was transported to dorsal and ventral gutters, which then channeled material to the intestine. This arrangement appears to find no counterpart in any known fossil or extant arthropod (or any other ecdysozoan). Anterior lateral perforations, however, are diagnostic of deuterostomes.
If the evidence is against vetulicolians belonging to one or other group of ecdysozoan, then two phylogenetic options seem to remain. The first is that such features as vetulicolians possess are indicative of either a position among the bilaterians or deuterostomes but apart from the observation that they themselves form a distinctive and recognizable clade current evidence can permit no greater precision as to their phylogenetic placement. We argue that this is too pessimistic a view, and conclude that evidence points towards vetulicolians being members of the stem-group deuterostomes; a group best known as the chordates (amphioxus, tunicates, vertebrates), but also including the ambulacrarians (echinoderms, hemichordates), and xenoturbellids. If the latter, first they demonstrate that these members of the stem group show few similarities to the descendant crown group representatives. Second, of the key innovations that underpinned deuterostome success, the earliest and arguably most seminal was the evolution of openings that define the pharyngeal gill slits of hemichordates (and some extinct echinoderms) and chordates.
Proteinuria in burn patients is common, and may be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and adverse outcomes. We evaluated the incidences, outcomes, characteristics and determinants of proteinuria and its influence on AKI and outcomes in burn patients.
This retrospective study was carried out in a hospital's burn department. The study population consisted of patients with burn injuries admitted during a five-year period. Positive urine dipstick readings were defined as mild (± or 1+) or heavy (≥ 2+) proteinuria, and AKI was diagnosed and staged according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage (RIFLE) classification system. Patient characteristics, management and outcomes were evaluated for associations with proteinuria using nonparametric tests, chi-square (χ2) tests and binary logistic regression.
Of the patients admitted to the burn unit during the study period (n = 2,497), 865 (34.64%) were classified as having proteinuria. In the patients whose total burn surface areas (TBSA) were > 30% (n = 396), 271 patients (68.43%) had proteinuria and 152 of these patients (56.09%) met AKI criteria. No patients without proteinuria developed AKI. Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates were 0.8%, 16.67% and 30.77% (P < 0.001) in the groups with no, mild and heavy proteinuria, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified proteinuria (OR 4.48; 95% CI, 2.824 to 7.108; P < 0.001) and sequential organ failure assessment (OR 1.383; 95% CI, 1.267 to 1.509; P < 0.001) as risk factors for AKI.
We observed a high prevalence of proteinuria in patients with severe burns (> 30% TBSA). Severely burned patients with proteinuria had a high risk of developing AKI and a poor prognosis for survival. This suggests that proteinuria should be used for identifying burn patients at risk of developing AKI.
Severe burn; Proteinuria; Acute kidney injury; Risk factors; Mortality
MicroRNAs play vital role in plant growth and development by changeable expression of their target genes with most plant microRNAs having perfect or near-perfect complementarities with their target genes but miRNAs in Citrus sinensis (csi-miRNAs) and their function have not been widely studied.
In this study, 15 potential microRNAs in Citrus sinensis (csi-miRNAs) were identified and bioinformatically validated using miR-RACE, a newly developed method for determination of miRNAs prediction computationally. The expression of these fifteen C. sinensis miRNAs can be detected in leaves, stems, flowers and fruits of C. sinensis by QRT-PCR with some of them showed tissue-specific expression. Six potential target genes were identified for six csi-miRNAs and also experimentally verified by Poly (A) polymerase -mediated 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE) and RNA ligase-mediated 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) which mapped the cleavage site of target mRNAs and detected expression patterns of cleaved fragments that indicate the regulatory function of the miRNAs on their target genes.
Our results confirm that small RNA-mediated regulation whereby all csi-miRNAs regulate their target genes by degradation.
In the title compound, C10H14NO4
+·Cl−, the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 64.68 (4)° with the methylaminopropanoate unit, which is bonded to the catechol ring via a methylene C atom. A strong intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional network.