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author:("Han, zhongmai")
1.  Steps/day and metabolic syndrome in African American adults: The Jackson Heart Study☆ 
Preventive medicine  2013;57(6):855-859.
Objective
To examine the relationship between pedometer-measured step count data and the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in African American adults.
Method
379 African American adults (mean age 60.1 years; 60% female) enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, MS) from 2000 to 2004 provided sufficient pedometer data for inclusion in this analysis. MetS was classified according to the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention.
Results
Using steps/day categorized as tertiles (<3717 (referent), 3717–6238, >6238), participants taking 3717–6238 (Odds Ratio (OR)(95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 0.34 (0.19, 0.61)) and >6238 steps/day (OR(95% CI) = 0.43 (0.23, 0.78)) had lower odds of having MetS compared to participants in the lowest tertile. Using previously suggested steps/day cut-points (<2500 (referent), 2500–4999, 5000–7499, ≥7500), the odds of having MetS were lower for participants taking 2500–4999 (OR(95% CI) = 0.32 (0.14, 0.72)), 5000–7499 (OR(95% CI) = 0.22 (0.09, 0.53)), and >7500 (OR(95% CI) = 0.26 (0.11, 0.65)) steps/day compared to those taking <2500 steps/day.
Conclusion
Compared to lower levels, higher levels of steps/day are associated with a lower prevalence of MetS in this older African American population.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.09.018
PMCID: PMC4001862  PMID: 24096141
African Americans; Pedometer; Cardiovascular disease risk; Health disparities; Behavior
2.  Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial 
JMIR mHealth and uHealth  2014;2(4):e48.
Background
Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences.
Objective
The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones.
Methods
Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily.
Results
Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first 2 months of the study (P=.002). Children in both the MIG and IIG significantly increased their physical activity, averaged over 12 weeks, by 1427.6 (SD 583.0; P=.02) and 2832.8 (SD 604.9; P<.001) steps/day above baseline, respectively. The between group difference was not statistically significant (P=.10; effect size=.40), nor was the group by time interaction (P=.57). Regardless of group assignment, children who significantly increased their physical activity reported greater increases in physical activity enjoyment (P=.003). The number of behavioral articles accessed by IIG parents was significantly correlated with change in children’s steps/day (r=.575, P=.04). Changes in children’s steps/day were unrelated to changes in their body composition, mood, and food intake.
Conclusions
Parent-targeted mobile phone interventions are feasible, yet more intense interventions may be needed to support parents’ efforts to increase their children’s physical activity to levels that approximate national recommendations.
Trial Registration
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551108; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01551108 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6TNEOzXNX).
doi:10.2196/mhealth.3420
PMCID: PMC4260004  PMID: 25386899
mobile health; physical activity intervention; child; parents; pedometers; text messaging
3.  Profiling of alternative polyadenylation sites in luminal B breast cancer using the SAPAS method 
Breast cancer (BC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females and is recognized as a molecularly heterogeneous disease. Previous studies have suggested that alternative messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, particularly alternative polyadenylation [poly(A)] (APA), can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Therefore, in the present study, we profiled APA sites in the luminal B subtype of BC by sequencing APA sites (SAPAS) method, in order to assess the relation of these APA site-switching events to the recognized molecular subtypes of BC, and to discover novel candidate genes and pathways in BC. Through comprehensive analysis, the trend of APA site-switching events in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) in the luminal B subtype of BC were found to be the same as that in MCF7 cell lines. Among the genes involved in the events, a significantly greater number of genes was found with shortened 3′UTRs in the samples, which were samples of primary cancer with relatively low proliferation. These findings may provide novel information for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis on a molecular level. Several potential biomarkers with significantly differential tandem 3′UTRs and expression were found and validated. The related biological progresses and pathways involved were partly confirmed by other studies. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of BC from the APA site profile aspect.
doi:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1973
PMCID: PMC4249744  PMID: 25333330
profile of alternative adenylation sites; breast cancer; tandem 3′ untranslated region; subtypes in breast cancer; sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites
4.  Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;22(1):119-130.
Objective
To evaluate the effects of overeating (140% of energy requirements) a high-fat low-energy density diet (HF/LED, 1.05kcal/g), high-fat high-energy density diet (HF/HED, 1.60kcal/g), and high-carbohydrate (HC) LED (1.05kcal/g) for 2-days on subsequent 4-day energy intake (EI), activity levels, appetite, and mood.
Design and Methods
Using a randomized cross-over design, energy expenditure and EI were standardized during overeating.
Results
In 20 adults with a mean±SD BMI of 30.7±4.6kg/m2, EI was not suppressed until the second day after overeating and accounted for ~30% of the excess EI. Reductions in EI did not differ among the 3 diets or across days. Overeating had no effect on subsequent energy expenditure but steps/day decreased after the HC/LED and HF/HED. Sleep time was increased after the HF/HED compared to both LEDs. After overeating a HF/HED vs. HF/LED, carbohydrate cravings, hunger, prospective food consumption, and sadness increased and satisfaction, relaxation, and tranquility decreased.
Conclusions
Diet type, time, or their interaction had no impact on compensation over 4 days. No adaptive thermogenesis was observed. The HF/HED vs. HF/LED had detrimental effects on food cravings, appetite, and mood. These results suggest short-term overeating is associated with incomplete compensation.
doi:10.1002/oby.20587
PMCID: PMC3873377  PMID: 23913807
hyperphagia; appetite; spontaneous physical activity; energy expenditure; hunger; sleep
5.  The role of meal viscosity and oat β-glucan characteristics in human appetite control: a randomized crossover trial 
Nutrition Journal  2014;13:49.
Background
Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat β-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the β-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and β-glucan characteristics among the cereals.
Methods
Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric breakfast meals containing instant oatmeal (IO), old-fashioned oatmeal (SO) or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. Each breakfast meal contained 218 kcal (150 kcal cereal, and 68 kcal milk) Visual analogue scales measuring appetite were completed before breakfast, and over four hours, following the meal. Starch digestion kinetics, meal viscosities, and β-glucan characteristics for each meal were determined. Appetite responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes over time.
Results
IO increased fullness (p = 0.04), suppressed desire to eat (p = 0.01) and reduced prospective intake (p < 0.01) more than the RTEC over four hours, and consistently at the 60 minute time-point. SO reduced prospective intake (p = 0.04) more than the RTEC. Hunger scores were not significantly different except that IO reduced hunger more than the RTEC at the 60 minute time-point. IO and SO had higher β-glucan content, molecular weight, gastric viscosity, and larger hydration spheres than the RTEC, and IO had greater viscosity after oral and initial gastric digestion (initial viscosity) than the RTEC.
Conclusion
IO and SO improved appetite control over four hours compared to RTEC. Initial viscosity of oatmeal may be especially important for reducing appetite.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-49
PMCID: PMC4052334  PMID: 24884934
Appetite; β-glucan; Oats; Viscosity; Physicochemical properties
6.  Modification of the School Cafeteria Environment Can Impact Childhood Nutrition: Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health Studies 
Appetite  2012;61(1):77-84.
Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: 1) foods selected by the children and 2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition.
doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.11.002
PMCID: PMC3953152  PMID: 23154216
childhood nutrition; obesity prevention; cafeteria modification; digital photography; nutrition standards; eating behavior
7.  Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia 
There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
doi:10.3233/JAD-2011-101455
PMCID: PMC3934750  PMID: 21304184
Alzheimer’s disease; anomia; Boston naming; facial recognition; mild cognitive impairment
8.  Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children 
Objective
To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated.
Method
Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile.
Results
Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges.
Conclusion
These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31825b849e
PMCID: PMC3897206  PMID: 22617499
childhood; academic achievement; adiposity; physical activity
9.  Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II 
Background
M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Methods
Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.
Results
M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart.
Conclusion
The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-209
PMCID: PMC3819674  PMID: 24028210
Cardiac hypertrophy; M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; Angiotensin II; Choline
10.  Correction: The Energy Expenditure of Sedentary Behavior: A Whole Room Calorimeter Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):10.1371/annotation/b66e5f0b-7898-4460-b088-d886a23fed29.
doi:10.1371/annotation/b66e5f0b-7898-4460-b088-d886a23fed29
PMCID: PMC3738712
11.  Reducing self-objectification: are dissonance-based methods a possible approach? 
Background
Previous research has documented that self-objectification is associated with numerous negative outcomes including body shame, eating disorder (ED) pathology, and negative affect. This exploratory open study investigated whether or not an evidence-based body image improvement program that targets thin-ideal internalization in university women also reduces self-objectification. A second aim of the study was to determine if previous findings showing that body shame mediated the relationship between self-objectification and eating disorder pathology at a single time point (consistent with self-objectification theory) but did not mediate longitudinally (inconsistent with self-objectification theory) would be replicated in a new sample under novel conditions.
Methods
Ninety-six university women completed a peer-led dissonance-based intervention, along with assessment measures at pre-, post-intervention, 8-week and 8-month follow-up. To address the open trial nature of this study, a planned manipulation check was included to make sure that peer-led dissonance decreased thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder pathology, and negative affect with effect sizes being similar to past randomized controlled trials. We hypothesized that all three subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (i.e., self-surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs) would be reduced. In addition, we hypothesized that body shame would mediate the relationship between self-objectification (i.e., self-surveillance) and eating disorder pathology at a both at a single time point and longitudinally.
Results
The planned manipulation check supported the interpretation that peer-led dissonance in this study largely yielded comparable changes to past controlled trials. In terms of changes in dependent variables, results supported all hypotheses with the exception of body shame, which remained unchanged. With regards to the mediation analyses, our first (cross-sectional) hypothesis but not our second (longitudinal) was supported.
Conclusions
Findings provide preliminary support for the use of dissonance interventions in reducing self-surveillance and body control beliefs. Results for body shame and the mediation analyses suggest that greater scrutiny of the body shame construct is warranted.
doi:10.1186/2050-2974-1-10
PMCID: PMC4081728  PMID: 24999392
Self-Objectification; Body shame; Cognitive dissonance-based interventions; Eating disorders; Mediation; Sororities
12.  Efficacy of a Pilot Internet-Based Weight Management Program (H.E.A.L.T.H.) and Longitudinal Physical Fitness Data in Army Reserve Soldiers 
Background
The primary aims of this article are to describe the utilization of an Internet-based weight management Web site [Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.)] over a 12–27 month period and to describe concurrent weight and fitness changes in Army Reserve soldiers.
Methods
The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site was marketed to Army Reserve soldiers via a Web site promotion program for 27 months (phase I) and its continued usage was observed over a subsequent 12-month period (phase II). Web site usage was obtained from the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. Weight and fitness data were extracted from the Regional Level Application Software (RLAS).
Results
A total of 1499 Army Reserve soldiers registered on the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. There were 118 soldiers who returned to the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site more than once. Registration rate reduced significantly following the removal of the Web site promotion program. During phase I, 778 Army Reserve soldiers had longitudinal weight and fitness data in RLAS. Men exceeding the screening table weight gained less weight compared with men below it (p < .007). Percentage change in body weight was inversely associated with change in fitness scores.
Conclusions
The Web site promotion program resulted in 52% of available Army Reserve soldiers registering onto the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site, and 7.9% used the Web site more than once. The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site may be a viable population-based weight and fitness management tool for soldier use.
PMCID: PMC3208890  PMID: 22027327
Army Reserve; Internet; military; obesity prevention; weight management
13.  H.E.A.L.T.H.: Efficacy of an Internet/Population-Based Behavioral Weight Management Program for the U.S. Army 
Background
A significant number of soldiers exceed the maximum allowable weight standards or have body weights approaching the maximum allowable weight standards. This mandates development of scalable approaches to improve compliance with military weight standards.
Methods
We developed an intervention that included two components: (1) an Internet-based weight management program (Web site) and (2) a promotion program designed to promote and sustain usage of the Web site. The Web site remained online for 37 months, with the Web site promotion program ending after 25 months.
Results
Soldiers’ demographics were as follows: mean age, 32 years; body mass index (BMI), 28 kg/m2; 31% female; and 58% Caucasian. Civilian demographics were as follows: mean age, 38 years; BMI, 30 kg/m2; 84% female; and 55% Caucasian. Results indicated that 2417 soldiers and 2147 civilians (N = 4564) registered on the Web site. In the first 25 months (phase 1) of the study, new participants enrolled on the Web site at a rate of 88 (soldiers) and 80 (civilians) per month. After the promotion program was removed (phase 2), new participants enrolled at a rate of 18 (soldiers) and 13 (civilians) per month. Utilization of the Web site was associated with self-reported weight loss (p < .0001). Participants who utilized the Web site more frequently lost more weight (p < .0001). Participants reported satisfaction with the Web site.
Conclusions
The Web site and accompanying promotion program, when implemented at a military base, received satisfactory ratings and benefited a subset of participants in promoting weight loss. This justifies further examination of effectiveness in a randomized trial setting.
PMCID: PMC3045224  PMID: 21303642
Army; Internet weight management; military; obesity; obesity prevention; weight loss
14.  Adherence is a multi-dimensional construct in the POUNDS LOST trial 
Journal of behavioral medicine  2009;33(1):35-46.
Research on the conceptualization of adherence to treatment has not addressed a key question: Is adherence best defined as being a uni-dimensional or multi-dimensional behavioral construct? The primary aim of this study was to test which of these conceptual models best described adherence to a weight management program. This ancillary study was conducted as a part of the POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macro-nutrient compositions for promoting weight loss. A sample of 811 overweight/obese adults was recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient prescriptions: (1) Low fat (20% of energy), average protein (15% of energy); (2) High fat (40%), average protein (15%); (3) Low fat (20%), high protein (25%); (4) High fat (40%), high protein (25%). Throughout the first 6 months of the study, a computer tracking system collected data on eight indicators of adherence. Computer tracking data from the initial 6 months of the intervention were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Two factors (accounting for 66% of the variance) were identified and confirmed: (1) behavioral adherence and (2) dietary adherence. Behavioral adherence did not differ across the four interventions, but prescription of a high fat diet (vs. a low fat diet) was found to be associated with higher levels of dietary adherence. The findings of this study indicated that adherence to a weight management program was best conceptualized as being multi-dimensional, with two dimensions: behavioral and dietary adherence.
doi:10.1007/s10865-009-9230-7
PMCID: PMC3153914  PMID: 19856202
Adherence; Overweight; Obesity; Randomized controlled trial; Lifestyle behavior modification
15.  Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study 
Journal of behavioral medicine  2010;33(4):305-314.
The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at the 6 and 24 month measurement periods, early behavioral adherence was associated with changes in percent weight loss and waist circumference at 6 months (R = 0.52) and 24 months (R = 0.37), but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels. Early dietary adherence was associated with changes in insulin at 6 months (R = 0.19), but not at 24 months (R = 0.08, ns). Early dietary adherence was not associated with changes in adiposity.
doi:10.1007/s10865-010-9253-0
PMCID: PMC3150109  PMID: 20195742
Obesity; Weight management; Adherence; Computer tracking; Waist circumference; Insulin
16.  An Environmental Intervention to Prevent Excess Weight Gain in African American Students: A Pilot Study 
Purpose
Examine the influence of an environmental intervention to prevent excess weight gain in African American children.
Design
Single-group repeated measures.
Setting
The intervention was delivered to a school composed of African American children.
Subjects
Approximately 45% (N = 77) of enrolled second through sixth grade students.
Intervention
The 18-month intervention was designed to alter the school environment to prevent excess weight gain by making healthier eating choices and physical activity opportunities more available.
Measures
Body Mass Index Percentile was the primary outcome variable. Body mass index Z-score was also calculated, and percent body fat, using bioelectrical impedance, was also measured. Total caloric intake (kcal), and percent kcal from fat, carbohydrate, and protein were measured by digital photography. Minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior were self-reported.
Analysis
Mixed models analysis was used, covarying baseline values.
Results
Boys maintained while girls increased percent body fat over 18-months (p = .027). All children decreased percent of kcal consumed from total and saturated fat, and increased carbohydrate intake and self-reported physical activity during the intervention (p values < .025). body mass index Z-score, sedentary behavior, and total caloric intake were unchanged.
Conclusion
The program may have resulted in maintenance of percent body fat in boys. Girl's percent body fat steadily increased, despite similar behavioral changes as boys. School-based interventions targeting African American children should investigate strategies that can be effective across gender.
PMCID: PMC2871317  PMID: 20465148
blacks; obesity; children; nutrition; physical activity; Manuscript format: research; Research purpose: intervention testing/program evaluation; Study design: quasi-experimental; Outcome measure: behavioral; Setting: school; Health focus: weight control; Strategy: environmental change; Target population age: youth; Target population circumstances: race/ethnicity
17.  Effect of Pioglitazone on Energy Intake and Ghrelin in Diabetic Patients 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(4):742-744.
OBJECTIVE
To measure ghrelin and energy intake in the laboratory after pioglitazone treatment.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a parallel, three-arm study with 51 obese diabetic subjects randomized to either 1) pioglitazone plus a portion-controlled diet (Pio+PC), 2) pioglitazone plus American Diabetes Association (ADA) dietary advice (Pio+ADA), or 3) metformin plus ADA advice (Met+ADA). Energy intake and the suppressive response of a meal on ghrelin were measured at weeks 0 and 16. Mixed models tested if changes from week 0 to 16 differed by group.
RESULTS
The Pio+ADA group had a significantly larger increase (P < 0.05) in energy intake ([adjusted means ± SE] 207 ± 53 kcal) compared with the Pio+PC (50 ± 46 kcal) and Met+ADA (52 ± 49 kcal) groups. Change in restraint and disinhibition (variables associated with eating behavior) mediated weight change. Ghrelin suppression increased in the Pio+ADA group, which gained weight.
CONCLUSIONS
A portion-controlled diet attenuated the increase in energy intake after pioglitazone. Ghrelin responded to weight change not pioglitazone exposure.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1600
PMCID: PMC2845018  PMID: 20067964
18.  Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels 
Appetite  2010;55(1):37-43.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload.
doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.03.009
PMCID: PMC2900484  PMID: 20303371
Stevia; Aspartame; Sucrose; Food Intake; Satiety; Hunger; Insulinogenic Index; Insulin Sensitivity
19.  Increased Obesity in Children Living in Rural Communities of Louisiana 
Objective
Rates of obesity among children have been rising in recent years. Information on the prevalence of obesity in children living in rural communities is needed. We report the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in grades 4 to 6 who live in rural areas of Louisiana, U.S.
Methods and Procedures
These data were collected as baseline assessment for the Louisiana (LA) Health project. Height, weight, and estimates of body fat (using body impedance analysis) were collected on 2709 children. Average age was 10.5 years and the sample composition was 57.3% girls, 61.7% African-American, 36.0% Caucasian, and 2.3% other minority. A majority of children (77%) met the criterion for poverty status.
Results
The distribution of body mass index (BMI) percentile was highly skewed toward obesity. The most frequent BMI percentile scores were 98th and 99th percentile. Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) norms, the overall prevalence of obesity was 27.4% and for overweight was 45.1% of which 17.7% were between the 85th and 95th percentile. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were much higher than the national norm and this increased prevalence was observed in both genders and in Caucasian and African American children.
Discussion
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was found to be much higher in rural and primarily poor (77%) children living in Louisiana when compared to national norms. This observation suggests that rural children from Louisiana may be experiencing an epidemic of obesity that exceeds national prevalence estimates.
doi:10.1080/17477160802596148
PMCID: PMC2725211  PMID: 19089707
childhood obesity; population studies; rural health; childhood gender differences; ethnicity
20.  Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army 
Military medicine  2009;174(1):1-8.
The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population.
PMCID: PMC2761744  PMID: 19216292
21.  Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety 
Abstract
Background
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been shown to attenuate weight gain, but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown.
Methods
We assessed the effect of CrPic in modulating food intake in healthy, overweight, adult women who reported craving carbohydrates (Study 1) and performed confirmatory studies in Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 2). Study 1 utilized a double-blind placebo-controlled design and randomly assigned 42 overweight adult women with carbohydrate cravings to receive 1,000 μg of chromium as CrPic or placebo for 8 weeks. Food intake at breakfast, lunch, and dinner was directly measured at baseline, week 1, and week 8. For Study 2, Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 24 h and subsequently injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, 10, or 50 μg/kg CrPic. Subsequently, rats were implanted with an indwelling third ventricular cannula. Following recovery, 0, 0.4, 4, or 40 ng of CrPic was injected directly into the brain via the intracerebroventricular cannula, and spontaneous 24-h food intake was measured.
Results
Study 1 demonstrated that CrPic, as compared to placebo, reduced food intake (P < 0.0001), hunger levels (P < 0.05), and fat cravings (P < 0.0001) and tended to decrease body weight (P = 0.08). In study 2, intraperitoneal administration resulted in a subtle decrease in food intake at only the highest dose (P = 0.03). However, when administered centrally, CrPic dose-dependently decreased food intake (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
These data suggest CrPic has a role in food intake regulation, which may be mediated by a direct effect on the brain.
doi:10.1089/dia.2007.0292
PMCID: PMC2753428  PMID: 18715218
22.  Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety 
Background:
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been shown to attenuate weight gain, but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown.
Methods:
We assessed the effect of CrPic in modulating food intake in healthy, overweight, adult women who reported craving carbohydrates (Study 1) and performed confirmatory studies in Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 2). Study 1 utilized a double-blind placebo-controlled design and randomly assigned 42 overweight adult women with carbohydrate cravings to receive 1,000 mg of CrPic or placebo for 8 weeks. Food intake at breakfast, lunch, and dinner was directly measured at baseline, week 1, and week 8. For Study 2, Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 24 h and subsequently injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, 10, or 50 μg/kg CrPic. Subsequently, rats were implanted with an indwelling third ventricular cannula. Following recovery, 0, 0.4, 4, or 40 ng of CrPic was injected directly into the brain via the intracerebroventricular cannula, and spontaneous 24-h food intake was measured.
Results:
Study 1 demonstrated that CrPic, as compared to placebo, reduced food intake (P < 0.0001), hunger levels (P < 0.05), and fat cravings (P < 0.0001) and tended to decrease body weight (P = 0.08). In study 2, intraperitoneal administration resulted in a subtle decrease in food intake at only the highest dose (P = 0.03). However, when administered centrally, CrPic dose-dependently decreased food intake (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
These data suggest CrPic has a role in food intake regulation, which may be mediated by a direct effect on the brain.
doi:10.1089/dia.2007.0292
PMCID: PMC2753428  PMID: 18715218
23.  The development of the Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0): Tests of reliability and validity 
Body image  2009;6(2):67-74.
This study tested the psychometric characteristics of the Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0). A sample of 563 adults composed of four groups classified by gender and ethnicity (Caucasian men and women and African-American men and women) were studied. Support for the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the BMA 2.0 was found for both men and women. A study of convergent validity was conducted. The BMA 2.0 was found to have adequate reliability and validity. Norms were established for the BMA 2.0 estimates of current body size (CBS), ideal body size (IBS), and acceptable body size (ABS) for Caucasian and African-American men and women. In summary, the BMA 2.0 is a reliable and valid computerized measure of CBS, IBS, ABS, the CBS–IBS discrepancy (body dissatisfaction), and provides an estimate of over/underestimation of body size as compared to individuals of the same sex and body mass index.
doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.01.006
PMCID: PMC2743122  PMID: 19244002
Body image; Eating disorders; Obesity; Morph; Body image assessment
24.  Louisiana (LA) Health: Design and Methods for a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in Rural Schools 
Contemporary clinical trials  2008;29(5):783-795.
There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (LA) Health, will test whether modification of environmental and behavioral factors can prevent inappropriate weight gain in children from rural parishes of Louisiana who are enrolled in the fourth to sixth grades during Year 1. The primary aim of the LA Health project is to test the efficacy of two school-based approaches for obesity prevention: primary prevention alone and a combination of primary and secondary prevention which will be compared to a no-intervention control group using a cluster randomization research design, with 17 school clusters randomly assigned to the three treatment arms. The study will span three years and will provide critical tests of strategies that: 1) modify the child’s environment as a primary prevention strategy and 2) provide health behavior modification via classroom instruction and internet counseling as a secondary prevention strategy. The study will also recruit a similar sample of students to measure changes in body weight relative to height, gender, and age over the same three-year period.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2008.03.004
PMCID: PMC2628769  PMID: 18448393
obesity prevention; children; cluster randomized design; school-based intervention
25.  Examination of Cognitive Function During Six Months of Calorie Restriction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Rejuvenation research  2007;10(2):179-190.
Background
Calorie restriction increases longevity in many organisms, and calorie restriction or its mimetic might increase longevity in humans. It is unclear if calorie restriction/dieting contributes to cognitive impairment. During this randomized controlled trial, the effect of 6 months of calorie restriction on cognitive functioning was tested.
Methods
Participants (n = 48) were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (weight maintenance), (2) calorie restriction (CR; 25% restriction), (3) CR plus structured exercise (CR + EX, 12.5% restriction plus 12.5% increased energy expenditure via exercise), or (4) low-calorie diet (LCD; 890 kcal/d diet until 15% weight loss, followed by weight maintenance). Cognitive tests (verbal memory, visual memory, attention/concentration) were conducted at baseline and months 3 and 6. Mixed linear models tested if cognitive function changed significantly from baseline to months 3 and 6, and if this change differed by group. Correlation analysis was used to determine if average daily energy deficit (quantified from change in body energy stores) was associated with change in cognitive test performance for the three dieting groups combined.
Results
No consistent pattern of verbal memory, visual retention/memory, or attention/concentration deficits emerged during the trial. Daily energy deficit was not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance.
Conclusions
This randomized controlled trial suggests that calorie restriction/dieting was not associated with a consistent pattern of cognitive impairment. These conclusions must be interpreted in the context of study limitations, namely small sample size and limited statistical power. Previous reports of cognitive impairment might reflect sampling biases or information processing biases.
doi:10.1089/rej.2006.0502
PMCID: PMC2664681  PMID: 17518698

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