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1.  Essential features and rational design of CRISPR RNAs that function with the Cas RAMP module complex to cleave RNAs 
Molecular Cell  2012;45(3):292-302.
SUMMARY
Small RNAs target invaders for silencing in the CRISPR-Cas pathways that protect bacteria and archaea from viruses and plasmids. The CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) contain sequence elements acquired from invaders that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins back to the complementary invading DNA or RNA. Here, we have analyzed essential features of the crRNAs associated with the Cas RAMP module (Cmr) effector complex, which cleaves targeted RNAs. We show that Cmr crRNAs contain an 8-nucleotide 5’ sequence tag (also found on crRNAs associated with other CRISPR-Cas pathways) that is critical for crRNA function and can be used to engineer crRNAs that direct cleavage of novel targets. We also present data that indicates that the Cmr complex cleaves an endogenous complementary RNA in Pyrococcus furiosus, providing direct in vivo evidence of RNA targeting by the CRISPR-Cas system. Our findings indicate that the CRISPR RNA-Cmr protein pathway may be exploited to cleave RNAs of interest.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2011.10.023
PMCID: PMC3278580  PMID: 22227116
2.  RNA-Guided RNA Cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas Protein Complex 
Cell  2009;139(5):945-956.
SUMMARY
Compelling evidence indicates that the CRISPR-Cas system protects prokaryotes from viruses and other potential genome invaders. This adaptive prokaryotic immune system arises from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) found in prokaryotic genomes, which harbor short invader-derived sequences, and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein-coding genes. Here we have identified a CRISPR-Cas effector complex that is comprised of small invader-targeting RNAs from the CRISPR loci (termed prokaryotic silencing (psi)RNAs) and the RAMP module (or Cmr) Cas proteins. The psiRNA-Cmr protein complexes cleave complementary target RNAs at a fixed distance from the 3' end of the integral psiRNAs. In Pyrococcus furiosus, psiRNAs occur in two size forms that share a common 5' sequence tag but have distinct 3' ends that direct cleavage of a given target RNA at two distinct sites. Our results indicate that prokaryotes possess a unique RNA silencing system that functions by homology-dependent cleavage of invader RNAs.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.040
PMCID: PMC2951265  PMID: 19945378

Results 1-2 (2)