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author:("hair, Yousef")
1.  Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications 
Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.
doi:10.3390/ijms141121266
PMCID: PMC3856004  PMID: 24232575
Superparamagnetism; nanoparticle; magnetic moment; exchange; anisotropy; surface spin; core-shell; ferrite; MRI; contrast agent
2.  PEG Coating Reduces NMR Relaxivity of Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 Hyperthermia Nanoparticles 
Purpose
To investigate both T1 and T2 MR relaxation enhancement of Gd substituted Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Both uncoated and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated particles were used.
Materials and Methods
Chemical co-precipitation was used to synthesize particles in the form Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 suitable for hyperthermia applications. Physical characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles included SEM, TEM, ICP, and SQUID. T1 and T2 measurements were performed at 1.5 T.
Results
The saturation magnetization was 12.86 emu/g while the particle’s magnetic moment was 1.86 × 10−19 J/T. The particle size increased due to coating, while 1/T1 and 1/T2 relaxivities (26 °C) decreased from 2.5 to 0.7 and from 201.3 to 76.6 s−1 mM−1, respectively at a magnetic field 1.5 T.
Conclusion
The reduction in both 1/T1 and 1/T2 is attributed to increased distance of closest approach between the protons and the magnetic core caused by the shielding provided by the high molecular weight PEG. 1/T2 data is compared to existing theoretical models using a modified radius that takes into account both possible agglomeration of the particles and increased inter-particle separation induced by PEG coating.
doi:10.1002/jmri.22703
PMCID: PMC3195992  PMID: 21928382
nanoparticles; NMR relaxation; coating; contrast agents; susceptibility
3.  A Review of Enzymatic Transesterification of Microalgal Oil-Based Biodiesel Using Supercritical Technology 
Enzyme Research  2011;2011:468292.
Biodiesel is considered a promising replacement to petroleum-derived diesel. Using oils extracted from agricultural crops competes with their use as food and cannot realistically satisfy the global demand of diesel-fuel requirements. On the other hand, microalgae, which have a much higher oil yield per hectare, compared to oil crops, appear to be a source that has the potential to completely replace fossil diesel. Microalgae oil extraction is a major step in the overall biodiesel production process. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been proposed to replace conventional solvent extraction techniques because it is nontoxic, nonhazardous, chemically stable, and inexpensive. It uses environmentally acceptable solvent, which can easily be separated from the products. In addition, the use of SC-CO2 as a reaction media has also been proposed to eliminate the inhibition limitations that encounter biodiesel production reaction using immobilized enzyme as a catalyst. Furthermore, using SC-CO2 allows easy separation of the product. In this paper, conventional biodiesel production with first generation feedstock, using chemical catalysts and solvent-extraction, is compared to new technologies with an emphasis on using microalgae, immobilized lipase, and SC-CO2 as an extraction solvent and reaction media.
doi:10.4061/2011/468292
PMCID: PMC3170906  PMID: 21915372
4.  Physically synthesized Ni-Cu nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia 
Background
In this paper, a physical method to prepare copper-nickel alloy particles in the sub-micron range for possible self controlled magnetic hyperthermia treatment of cancer is described. It is reported that an increase in tumor temperature decreases the tumor resistance to chemo- and radiation therapies. Self controlled heating at the tumor site to avoid spot heating is managed by controlling the Curie temperature of the magnetic particles. The process described in this paper to produce the nanomagnetic particles allows for a large scale production of these particles.
Methods
The process used here is mainly composed of melting of the Cu-Ni mixture and ball milling of the resulted bulk alloy. Both mechanical abrasion and continuous grinding were used to break down the bulk amount into the desired particle size.
Results
It was found that the desired alloy is composed of 71% nickel and 29% copper by weight. It was observed that the coarse sand-grinded powder has a Curie temperature of 345 K and the fine ball-milled powder shows a temperature of 319 K – 320 K.
Conclusion
Self regulating magnetic hyperthermia can be achieved by synthesizing nanomagnetic particles with desired Curie temperature. In this study the desired range of Curie temperatures was obtained by combination of melting and ball milling of nickel-copper alloy.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-2-4
PMCID: PMC420488  PMID: 15132747
5.  A biocompatible magnetic film: synthesis and characterization 
Background
Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites.
Methods
A biocompatible magnetic gel film has been synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible magnetic film. Nanosized iron oxide particles (γ-Fe2O3, ~7 nm) have been used to produce the magnetic gel.
Results
The surface morphology and magnetic properties of the gel films were studied. The iron oxide particles are superparamagnetic and the gel film also showed superparamagnetic behavior.
Conclusion
Magnetic gel made out of crosslinked magnetic nanoparticles in the polymer network was found to be stable and possess the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-2-2
PMCID: PMC373455  PMID: 14761251

Results 1-5 (5)