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1.  Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease mimicking malignant lymphoma with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/CT in children 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(5):226-231.
Purpose
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a benign disease, which is characterized by a cervical lymphadenopathy with fever, and it often mimics malignant lymphoma (ML). 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is a powerful imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of ML, with the limitations including the nonspecific FDG uptake in infectious or inflammatory processes. This study compared clinical manifestations and PET/CT findings between KFD and ML patients.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 23 patients with KFD and 33 patients with ML, diagnosed histopathologically, between January 2000 and May 2013 at the Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University Medical Center. Among them, we analyzed the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and characteristics, and the amount of 18F-FDG uptake between 8 KFD and 9 ML patients who had 18F-FDG PET/CT.
Results
The 18F-FDG PET/CT maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) ranged from 8.3 to 22.5 (mean, 12.0) in KFDs, and from 5.8 to 34.3 (mean, 15.9) in MLs. There were no significant differences in SUVmax between KFDs and MLs. 18F-FDG PET/CT with ML patients showed hot uptakes in the extranodal organs, such as bone marrow, small bowel, thymus, kidney, orbit and pleura. However, none of the KFD cases showed extranodal uptake (P<0.001). 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of KFD with nodal involvement only were indistinguishable from those of ML.
Conclusion
Patients who had extranodal involvement on PET/CT were more likely to have malignancy than KFD.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.5.226
PMCID: PMC4102685  PMID: 25045365
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease; Lymphoma; Positron emission tomography
2.  Hereditary hemolytic anemia in Korea from 2007 to 2011: A study by the Korean Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology 
Blood research  2013;48(3):211-216.
Background
The number of patients diagnosed with hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) has increased since the advent of novel diagnostic techniques that accurately identify this disorder. Here, we report data from a survey on the prevalence and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HHA in Korea from 2007 to 2011.
Methods
Information on patients diagnosed with HHA in Korea and their clinical and laboratory results were collected using a survey questionnaire. Globin gene and red blood cell (RBC) enzyme analyses were performed. In addition, we analyzed data collected by pediatricians.
Results
In total, 195 cases of HHA were identified. Etiologies identified for HHA were RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and RBC enzymopathies, which accounted for 127 (64%), 39 (19.9%), and 26 (13.3%) cases, respectively. Of the 39 patients with hemoglobinopathies, 26 were confirmed by globin gene analysis, including 20 patients with β-thalassemia minor, 5 patients with α-thalassemia minor, and 1 patient with unstable hemoglobin disease.
Conclusion
The number of patients diagnosed with hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies has increased considerably since the previous survey on HHA in Korea, dated from 1997 to 2006. This is likely the result of improved diagnostic techniques. Nevertheless, there is still a need for more sensitive diagnostic tests utilizing flow cytometry and for better standardization of test results to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of RBC membranopathies in Korea. Additionally, more accurate assays for the identification of RBC enzymopathies are warranted.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.3.211
PMCID: PMC3786282  PMID: 24086942
Congenital hemolytic anemia; Hereditary spherocytosis; Thalassemia; Congenital nonspherocytic anemia
3.  Efficacy of pamidronate in children with low bone mineral density during and after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma 
Blood research  2013;48(2):99-106.
Background
Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant sequelae in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Reduced BMD is associated with an increased risk for fractures. Pamidronate, a second-generation bisphosphonate, has been used to treat osteoporosis in children. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of pamidronate in children with low BMD during and after chemotherapy for ALL and NHL.
Methods
Between April 2007 and October 2011, 24 children with ALL and NHL were treated with pamidronate. The indication was a decreased BMD Z-score less than -2.0 or bone pain with a BMD Z-score less than 0. Pamidronate was infused at 1 mg/kg/day for 3 days at 1-4 month intervals (pamidronate group, cases). The BMD Z-scores of the cases were compared with those of 10 untreated patients (control group). Lumbar spine BMDs were measured every 6 cycles using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and Z-scores were calculated. Bone turnover parameters (25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, and type I collagen c-terminal telopeptide) were analyzed.
Results
The median cycle of pamidronate treatment was 12. Increases in BMD Z-scores were significantly higher in the pamidronate group than in the control group (P<0.001). BMD (mg/cm2) increased in all pamidronate-treated cases. Twenty patients who complained of bone pain reported pain relief after therapy. The treatment was well tolerated.
Conclusion
Pamidronate appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of children with low BMD during and after chemotherapy for ALL and NHL.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.2.99
PMCID: PMC3698414  PMID: 23826578
Pamidronate; Bone mineral density; Bisphosphonate; ALL; NHL; Corticosteroids
4.  Novel influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection in the pediatric patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases in the Yeungnam region 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(3):117-122.
Purpose
Natural history and consequences of the novel 2009 influenza A H1N1 (2009 H1N1) infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and outcomes of the 2009 H1N1 infection in pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 528 patients who had hematological and oncological diseases and who were treated at 7 referral centers located in the Yeungnam region. Among the 528 patients, 27 with definite diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 infection were the subjects of this study. All patients were divided into the following 3 groups: patients who were receiving chemotherapy (group 1), patients who were immunosuppressed due to a non-malignant hematological disease (group 2), and patients who were off chemotherapy and had undergone their last chemotherapy course within 2 years from the influenza A pandemic (group 3).
Results
All 28 episodes of 2009 H1N1 infection were treated with the antiviral agent oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), and 20 episodes were treated after hospitalization. Group 1 patients had higher frequencies of lower respiratory tract infection and longer durations of fever and hospitalization as compared to those in group 2. Ultimately, all episodes resolved completely with no complications.
Conclusion
These results suggest that early antiviral therapy did not influence the morbidity or mortality of pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases in the Yeungnam region of Korea after the 2009 H1N1 infection. However, no definite conclusions can be drawn because of the small sample size.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.3.117
PMCID: PMC3120997  PMID: 21738541
Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype; Immunocompromised Patients; Hematologic Diseases; Oseltamivir; Child
5.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):120-126.
Background
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Methods
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
Results
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Conclusion
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.2.120
PMCID: PMC2983022  PMID: 21120191
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
6.  The Effect of Red Ginseng Extract on Inflammatory Cytokines after Chemotherapy in Children 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2012;36(4):383-390.
Ginseng has been used as an herbal medicine, widely used in Asian countries, for long time. Recently, beneficial effects for immune functions of Korean red ginseng (KRG) have been reported in adults. This study was performed to investigate the effects of ginseng on immune functions in children after cessation of chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation for advanced cancer. Thirty patients, who were diagnosed and treated for leukemia and solid cancer at the department of pediatrics and adolescence of the Yeungnam University Hospital from June 2004 to June 2009, were enrolled for the study. The study group consisted of 19 patients who received KRG extract (60 mg/kg/d) for 1 yr and 11 patients who did not receive KRG extract were the control group. Blood samples were collected every 6 mo. Immune assays included circulating lymphocyte subpopulation, serum cytokines (IL- 2, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma), and total concentrations of serum IgG, IgA, and IgM subclasses. Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 mo to 15 yr (median 5 yr). Nine patients received stem cell transplantation. The cytokines of the KRG treated group were decreasing more rapidly than that of the control group. Lymphocyte subpopulations (T cell, B cell, NK cell, T4, T8, and T4/ T8 ratio) and serum immunoglobulin subclasses (IgG, IgA, and IgM) did not show significant differences between the study and the control groups. This study suggests that KRG extract might have a stabilizing effect on the inflammatory cytokines in children with cancer after chemotherapy.
doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.383
PMCID: PMC3659604  PMID: 23717140
Panax ginseng; Korean red ginseng; Cytokine; Childhood cancer
7.  Autologous stem cell transplantation for the treatment of neuroblastoma in Korea. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(2):242-247.
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma (NBL) is an accepted method for restoring bone marrow depression after high dose chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed eighty eight cases of NBL that underwent ASCT following marrow ablative therapy at 12 transplant centers of the Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between January 1996 and September 2000. Seventy nine children were of stage IV NBL and 9 were of stage III with N-myc amplification. Various cytoreductive regimens were used. However, the main regimen was 'CEM' consisting of carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan, and this was used in 66 patients. Total body irradiation was also added in 36 patients for myeloablation. To reduce tumor cell contamination, stem cell infusions after CD34+ cell selection were performed in 16 patients. Post-transplantation therapies included the second transplantation in 18 patients, interleukin2 therapy in 45, 13-cis retinoic acid in 40, 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine in 4, conventional chemotherapy in 11, and local radiotherapy in 8. Twenty two patients died, sixty six patients are surviving 1 to 46 months after ASCT (median followup duration, 14.5 months). Although the follow-up period was short and the number of patients small, we believe that ASCT might improve the survival rate in high-risk NBL.
PMCID: PMC3055035  PMID: 12692423

Results 1-7 (7)