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1.  Impact of an Interprofessional Communication Course on Nursing, Medical, and Pharmacy Students’ Communication Skill Self-Efficacy Beliefs 
Objective. To describe an interprofessional communication course in an academic health sciences center and to evaluate and compare interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs of medical, nursing, and pharmacy students before and after course participation, using Bandura’s self-efficacy theory as a guiding framework.
Design. First-year nursing (n=36), first-year medical (n=73), and second-year pharmacy students (n=83) enrolled in an interprofessional communication skills development course voluntarily completed a 33-item survey instrument based on Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competencies prior to and upon completion of the course during the fall semester of 2012.
Assessment. Nursing students entered the course with higher interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs compared to medical and pharmacy students. Pharmacy students, in particular, noted significant improvements in communication self-efficacy beliefs across multiple domains postcourse.
Conclusion. Completion of an interprofessional communications course was associated with a positive impact on health professions students’ interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7810186
PMCID: PMC4315208  PMID: 25657373
Interprofessional communication; interpersonal communication; self-efficacy beliefs
2.  An Instrument to Assess Subjective Task Value Beliefs Regarding the Decision to Pursue Postgraduate Training 
Objectives. To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training.
Methods. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents’ (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs.
Results. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics.
Conclusions. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78111
PMCID: PMC3930235  PMID: 24558279
faculty members; residency; fellowship; graduate education; career; motivation
3.  The Influence of Faculty Mentors on Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Career Decisions 
Objective. To assess junior faculty members’ perceptions regarding the impact of past faculty-mentoring relationships in their career decisions, including the decision to pursue postgraduate training and ultimately an academic career.
Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and an invitation to participate in the survey was sent to 2,634 pharmacy faculty members designated as assistant professors in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) directory data.
Results. Usable responses were received from 1,059 pharmacy faculty members. Approximately 59% of respondents indicated that they had received encouragement from 1 or more faculty mentors that was very or extremely influential in their decision to pursue postgraduate training. Mentor and mentee pharmacy training characteristics and postgraduate training paths tended to be similar. US pharmacy degree earners rated the likelihood that they would have pursued an academic career without mentor encouragement significantly lower than did their foreign pharmacy and nonpharmacy degree colleagues (p = 0.006, p = 0.021, respectively).
Conclusions. For the majority of junior pharmacy faculty members, faculty mentoring received prior to completing their doctor of pharmacy degree or nonpharmacy undergraduate degree influenced their subsequent career decisions.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77351
PMCID: PMC3631726  PMID: 23610469
mentor; faculty; career; postgraduate training
4.  Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Their Exposure to Postgraduate Training and Academic Careers During Pharmacy School 
Objective. To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought.
Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective.
Conclusions. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76339
PMCID: PMC3327237  PMID: 22544956
pharmacy faculty members; residency programs; fellowships; graduate education; careers
5.  A Curriculum Development Simulation in a Graduate Program 
Objective. To implement and evaluate a curriculum development seminar in which graduate students experienced circumstances that occur when faculty members develop and attempt to secure colleague approval for a curriculum.
Design. Learning activities for the graduate seminar included classroom lectures, active learning, and a group project in which simulated faculty committees created new curriculums for the pharmacy practice department's 3 research areas.
Assessment. Responses on pre- and post-seminar surveys indicated that graduate students’ self-confidence in their ability to conduct key curriculum development activities increased (p < 0.05). In a post-seminar focus group, graduate students stated that they valued participating in the faculty simulation, learning about curriculum development and research programs other than their own, and collaborating with their peers.
Conclusion. A curriculum development faculty simulation was an effective tool for preparing graduate students for curriculum development responsibilities and generated valuable documents that the department could use in the revision of the 3 pharmacy practice graduate school curricula.
doi:10.5688/ajpe759184
PMCID: PMC3230345  PMID: 22171112
curriculum development; graduate students
6.  Economic Analysis of Earning a PhD Degree After Completion of a PharmD Degree 
Objective
To determine the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for earning a doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree and pursuing careers commonly associated with that degree after completion of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree compared to entering pharmacy practice directly upon completion of the PharmD degree.
Methods
Income profiles were constructed based on 2008 annual salary data. NPV and IRR were calculated for careers resulting from the PhD degree and compared to those of the practicing community pharmacist. Trends in IRR also were examined across career paths from 1982 to 2008. A priori assumptions were developed and sensitivity analyses were conducted.
Results
The NPVs for all careers associated with the PhD degree were negative compared to that of the practicing community pharmacist. IRRs ranged from -1.4% to 1.3% for PhD careers. Longitudinal examination of IRRs indicated a negative trend from 1982 to 2008.
Conclusions
Economic financial incentives for PharmD graduates to pursue graduate school are lacking. The study illustrates the need to consider financial incentives when developing recruitment methods for PharmD graduates to pharmacy graduate programs.
PMCID: PMC3049656  PMID: 21451769
salary; internal rate of return; graduate education; economic analysis; career
7.  Student Pharmacists' Perceptions of Testing and Study Strategies 
Objectives
To solicit student pharmacists' perceptions of testing, study strategies, and recall ability, and use of retrieval practices in metacognitive learning strategies.
Methods
A 42-item survey instrument was constructed that covered the following areas of interest: perceptions of the purpose of testing, perceptions of study strategies, perceptions of recall ability, use of retrieval practice, and demographic characteristics. The survey instrument was administered to first-, second-, and third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (N = 425) at Purdue University.
Results
Students perceived the primary purpose of tests to be to assess the amount of material they had learned. Massed practice was a technique that they frequently used in studying for course examinations. Students did not express confidence in their ability to recall learned information once they became pharmacists. The use of retrieval practice in learning was not used by most student pharmacists, nor did students perceive retrieval practice to increase retention or learning.
Conclusion
Perceptions of testing and the manner in which student pharmacists engage in learning activities may not be optimal for the development of lifelong learners.
PMCID: PMC3073110  PMID: 21519424
study strategies; retrieval practice; student perceptions; testing; metacognition

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