Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability.
Helicobacter species are important pathogens and previous studies in mice suggested a link between colonization by Helicobacter hepaticus (H. hepaticus) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed at corroborating this potential link in human patients. We used a sensitive and specific Helicobacter ssp PCR assay to screen stool samples from a collective of patients with viral-induced HCC (hepatitis B or hepatitis C) and a control group for presence of Helicobacter ssp DNA. Although retrieving DNA of H. pylori and H. canadensis from stool samples of non-HCC patients, we found no evidence indicating the presence of H. hepaticus in HCC-patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Interestingly we found H. canadensis in a stool sample of a patient presenting with diarrhea. Taken together, our data argue against a pathogenic role of H. hepaticus in viral-induced HCC. Yet, our results do not exclude a role of H. hepaticus in those HCC cases caused by other carcinogens, such as aflatoxin. Moreover, we speculate that H. canadensis might be a novel gastrointestinal pathogen.
Helicobacter canadensis; Helicobacter hepaticus; carcinogenesis; dysbiosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; microbiota
Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives.
Two chromogenic media (Chromagar VRE and chromID VRE [C-ID]) performed equally well in the direct detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in stool specimens after an overnight enrichment step and a 48-h incubation period, with a sensitivity of 98.2% (56/57) for both and specificities of 96.5% (195/202) and 97.5% (197/202), respectively. However, assigning discriminatory colony color was sometimes difficult, especially on C-ID. In order to facilitate simple species identification, biochemical key reactions were implemented.
We evaluated the performance of the Candida albicans/Candida glabrata peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method, a rapid two-color assay for detection of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in a multicenter study. The assay is designed for use directly from positive blood culture bottles in a FISH format. Intact, fixed cells are labeled fluorescent green (C. albicans) or fluorescent red (C. glabrata) by rRNA hybridization of fluorophore-labeled PNA probes. Results are available <3 h after cultures signal positive. An evaluation of 197 routine blood culture bottles newly positive for yeast by Gram staining was performed at five hospitals. The sensitivities of detection for C. albicans, and C. glabrata were 98.7% (78/79) and 100% (37/37), respectively, and the specificity for both components of the assay was 100% (82/82). The assay was also evaluated with 70 fungal reference strains and was challenged in the BacT/ALERT microbiological detection system with spiked blood culture bottles. These results support the use of the assay for rapid, simultaneous identification of C. albicans and C. glabrata in positive blood culture bottles. This rapid assay may aid in the selection of initial antifungal drugs, leading to improved patient outcomes.
Six coryneforms isolated from blood and dialysate fluid were phenotypically similar to Brevibacterium casei, but 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization indicate that they belong to a new species for which the name Brevibacterium sanguinis is proposed.
Cryptococcus adeliensis is a recently described new fungal species which has been isolated from decaying algae in Terre Adelie, Antarctica. We report the first known case of meningitis caused by C. adeliensis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Twenty-eight emm12-type Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from patients with invasive and noninvasive infections or from asymptomatic carriers were genetically typed. Sequencing of drs (distantly related sic [streptococcal inhibitor of complement]) genes identified two novel alleles and revealed a polymorphism for drs similar to that of sic. No association was observed between the five different drs alleles and the five restriction patterns of the vir regulon for the isolates studied. These data suggest that drs sequencing may be useful for further differentiation of S. pyogenes isolates with emm12 and identical vir regulon restriction patterns.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting Staphylococcus aureus 16S rRNA is a novel method for direct identification of S. aureus from positive blood culture bottles. The test (S. aureus PNA FISH) is performed on smears made directly from positive blood culture bottles with gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) and provides results within 2.5 h. A blinded comparison of S. aureus PNA FISH with standard identification methods was performed in collaboration with eight clinical microbiology laboratories. A total of 564 routine blood culture bottles positive for GPCC recovered from both aerobic and anaerobic media from three different manufacturers (ESP, BACTEC, and BacT/Alert) were included in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of S. aureus PNA FISH were 100% (57 of 57) and 99.2% (116 of 117), respectively, with 174 GPCC-positive ESP blood culture bottles, 98.5% (67 of 68) and 98.5% (129 of 131), respectively, with 200 GPCC-positive BACTEC blood culture bottles, and 100% (74 of 74) and 99.1% (115 of 116), respectively, with 190 GPCC-positive BacT/Alert blood culture bottles. It is concluded that S. aureus PNA FISH performs well with commonly used continuously monitoring blood culture systems.
A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method that uses peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from positive-blood-culture bottles in which yeast was observed by Gram staining (herein referred to as yeast-positive blood culture bottles) is described. The test (the C. albicans PNA FISH method) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets C. albicans 26S rRNA. The PNA probe is added to smears made directly from the contents of the blood culture bottle and hybridized for 90 min at 55°C. Unhybridized PNA probe is removed by washing of the mixture (30 min), and the smears are examined by fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of the method was confirmed with 23 reference strains representing phylogenetically related yeast species and 148 clinical isolates covering the clinically most significant yeast species, including C. albicans (n = 72), C. dubliniensis (n = 58), C. glabrata (n = 5), C. krusei (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 4), and C. tropicalis (n = 3). The performance of the C. albicans PNA FISH method as a diagnostic test was evaluated with 33 routine and 25 simulated yeast-positive blood culture bottles and showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It is concluded that this 2.5-h method for the definitive identification of C. albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles provides important information for optimal antifungal therapy and patient management.
The recent discovery of Candida dubliniensis as a separate species that traditionally has been identified as Candida albicans has led to the development of a variety of biochemical and molecular methods for the differentiation of these two pathogenic yeasts. rRNA sequences are well-established phylogenetic markers, and probes targeting species-specific rRNA sequences have been used in diagnostic assays for the detection and identification of microorganisms. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA mimic with improved hybridization characteristics, and the neutral backbone of PNA probes offers significant advantages in whole-cell in situ hybridization assays. In this study, we developed PNA probes targeting the rRNAs of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and applied them to a fluorescence in situ hybridization method (PNA FISH) for differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Liquid cultures were smeared onto microscope slides, heat fixed, and then hybridized for 30 min. Unhybridized PNA probe was removed by washing, and smears were examined by fluorescence microscopy. Evaluation of the PNA FISH method using smears of 79 C. dubliniensis and 70 C. albicans strains showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both PNA probes. We concluded that PNA FISH is a powerful tool for the differentiation of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.
1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a fungal polyketide that contributes to virulence when polymerized to 1,8-DHN melanin in the cell walls of Wangiella dermatitidis, an agent of phaeohyphomycosis in humans. To begin a genetic analysis of the initial synthetic steps leading to 1,8-DHN melanin biosynthesis, a 772-bp PCR product was amplified from genomic DNA using primers based on conserved regions of fungal polyketide synthases (Pks) known to produce the first cyclized 1,8-DHN-melanin pathway intermediate, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene. The cloned PCR product was then used as a targeting sequence to disrupt the putative polyketide synthase gene, WdPKS1, in W. dermatitidis. The resulting wdpks1Δ disruptants showed no morphological defects other than an albino phenotype and grew at the same rate as their black wild-type parent. Using a marker rescue approach, the intact WdPKS1 gene was then successfully recovered from two plasmids. The WdPKS1 gene was also isolated independently by complementation of the mel3 mutation in an albino mutant of W. dermatitidis using a cosmid library. Sequence analysis substantiated that WdPKS1 encoded a putative polyketide synthase (WdPks1p) in a single open reading frame consisting of three exons separated by two short introns. This conclusion was supported by the identification of highly conserved Pks domains for a β-ketoacyl synthase, an acetyl-malonyl transferase, two acyl carrier proteins, and a thioesterase in the deduced amino acid sequence. Studies using a neutrophil killing assay and a mouse acute-infection model confirmed that all wdpks1Δ strains were less resistant to killing and less virulent, respectively, than their wild-type parent. Reconstitution of 1,8-DHN melanin biosynthesis in a wdpks1Δ strain reestablished its resistance to killing by neutrophils and its ability to cause fatal mouse infections.
Candida dubliniensis is often found in mixed culture with C. albicans, but its recognition is hampered as the color of its colonies in primary culture on CHROMagar Candida varies. Furthermore, definite identification of C. dubliniensis is difficult to achieve, time-consuming, and expensive. Therefore, a method to discriminate between these two closely related yeast species by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis using gas-liquid chromatography (Sherlock Microbial Identification System [MIS]; MIDI, Inc., Newark, Del.) was developed. Although the chromatograms of these two species revealed no obvious differences when applying FAME analysis, a new library (CADLIB) was successfully created using Sherlock Library Generation Software (MIDI). The amount and frequency of FAME was analyzed using library training files (n = 10 for each species), preferentially those comprising reference strains. For testing the performance of the CADLIB, clinical isolates genetically assigned to the respective species (C. albicans, n = 32; C. dubliniensis, n = 28) were chromatographically analyzed. For each isolate tested, MIS computed a similarity index (SI) indicating a hierarchy of possible strain fits. When using the newly created library CADLIB, the SIs for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis ranged from 0.11 to 0.96 and 0.53 to 0.93 (for all but one), respectively. Only three isolates of C. albicans (9.4%) were misidentified as C. dubliniensis, whereas all isolates of C. dubliniensis were correctly identified. Resulting differentiation accuracy was 90.6% for C. albicans and 100% for C. dubliniensis. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the resulting FAME profiles showed two clearly distinguishable clusters matching up with two assigned species for the strains tested. Thus, the created library proved to be well suited to discriminate between these two species.
Candida dubliniensis is often associated with C. albicans in cultures. Easy-to-perform selective isolation procedures for these closely related species do not exist. Therefore, we evaluated previously described discriminatory phenotypic markers for C. dubliniensis. A total of 150 oral rinses from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were cultured on CHROMagar Candida. Dark green colonies described as being indicative of C. dubliniensis and other green colonies, 170 in total, were isolated. Chlamydospore formation, intracellular β-d-glucosidase activity, ability to grow at 42°C, carbohydrate assimilation pattern obtained by the API ID 32C, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used for phenotypic characterization. Sequencing of the 5′ end of the nuclear large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene was used for definitive species identification for C. dubliniensis. C. dubliniensis was found in 34% of yeast-colonized HIV-infected patients. The color of the colonies on CHROMagar Candida proved to be insufficient for selecting C. dubliniensis, since only 30 of 53 proven C. dubliniensis isolates showed a dark green color in primary cultures. The described typical chlamydospore formation can give only some indication of C. dubliniensis. The assimilation pattern proved to be insufficient to discriminate C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. All C. dubliniensis strains showed no or highly restricted growth at 42°C and a lack of β-d-glucosidase activity. Unfortunately, atypical C. albicans strains can also exhibit these phenotypic traits. FT-IR spectroscopy combined with hierarchical clustering proved to be as reliable as genotyping for discriminating the two species.
For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be based on the results of serogrouping alone.
Streptococcus agalactiae is a poorly transformable bacterium and studies of molecular mechanisms are difficult due to the limitations of genetic tools. Employing the novel pGh9:ISS1 transposition vector we generated plasmid-based mutant libraries of S. agalactiae strains O90R and AC475 by random chromosomal integration. A screen for mutants with a nonhemolytic phenotype on sheep blood agar led to the identification of a genetic locus harboring several genes that are essential for the hemolytic function and pigment production of S. agalactiae. Nucleotide sequence analysis of nonhemolytic mutants revealed that four mutants had distinct insertion sites in a single genetic locus of 7 kb that was subsequently designated cyl. Eight different open reading frames were identified: cylX, cylD, cylG, acpC, cylZ, cylA, cylB, and cylE, coding for predicted proteins with molecular masses of 11, 33, 26, 11, 15, 35, 32, and 78 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by cylA harbors a conserved ATP-binding cassette (ABC) motif, and the predicted proteins encoded by cylA and cylB have significant similarities to the nucleotide binding and transmembrane proteins of typical ABC transporter systems. Transcription analysis by reverse transcription-PCR suggests that cylX to cylE are part of an operon. The requirement of acpC and cylZABE for hemolysin production of S. agalactiae was confirmed either by targeted mutagenesis with the vector pGh5, complementation studies with pAT28, or analysis of insertion elements in naturally occurring nonhemolytic mutants.
The black yeast Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is an increasingly recognized pathogen and a leading cause of severe pheohyphomycosis. Melanin is thought to contribute to the virulence of E. dermatitidis. Whereas the synthesis and the redox properties of melanin have been studied intensively, the influence of melanin and carotenoids on the phagocytosis, the oxidative burst, and the killing of E. dermatitidis by human neutrophils has not been studied. To study their effects on these phenomena, we applied a combination of flow cytometry and a colony-count-dependent method. Using E. dermatitidis wild-type strain 8565 and several melanin-deficient mutants that have been described previously, we demonstrate that melanin prevents this pathogen from being killed in the phagolysosome of the neutrophils. Melanin did not influence the phagocytosis or the oxidative burst of the neutrophils involved. The carotenoids torulene and torularhodine were not found to contribute to the prevention of killing. The ability of E. dermatitidis to block the effects of the neutrophil oxidative burst may critically impair the potential of the host to sufficiently eliminate this fungal pathogen and thus may play an important role in the pathogenesis of phaeohyphomycosis.
Candida glabrata is a yeast frequently isolated from human specimens. Based upon its well-known ability to rapidly hydrolyze trehalose, we have developed a novel and cost-effective test incubating one yeast colony emulsified in 50 μl of citrate buffer (0.1 M [pH 5.0]) containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37°C. Trehalase-generated glucose is detected with a commercially available dipstick (range, 1.0 to 50 g/liter). For evaluation, consecutive clinical isolates and several reference strains of C. glabrata (n = 160), C. albicans (n = 120), and other yeast species with potential ability for utilization of trehalose (C. dubliniensis, n = 11; C. famata, n = 15; C. guilliermondii, n = 5; C. lusitaniae, n = 16; C. parapsilosis, n = 20; C. tropicalis, n = 34; C. viswanathii, n = 5; Pichia angusta, n = 2; C. zeylanoides, n = 2; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, n = 16; C. neoformans, n = 7) were tested. Identification of C. glabrata is achieved within 3 h, with a specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 98.8% when grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 4% glucose.
We report on a severe case of peritonitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The clinical course resembled an infection due to S. aureus more than one due to other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Therefore, we strongly recommend identification and propose an easy-to-perform procedure for screening of this pathogen.