Sublinical myocardial dysfunction occurs in a significant number of patients with type 2 diabetes. Assessment of ventricular long‐axis function by measuring mitral annular velocities using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is thought to provide a more sensitive index of systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesised that augmentation of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal contraction and relaxation during exercise would be blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Mitral annular systolic (S′) and early diastolic (E′) velocities were measured at rest and during supine bicycle exercise (25 W, 3 min increments) in 53 patients (27 male, mean age 53±14 years) with type 2 diabetes and 53 subjects with age and gender‐matched control. None had echocardiographic evidence of resting or inducible myocardial ischaemia.
There were no significant differences in mitral inflow velocities at rest between the two groups. E′ and S′ at rest were also similar between the groups. However, S′ (7.1±1.3 vs 8.3±1.8 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.0021; 8.1±1.5 vs 9.1±2.0 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.026) and E′ (8.5±2.3 vs 9.9±3.1 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.054; 9.1±2.1 vs 10.9±2.5 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.0093) during exercise were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Longitudinal systolic and diastolic function reserve indices were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with that of controls (systolic index, 0.6±0.70 vs 1.2±1.5 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.029; 1.2±1.2 vs 2.1±1.6 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.009; diastolic index, 1.9±1.2 vs 2.5±2.2 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.07; 2.3±1.3 vs 3.2±2.2 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.031).
In conclusion, unlike resting mitral inflow and annular velocities, changes of systolic and diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus during exercise were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with the control group. The assessment of LV longitudinal functional reserve with exercise using TDE appears to be helpful in identifying early myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Background and Objectives
Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of biochemical markers of collagen turnover as markers of myocardial fibrosis in various diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that increased collagen markers in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were correlated with diastolic function at rest and diastolic functional reserve during exercise.
Subjects and Methods
Thirty-six patients with HCM and 21 controls with normal left ventricular thickness were studied. Mitral septal annular velocities and mitral inflow velocities were measured at rest and during graded supine bicycle exercise (25 W, 3-minute increments) for the assessment of diastolic function at rest and during exercise. By radioimmunoassay, a byproduct of collagen III synthesis (PIIINP) and peptides resulting from collagen I synthesis (PINP) and degradation (ICTP) were measured. The patients with HCM were divided into two groups according to the median value of the PINP/ICTP ratio in the group.
At rest, the mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E') was lower and the E/E' was higher in the patients with HCM with high a PINP/ICTP ratio compared with patients with HCM with a low PINP/ICTP ratio and controls (p<0.001, p=0.012). With exercise, the Doppler parameters were increased in all groups, but there was no significant difference in the change in E' and E/E' during exercise according to collagen turnover markers.
A higher PINP/ICTP ratio was associated with resting diastolic dysfunction in patients with HCM; however, there was no relationship with augmented diastolic dysfunction during exercise. We suggest that the type I collagen synthesis-to-degradation ratio is a useful marker of resting diastolic function in patients with HCM.
Cardiomyopathy hypertrophic; Collagen; Myocardial contraction, diastole; Exercise
Diastolic dysfunction, which is increasingly viewed as being influential in precipitating heart failure and determining prognosis, is often unrecognized and has therapeutic implications distinct from those that occur with systolic dysfunction. In this review, several therapeutic modalities including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and surgical approaches for primary diastolic dysfunction and heart failure will be discussed.
Diastolic dysfunction; Therapy
Although adriamycin (Doxorubicin) is one of the most effective and useful antineoplastic agents for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, its repeated administration can induce irreversible myocardial damage and resultant heart failure. Currently, no marker to detect early cardiac damage is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an assessment of the acoustic properties of the myocardium could enable the earlier detection of myocardial damage after adriamycin chemotherapy. Forty Wistar rats were treated with adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using M-mode echocardiography data. The magnitude of cardiac cycle dependent variation of integrated backscatter (CVIB) of the myocardium was measured in the mid segment of the septum and in the posterior wall of the left ventricle, using a real time two dimensional integrated backscatter imaging system. LVEF was significantly lower in the adriamycin-treated 8-week group than in the controls (75 ± 9 vs 57 ± 8%, p < 0.05). Myocyte damage was only seen in the 8-week adriamycin-treated group. However, no significant changes of CVIB were observed between baseline or during follow-up in the ADR or control group. In conclusion, serial assessment of the acoustic properties of the myocardium may not be an optimal tool for the early detection of myocardial damage after doxorubicin chemotherapy in a rat model.
Anthracycline; cardiotoxicity; echocardiography
Bridge anticoagulation therapy is mostly utilized in patients with mechanical heart valves (MHV) receiving warfarin therapy during invasive dental procedures because of the risk of excessive bleeding related to highly vascular supporting dental structures. Bridge therapy using low molecular weight heparin may be an attractive option for invasive dental procedures; however, its safety and cost-effectiveness compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is uncertain.
Materials and Methods
This study investigated the safety and cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin in comparison to UFH for bridge therapy in 165 consecutive patients (57±11 years, 35% men) with MHV who underwent invasive dental procedures.
This study included 75 patients treated with UFH-based bridge therapy (45%) and 90 patients treated with enoxaparin-based bridge therapy (55%). The bleeding risk of dental procedures and the incidence of clinical adverse outcomes were not significantly different between the UFH group and the enoxaparin group. However, total medical costs were significantly lower in the enoxaparin group than in the UFH group (p<0.001). After multivariate adjustment, old age (≥65 years) was significantly associated with an increased risk of total bleeding independent of bridging methods (odds ratio, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.48; p=0.022). Enoxaparin-based bridge therapy (β=-0.694, p<0.001) and major bleeding (β=0.296, p=0.045) were significantly associated with the medical costs within 30 days after dental procedures.
Considering the benefit of enoxaparin in cost-effectiveness, enoxaparin may be more efficient than UFH for bridge therapy in patients with MHV who required invasive dental procedures.
Anticoagulation; bridge therapy; dental procedure; low molecular weight heparin; mechanical heart valve
We aimed to examine the effect of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), a peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR)‐gamma agonist, and their combination on myocardial fibrosis and function in type 2 diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods
Five male Long‐Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats and 20 male Otsuka Long‐Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used. OLETF rats were assigned to four groups (n = 5 per group) at 28 weeks‐of‐age: untreated, losartan‐treated, rosiglitazone‐treated and combination‐treated. The ARB, losartan, was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day, and the PPAR‐gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Urine and blood samples were collected, and two‐dimensional echocardiograms and strain rate imaging were obtained at 28 and 40 weeks. Cytokines were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and histological analysis was carried out at 40 weeks.
At 40 weeks, the global radial strains of the losartan‐treated (55.7 ± 4.5%, P = 0.021) and combination‐treated groups (59.3 ± 6.7%, P = 0.001) were significantly higher compared with the untreated OLETFs (44.3 ± 10.5%). No difference was observed when compared with LETO rats. Although the rosiglitazone‐treated group showed a better metabolic profile than the untreated OLETF group, there was no difference in the global radial strain (49.8 ± 6.0 vs 44.3 ± 10.5, P = 0.402). The expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, and collagen type I and III were consistently attenuated in the losartan‐treated and combination‐treated OLETF groups, but not in the rosiglitazone‐treated group.
A combination of rosiglitazone and losartan attenuates myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.
Angiotensin II receptor blocker; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma agonist
Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is unclear whether marker of immune activation will provide prognostic information in these patients. We hypothesized that circulating levels of soluble CD93 (sCD93), a soluble form of transmembrane glycoprotein CD93, is increased in acute MI patients and its level would be associated with clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI.
We measured circulating levels of sCD93 in 120 patients with acute MI (63±13 yrs, M∶F = 85∶35) and in 120 age, sex-matched control subjects. In patients with acute MI, clinical characteristics, echocardiographic and laboratory findings were assessed at the time of initial enrollment. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause and cardiovascular death.
Circulating sCD93 levels were significantly higher in patients with acute MI than in control subjects (552.1±293.7 vs. 429.8±114.2 ng/mL, p<0.0001). Upon in vitro inflammatory stimulation, increased CD93 shedding was demonstrated in acute MI patients but not in control subjects. During follow up period (median 208 days, 3-1058 days), the primary outcome occurred in 18 (15%) patients (9 cardiovascular deaths). Circulating levels of sCD93 were associated with all cause (p<0.0001) and cardiovascular (p<0.0001) mortality in patients with acute MI. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that initial sCD93 level was found to be an independent predictor of all cause (p = 0.002) and cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.033) when controlled for age and left ventricular ejection fraction.
Circulating levels of sCD93 are elevated in patients with acute MI and their levels were associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
Double atrial septum is very rare atrial septal malformation which has double layered atrial septum with persistent interatrial space between the two atria. Clinically, most cases of this anomaly are asymptomatic unless manifest as thromboembolic complications, such as stroke, or transient ischemic attack, that thrombus may be originated from this interatrial space. We report a case of a 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with isolated double atrial septum by transthoracic echocardiography.
Double atrial septum; Interatrial space
Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of stroke is a disastrous complication in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). In patients with mechanical heart valves complicated by IE, physicians struggle with the appropriateness of anticoagulation administration given the risk of thromboembolism and HT of stroke. In this study, we aimed to define predictive parameters of HT of stroke in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE).
This study was a multicenter, retrospective design. We recruited from 7 institutions a total of 111 patients diagnosed with PVE during May, 2011 to April, 2012.
Complication of stroke was seen in 26/111 patients (23%), and HT of stroke was seen in 11/111 patients (10%). Most patients with HT (9/11, 82%) had supratherapeutic prothrombin times. However, there were no significant differences in clinical and laboratory values between PVE patients without stroke and those patients who had a stroke and with or without concurrent HT. Furthermore, echocardiographic parameters also did not show significant between-group differences.
Even though this was a multicenter study, a limited number of patients was identified and may explain the negative results seen here. However, a large number of PVE patients with stroke also developed HT. Therefore, further studies to define predictive parameters of HT should be implemented in a larger population.
Infective endocarditis; Embolization; Hemorrhagic stroke
Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well.
Cardiac valve prosthesis; Prosthesis failure; Cardiogenic shock
Achalasia; Left atrium; Echocardiography
Obesity; Lipomatous hypertrophy; Cardiac imaging
Background and Objectives
Patients with acute myocardial infarction show varying degrees of collateral development. However, the relationships between angiogenic factors and degree of collaterals are not well known.
Subjects and Methods
Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 59±10 years) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into one of 2 groups: group I (Rentrop collateral grade 0/1, n=34) or group II (grade 2/3, n=25). Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble VEGF receptor (sFlt-1), angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and soluble Tie-2 at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after PCI were measured.
There were fewer diabetic patients and higher incidence of previous angina and multi-vessel disease in group II. Group II had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and a trend toward longer pain-to-balloon time. Plasma levels of Ang-2, sFlt-1 were elevated prior to primary PCI and decreased after PCI, whereas plasma level of VEGF was relatively low initially, however rose after PCI. sTie-2 levels showed no significant interval change in group I, but decreased over time in group II. VEGF, sFlt-1, and Tie-2 levels did not differ between the groups at each time point. However, plasma levels of Ang-2 were higher in group I than in group II at baseline and at 48 hours.
Presence of collaterals in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI was associated with lesser rise in Ang-2 plasma level. VEGF showed a delayed response to acute ischemia compared to Ang-2. Clinical implications of our findings need to be investigated in further studies.
Myocardial infarction; Angiogenesis modulating agents; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Angiopoietin-2
Background and Objectives
Left atrial (LA) fibrosis is a main determinant of LA remodeling and development of atrial fibrillation. However, non-invasive prediction of LA fibrosis is challenging. We investigated whether preoperative LA strain as measured by speckle tracking echocardiography could predict the degree of LA fibrosis and LA reverse remodeling after mitral valve (MV) surgery.
Subjects and Methods
Speckle tracking echocardiography and LA volume measurements were performed in 50 patients one day before MV surgery. LA tissues were obtained during the surgery, and the degrees of their interstitial fibroses were measured. LA volume measurements were repeated within 30 days after surgery (n=50) and 1-year later (n=39).
Left atrial global strain was significantly correlated with the degree of LA fibrosis (r=-0.55, p<0.001), and its correlation was independent of age, underlying rhythm, presence of rheumatic heart disease and type of predominant MV disease (B=-1.37, 95% confidence interval -2.32 - -0.41, p=0.006). The degree of LA fibrosis was significantly correlated with early (r=-0.337, p=0.017) and 1-year (r=-0.477, p=0.002) percent LA volume reduction after MV surgery, but LA global strain was not significant.
Left atrial strain as measured by speckle tracking echocardiography might be helpful for predicting the degree of LA fibrosis in patients with MV disease.
Echocardiography; Fibrosis; Left atrium
Ischemic stroke is a common complication of infective endocarditis (IE), occurring in 20-40% of left side IE cases. In these subsets, anticoagulation therapy may provoke hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of ischemic stroke, and complications of this magnitude deteriorate the clinical course for IE patients. However, in cases of IE complicated with a mechanical prosthetic valve, the physician can be concerned over the maintenance of anticoagulation due to the risk of thrombotic complication. According to our retrospective review, HT of ischemic stroke in prosthetic valve endocarditis occurred 13.8% (4/29) of the time in a variety of situations. Some of these even arose in patients with a subtherapeutic range of prothrombin time.
Heart valve prosthesis; Endocarditis; Stroke; Cerebral hemorrhage; Anticoagulants
Pericardiectomy is the standard treatment in patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis who have persistent symptoms. However, myocardial atrophy with prolonged pericardial constriction and abrupt increase in venous return can lead to heart failure with volume overload after pericardial decompression, especially in the right ventricle (RV). We experienced a 44 year old male patient who developed transient RV failure after pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. Echocardiography revealed a markedly dilated RV with decreased peak systolic velocity of the tricuspid annulus, suggesting severe RV dysfunction. After treatment with inotropics and diuretics, a follow-up echocardiography revealed an improved systolic function with decreased RV chamber size. This case demonstrates the importance of volume overload and RV dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy.
Right ventricular dysfunction; Constrictive pericarditis; Pericardiectomy
Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) is caused by a new strain of the influenza virus. The disease has spread rapidly and was declared a pandemic in April, 2009. So far, however, there is a scarcity of information regarding the complications of swine influenza. A report of the disease in the winter of 2009 in the Southern Hemisphere found that the most common manifestations of influenza A virus infection are upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia. Although there may be an association between fulminant myocarditis and Swine influenza, cardiovascular complications resulting from swine Influenza A infection are exceedingly rare. We report a case of acute constrictive pericarditis in a healthy subject infected by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.
Pericarditis, constrictive; Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus
The aim of this study was to determine whether retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic parameters in non-diabetic hypertensive patients. Also, we sought to compare the predictive values of these adipocytokines for IR in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
Materials and Methods
Analyses of RBP4, adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin were performed on 308 non-diabetic hypertensives (148 males, age 58 ± 10 years, 189 non-metabolic syndrome and 119 metabolic syndrome). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for IR, lipid profiles, and anthropometric measure-ments were assessed.
There was no significant difference in RBP4 levels according to the presence of metabolic syndrome, although adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were significantly lower in metabolic syndrome. Correlation analysis of log RBP4 with IR and metabolic indices revealed that there was no significant correlation of RBP4 with waist circumference (r = 0.056, p = 0.324), HDL cholesterol (r = 0.005, p = 0.934), ApoB/ApoAI ratio (r = 0.066, p = 0.270), and the HOMA index (r = 0.017, p = 0.756). However, adiponectin and HMW adiponectin showed significant correlations with the HOMA index (r = - 0.247, p < 0.001; r = - 0.296, p < 0.001) and metabolic parameters. With IR defined as HOMA index ≥ 2.5, HMW adiponectin did not demonstrate a superior predictive value for IR compared to adiponectin (AUC = 0.680 vs. 0.648, p = 0.083). The predictive value of RBP4 for IR was minimal (AUC = 0.534).
RBP4 was not associated with IR or metabolic indices and the predictive value for IR was minimal in hypertensives. HMW adiponectin didn't have a superior predictive value for IR compared to adiponectin. Therefore, we can suggest that RBP4 and HMW adiponectin don't have more additive information than adiponectin in non-diabetic hypertensives.
Retinol-binding proteins; adiponectin; hypertension; insulin resistance
Some patients with nonischemic left ventricular (LV) systolic failure recover to have normal LV systolic function. However, few studies on the rates of recovery and recurrence have been reported, and no definitive indicators that can predict the recurrence of LV dysfunction in recovered idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCMP) patients have been determined. It was hypothesized that patients who recovered from nonischemic LV dysfunction have a substantial risk for recurrent heart failure.
Forty-two patients (32 men) with IDCMP (mean [± SD] age 56.9±8.7 years) who recovered from systolic heart failure (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] of 26.5±6.9% at initial presentation) to a near-normal state (LVEF of 40% or greater, and a 10% increase or greater in absolute value) were monitored for recurrence of LV systolic dysfunction. Patients with significant coronary artery disease were excluded. Patients were monitored for 41.0±26.3 months after recovery (LVEF 53.4±7.6%) from LV dysfunction.
LV systolic dysfunction reappeared (LVEF 27.5±8.1%) during the follow-up period in eight of 42 patients (19.0%). No significant difference between the groups with or without recurrent heart failure was observed in the baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. However, more patients in the recurred IDCMP group than those in the group that maintained the recovery state had discontinued antiheart failure medication (62.5% versus 5.9%, P<0.05).
LV dysfunction recurs in some patients with reversible IDCMP. The recurrence was significantly correlated with the discontinuation of antiheart failure drugs. The results suggest that continuous medical therapy may be mandatory in patients who recover from LV systolic dysfunction.
Congestive heart failure; DCMP; Prognosis
Hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is known to be an adverse prognostic factor for future cardiovascular events and may be associated to endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies regarding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Glu298Asp polymorphism focused upon its relation to hypertension. In this study, we hypothesize that the polymorphism may be associated with inherent difference in endothelial response to exercise.
Patients and Methods
Two hundred sixty nine patients who underwent treadmill test were enrolled in this study; 77 patients (mean age 55.8 ± 9.4 years) had hypertensive response (peak systolic BP of ≥ 210mmHg in men and ≥ 190mmHg in women). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured on 153 patients of them. The Glu298Asp exchange in exon 7 was determined by the methods of single base extension with amplifying primers and probes for TaqMan.
The percentages of the GG, GT and TT genotypes were 81.0, 18.6 and 0.4%, respectively. The presence of GT or TT genotype was independently associated with prevention of HRE when controlled for age, sex, baseline systolic BP and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (OR = 0.35, p = 0.016). Subgroup analysis showed that preventive effect for HRE of T allele was significant in females (p < 0.001) and patients without insulin resistance (p = 0.009).
In our study, eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism was significantly associated with HRE. This result suggests that the presence of T allele of the Glu298Asp polymorphism may be a favorable factor to in preventing HRE, especially in female and patients without insulin resistance.
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase; gene polymorphism; hypertension; hypertensive response to exercise
Contrast-enhanced multi-detector row spiral computed tomography (MDCT) was introduced as a promising noninvasive method for vascular imaging. This study examined the accuracy of this technique for detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. Both MDCT(Sensation 16, Siemens, Germany, 12 × 0.75 mm collimation and 0.42 sec rotation speed, 120 kV, 500 effective mA, and 2.7 mm/rotation table-feed) and invasive coronary angiography (CAG) were performed on 61 patients (mean age 59.2 ± 10, 44 men) who were suspected of having coronary artery disease. All patients were treated with atenolol (25 - 50 mg) prior to imaging and the heart rate was maintained below 65 beats per minutes during image acquisition. The images were reconstructed in the diastole around TI - 400 ms with a 0.5 mm increment and a 1.0 mm thickness. All coronary arteries with a diameter of 2.0 mm or more were assessed for the presence of a stenosis (> 50% luminal narrowing). Two independent radiologists who were unaware of the results of the invasive CAG evaluated the MDCT data, and the results were compared with those from the invasive CAG (interval 1- 27, mean 11 days). An evaluation of the CT coronary angiogram (CTCA) was possible in 58 of the 61 patients (95%). Image acquisition of the major coronary arteries including the left main trunk was available in 229 out of 244 arteries. Invasive CAG showed that 35 out of 58 patients had significant coronary artery stenoses by. patient analysis of those who could be evaluated showed that CT coronary angiography correctly classified 30 out of 35 patients as having at least 1 coronary stenosis (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 91.3%, positive predictive value 93.8%, negative predictive value 80.8%). By analyzing each coronary artery, CAG found 62 stenotic coronary arteries in the 229 coronary arteries that could be evaluated. MDCT correctly detected 50 out of 62 stenotic coronary arteries and an absence of stenosis was correctly identified in 156 out of 167 normal coronary arteries (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 93.4%, positive predictive value 81.9%, negative predictive value 92.8%). The non-invasive technique of MDCT for examining the coronary artery appears to be a useful method for detecting coronary artery stenoses with a high accuracy particularly with the proximal portion and large arteries.
Coronary artery stenoses; computed tomography; imaging; stent; MDCT