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author:("hallgren, R")
1.  The gut–joint axis: cross reactive food antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis 
Gut  2006;55(9):1240-1247.
Background and aims
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often feel there is an association between food intake and rheumatoid disease severity. To investigate a putative immunological link between gut immunity and RA, food antibodies were measured in serum and perfusion fluid from the jejunum of RA patients and healthy controls to determine the systemic and mucosal immune response.
Methods
IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to dietary antigens were measured in serum and jejunal perfusion fluid from 14 RA patients and 20 healthy subjects. The antigens originated from cow's milk (α‐lactalbumin, β‐lactoglobulin, casein), cereals, hen's egg (ovalbumin), cod fish, and pork meat.
Results
In intestinal fluid of many RA patients, all three immunoglobulin classes showed increased food specific activities. Except for IgM activity against β‐lactoglobulin, all other IgM activities were significantly increased irrespective of the total IgM level. The RA associated serum IgM antibody responses were relatively much less pronounced. Compared with IgM, the intestinal IgA activities were less consistently raised, with no significant increase against gliadin and casein. Considerable cross reactivity of IgM and IgA antibodies was documented by absorption tests. Although intestinal IgG activity to food was quite low, it was nevertheless significantly increased against many antigens in RA patients. Three of the five RA patients treated with sulfasalazine for 16 weeks had initially raised levels of intestinal food antibodies; these became normalised after treatment, but clinical improvement was better reflected in a reduced erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Conclusions
The production of cross reactive antibodies is strikingly increased in the gut of many RA patients. Their food related problems might reflect an adverse additive effect of multiple modest hypersensitivity reactions mediated, for instance, by immune complexes promoting autoimmune reactions in the joints.
doi:10.1136/gut.2005.076901
PMCID: PMC1860040  PMID: 16484508
rheumatoid arthritis; intestinal mucosa; food antibodies; inflammation
2.  Cow's milk protein sensitivity assessed by the mucosal patch technique is related to irritable bowel syndrome in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome 
Introduction
Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are reported to have a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms partly attributed to an overrepresentation of celiac disease. We have observed that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms are frequent complaints in this patient group. Allergic manifestations to various drugs are also common in pSS. A role of food allergy in IBS has been proposed.
Objective
This study is aimed at evaluating the mucosal response to rectal challenge with cow's milk protein (CM) in patients with pSS and relates possible CM reactivity to their intestinal symptoms.
Methods
A rectal challenge with CM was performed in 21 patients with pSS and 18 healthy controls. Fifteen hours after challenge the mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) as signs of mucosal inflammatory reaction were measured using the mucosal patch technique.
Results
Eight out of 21 patients with pSS had a definite increase of mucosal NO synthesis and the luminal release of MPO after rectal CM challenge. This sign of milk sensitivity was not linked to IgG/IgA antibodies to milk proteins. The symptoms for IBS according to Rome III criteria were fulfilled in 13 patients. All patients who were CM sensitive suffered from IBS. In a small open study, patients reactive to CM reported an improvement of intestinal symptoms on a CM-free diet.
Conclusion
A rectal mucosal inflammatory response after CM challenge is seen in 38% of patients with pSS as a sign of CM sensitivity. IBS-like symptoms were common in pSS, linked to CM sensitivity.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.02983.x
PMCID: PMC2440347  PMID: 18498540
cow's milk protein; food allergy; irritable bowel syndrome; myeloperoxidase; nitrogen oxide; primary Sjögren's syndrome
3.  Gut mucosal granulocyte activation precedes nitric oxide production: studies in coeliac patients challenged with gluten and corn 
Gut  2005;54(6):769-774.
Background and aims: To elucidate the dynamics of nitric oxide (NO) production induced by rectal gluten challenge and the relation between NO production and mucosal granulocyte activation.
Subjects and methods: Release of rectal NO was measured in 13 patients with coeliac disease and in 18 controls before and after rectal wheat gluten challenge. Rectal gas was collected with a rectal balloon using a newly developed instrument/technique, the “mucosal patch technique”. The instrument allows simultaneous measurements of concentrations of granulocyte mediators in the rectal mucosa. We measured myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and histamine. For comparison, we made similar measurements after corn (maize) gluten challenge.
Results: In all coeliac patients rectal NO concentration increased after gluten challenge and reached a peak after 15 hours (mean 9464 (SEM 2393) parts per billion (ppb); range 250–24982). The maximum MPO and ECP increase occurred five hours after challenge. A correlation was found between mucosal MPO and NO production at 15 hours. Six of the patients showed an increase in NO production 15 hours after rectal corn gluten challenge but this was much smaller than after gluten challenge. No increases were seen in the control group after either challenge.
Conclusion: Mucosal activation of neutrophils and eosinophils precedes pronounced enhancement of mucosal NO production after rectal wheat gluten challenge in patients with coeliac disease. Some of our coeliac patients displayed signs of an inflammatory reaction, as measured by NO and granulocyte markers, after rectal corn gluten challenge.
doi:10.1136/gut.2004.057174
PMCID: PMC1774524  PMID: 15888782
coeliac disease; corn; gluten; nitric oxide; rectal instillation
4.  Clinical and subclinical intestinal inflammation assessed by the mucosal patch technique: studies of mucosal neutrophil and eosinophil activation in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome 
Gut  2004;53(12):1806-1812.
Background and aims: There is a clear need for a rapid, simple, safe, and sensitive method of determining the type and intensity of inflammation in the gut mucosa in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated the potential of a new method, the mucosal patch technique, in patients with and without apparent gut inflammation, as assessed by conventional diagnostic procedures.
Subjects and methods: The technique tested is based on the idea that inflammatory mediators released from the rectal mucosa can be absorbed by and then extracted from cellulose patches brought into contact with the mucosa by use of an instrument with an inflatable balloon. Measurements were performed in healthy controls (n = 16) and in patients with active (n = 19) and inactive ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 8), collagen colitis (CC, n = 12), coeliac disease (n = 13), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 13).
Results: Inflammatory mediators from neutrophils (myeloperoxidase (MPO)) and eosinophils (eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)) were increased on average 300- and 10-fold, respectively, in patients with active UC compared with healthy controls and were correlated with the endoscopic score. Patients with inactive UC, CC, coeliac disease, and IBS exhibited no endoscopic signs of inflammation. These patient groups had significantly lower levels of MPO and ECP than the active UC group but showed on average a four- to sevenfold increase in MPO compared with healthy controls.
Conclusion: The mucosal patch technique was well tolerated by patients and easily applied by the investigator. Pronounced neutrophil and eosinophil involvement in UC was demonstrated. With the high sensitivity of the technique, low degree mucosal neutrophil activation could also be quantified in patients with CC and UC in clinical remission. The finding of increased neutrophil involvement in patients with IBS contributes to the pathophysiological ideas of this disease.
doi:10.1136/gut.2003.036418
PMCID: PMC1774319  PMID: 15542519
inflammatory bowel disease; irritable bowel syndrome; gut pathophysiology; diagnostic instrument
5.  Human neutrophil lipocalin is a unique marker of neutrophil inflammation in ulcerative colitis and proctitis 
Gut  2002;50(4):501-506.
Background and aim: Accumulation and infiltration by neutrophil granulocytes is a prominent feature in the local inflammatory process in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study was performed to evaluate human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) as a specific neutrophil marker in the inflamed lesions of the colon and rectum in patients with colitis and proctitis.
Methods: The activity of intestinal neutrophils with respect to release of granule proteins was studied in 18 patients with UC (10 with colitis and eight with isolated proctitis) and in 18 healthy controls using perfusion fluid and biopsies from the sigmoid colon and rectum. The released amounts of the neutrophil granule proteins HNL and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined by radioimmunoassays, and the location of HNL and MPO in biopsies from colonic mucosa was examined by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Mucosal release of HNL and MPO was increased 10–55-fold in patients with colitis and proctitis compared with controls. Their bowel biopsies demonstrated that only neutrophils were stained with anti-HNL. We also found correlations between HNL and levels of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in perfusion fluids from the sigmoidal segments of patients with proctitis, between HNL and GM-CSF in rectal segments in patients with proctitis, and in sigmoidal segments in patients with colitis.
Conclusion: We conclude that the increased release of HNL and MPO in colorectal perfusion fluids indicates neutrophil involvement in the local inflammatory process, and suggest that HNL may serve as a specific marker of intestinal neutrophil activation in UC. GM-CSF, and to some extent IL-8, may play a role in neutrophil accumulation and priming in this disease.
PMCID: PMC1773167  PMID: 11889070
ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; neutrophils; immunohistochemistry; cytokines
6.  Reconstitution of the alternative pathway of complement by plasma infusions given to a patient with an SLE-like syndrome associated with a hereditary C3 dysfunction. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(10):691-694.
OBJECTIVE--To reconstitute a dysfunctional form of complement factor C3 in a patient with a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like syndrome. METHODS--The propositus was treated with plasma infusions during five sessions over a period of eight months. RESULTS--The alternative pathway was reconstituted to normal levels for approximately two to three days after each infusion. C3 fragments were incorporated into previously detected deposits of IgG and IgM at the dermal-epidermal junction and the immune complex levels gradually decreased during the whole treatment period. CONCLUSION--The reconstitution appears to result in the solubilisation of tissue immune complexes and a subsequent transportation to the fixed macrophage system.
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PMCID: PMC1005438  PMID: 7979584
7.  Phenotypic and functional activation of alveolar macrophages, T lymphocytes and NK cells in patients with systemic sclerosis and primary Sjögren's syndrome. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(9):574-579.
OBJECTIVES--Attempts to differentiate between the pathogenesis of the severe pulmonary manifestations observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and the mild form in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) were performed by studying cell populations recovered during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS AND RESULTS--Two-colour flow cytometric analysis of BAL fluid lymphocytes showed a similar degree of phenotypic activation (DR+) of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets and CD16+ NK cells in patients with SSc (n = 13) and pSS (n = 11) groups and healthy controls (n = 11). Alveolar macrophages expressed the CD14 antigen at significantly increased densities in patients with SSc. Alveolar macrophage activation in SSc was also suggested by increased IL-6 concentrations in neat BAL fluid and increases in macrophage production of TNF alpha and EGF in vitro. SSc patients also had increased proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils in BAL fluid. No correlations were found between any cellular subsets or cytokine levels in BAL fluid and lung status at the time of lavage in SSc or pSS patients or the subsequent course of the pulmonary function in SSc patients. CONCLUSION--It is concluded that the phenotypical activation of alveolar helper/inducer (DR+CD4+) and suppressor/cytotoxic (DR+CD8+) T lymphocytes and NK (DR+CD16+) cells is not a prerequisite for the development of lung fibrosis in SSc or bronchial hyper-responsiveness in pSS. Alveolar macrophage activation may contribute to the development of lung fibrosis in SSc.
PMCID: PMC1005408  PMID: 7979595
8.  Circadian rhythm of serum interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(8):521-524.
OBJECTIVES--To test the hypothesis of a diurnal variation in circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory connective tissue diseases. METHODS--Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured at three hour intervals from 7:30 to 22:30 in 48 patients with different rheumatic diseases as well as ten healthy controls. In four of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, serum IL-6 levels were measured before and after one week of treatment with prednisolone 15-20 mg daily. RESULTS--IL-6 and TNF-alpha could not be detected in serum from healthy controls. However, serum IL-6 levels were substantially increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed a statistically significant circadian variation in levels of IL-6. Peak values appeared in the morning and low values in the afternoon and evening. In contrast, levels were low and stable in other connective tissue diseases. Levels of TNF-alpha were low in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and high in patients with other connective tissue diseases, but without circadian rhythm. After treatment with prednisolone, levels of serum IL-6 decreased significantly, but the circadian rhythm remained. CONCLUSIONS--The circadian rhythm of circulating IL-6 might correspond to the circadian rhythm of symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. The diurnal variation of IL-6, and possibly other cytokines, might explain the conflicting results previously reported on the inter-relationship between circulating IL-6 levels and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC1005392  PMID: 7944637
9.  Response of anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis to treatment with subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(6):747-752.
Eleven patients with chronic inflammatory arthritides and haemoglobin concentrations less than 105 g/l with symptoms from their anaemia were treated with a dose of 250 IU/kg/week of recombinant human erythropoietin for six weeks. The treatment was given as subcutaneous injections five days a week. All patients had active inflammatory disease. Nine patients responded to treatment with an increase in haemoglobin of more than 15 g/l. The mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration increased from 93.0 (8.0) g/l before treatment to 115.0 (12.0) g/l after six weeks. There was no correlation between the initial serum concentration of erythropoietin and the response. It was concluded that anaemia in chronic inflammatory arthritides responds to treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant human erythropoietin.
PMCID: PMC1004739  PMID: 1616357
10.  Deposition of eosinophil cationic protein in vascular lesions in temporal arteritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(12):946-949.
The possible role of the eosinophil and its cytotoxic granule proteins in the vascular lesions seen in temporal arteritis was elucidated. Sixteen sections of biopsy specimens from arteria temporalis showing giant cell arteritis were stained for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by polyclonal antibodies and the immunoperoxidase method. Activated eosinophils were identified by monoclonal antibodies linked to alkaline phosphatase. Activated eosinophils and secreted ECP were seen in all layers of the inflamed vessels and were most evident in necrotic lesions and thrombi. Only a small number of granulocytes seen in the adventitia were immunoreactive for cathepsin G, and no extracellular deposits of this neutrophil granule protein were seen. A few immunoreactive eosinophils were found in the adventitia in two of five negative temporal artery biopsy specimens from patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. All eight coronary artery biopsy specimens with atherosclerotic lesions showed no activated eosinophils or secreted ECP. These findings indicate that eosinophils are involved in the vascular lesion in temporal arteritis and suggest that cytotoxic eosinophil granule proteins may contribute to the necrotic lesions and the development of thrombi.
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PMCID: PMC1004589  PMID: 1768167
11.  Neutrophil function in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: relation to infection propensity. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(10):685-690.
The function of neutrophils was studied in 23 consecutive patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 35 healthy controls. Nineteen patients (83%) had extraglandular symptoms and nine patients (39%) had recurrent bacterial infections. The patients had a marked reduction of neutrophil adherence, especially those with recurrent bacterial infections, and reduced opsonic activity of plasma. Increased random migration of isolated neutrophils was found in the patients with a propensity for bacterial infections. Chemotaxis and chemokinesis, phagocytosis, chemiluminescence production, and the intracellular neutrophil contents of lactoferrin and lysozyme were normal. The various aspects of neutrophil function tested in this study were not related to disease duration or to inflammatory disease activity. The impaired neutrophil adherence may play a part in the increased propensity for bacterial infections seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1004531  PMID: 1958091
12.  Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritides. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(10):669-672.
As nucleotide catabolism increases during tissue injury the appearance of purine metabolites in inflamed synovial fluid might be of value in understanding the joint damage in inflammatory arthritides. In this study, therefore, synovial and plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (three with psoriatic arthropathy) were analysed. It was found that their plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine were greater than those of a reference group of healthy subjects. The synovial fluid concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate were higher than corresponding concentrations in plasma. Positive correlations were found between the respective plasma and synovial fluid values of xanthine and urate. These findings indicate a local enhanced purine metabolism in inflamed joint tissue and diffusion of oxypurines from joint cavity to plasma. No relation was found between measured metabolites and disease duration, radiological joint findings, or synovial fluid cells. Except for a weak correlation between plasma urate and serum haptoglobin, measured purine metabolites were not related to laboratory measures of systemic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1004526  PMID: 1958086
13.  Enumeration of IgA producing cells by the enzyme linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique to evaluate sulphasalazine effects in inflammatory arthritides. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(6):369-371.
Numbers of IgA producing cells in peripheral blood were determined by the enzyme linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique in 15 patients with inflammatory arthritides receiving sulphasalazine treatment. The numbers of IgA producing cells decreased significantly after the first three weeks of treatment. In 11 of the patients this decrease persisted, whereas a subsequent increase was seen in the four others; in two of these latter patients this increase coincided with a temporary withdrawal of the sulphasalazine treatment. A reduction of serum concentrations of IgA and haptoglobin was seen after three months' treatment. Eleven of the patients had a subjective improvement in their joint disease during the first three months of treatment. Analysis of circulating cells committed for IgA secretion may constitute one way of assessing gut associated immunity indirectly, and the present data suggest that sulphasalazine has a rapid effect on lymphocytes possibly originating from the gut and that such an effect precedes improvement in laboratory parameters and clinical symptoms in arthritic diseases.
PMCID: PMC1004439  PMID: 1676256
14.  Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. 
The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Spirometrically 29% (6/21) of the patients had 'small airways' disease', and all those had BHR. Of 6/21 (29%) who had diffuse interstitial lung disease, two had BHR. Three of the four patients with obstructive lung function were challenged with methacholine and two of them had BHR. Only two patients with BHR had normal spirometry findings. The data showed that respiratory disease--mostly mild or moderate but even severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness--is commonly seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1004322  PMID: 1994866
15.  Neutrophil mucosal involvement is accompanied by enhanced local production of interleukin-8 in ulcerative colitis. 
Gut  1993;34(9):1203-1206.
The concentration of myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil granule constituent, was measured in the perfusion fluid from sigmoid and rectal segments in patients with ulcerative colitis. The concentrations of myeloperoxidase were increased severalfold in the patients with ulcerative colitis compared with healthy controls pointing to an enhanced neutrophil activity. The release of myeloperoxidase correlated to an enhanced local release of the neutrophil activating peptide interleukin-8 (IL-8). Increased values of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were also found during intestinal perfusion of the patients and correlated with those of IL-8. The results obtained are compatible with the hypothesis that local mucosal recruitment/activation of neutrophils in ulcerative colitis is mediated by an enhanced IL-8 synthesis. TNF-alpha may be one relevant factor as a stimulus to IL-8 synthesis.
PMCID: PMC1375454  PMID: 8406154
16.  Increase in activated T cells and reduction in suppressor inducer T cells in systemic sclerosis. 
Blood lymphocytes from 37 patients with systemic sclerosis were characterised using monoclonal antibodies in a two colour flow cytometric (fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS)) analysis. The ratio of helper CD4+ to suppressor/cytotoxic CD8+ T cells was raised in patients compared with that in 30 healthy controls owing to decreased CD8+ cells. In the patients CD4+ and CD8+ cells displayed an increased expression of the activation marker HLA-DR. The relative number of CD11b+ CD8+ lymphocytes (suppressor T cells) was normal, but the calculated absolute counts of this cell type were slightly reduced. The proportions and absolute numbers of suppressor inducer T cells, defined as CD45R+ CD4+ cells, were on average only half the levels observed in controls. These findings were not related to the inflammatory activity as measured by acute phase plasma proteins or serum immunoglobulins. Activated T cells were seen at all stages of the sclerotic process and especially during the early stages of the disease and in patients who had suffered occupational exposure to silica dust. A high proportion of activated T cells was also linked with impaired small intestine function but not with the degree of skin or lung involvement. A loss of suppressor inducer T cells was more pronounced later in the disease and in patients with the CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) syndrome. These data provide further evidence for an involvement of T cell mediated immunity in the perpetuation of systemic sclerosis.
PMCID: PMC1003962  PMID: 2138008
17.  Hyaluronan and type III procollagen peptide concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 
Thorax  1989;44(2):126-131.
The connective tissue components hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) and type III procollagen peptide were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 22 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 21 healthy control subjects. The patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had higher concentrations of hyaluronan (median 46 micrograms/l) and type III procollagen peptide (median 0.45 micrograms/l) than the healthy controls (9 and less than 0.02 micrograms/l; p less than 0.001). The patients had normal serum concentrations of hyaluronan and of the procollagen peptide, and albumin concentrations in lavage fluid similar to those of the control subjects. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in lavage fluid were increased on average 10 and two fold respectively in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and both correlated with the amount of hyaluronan recovered (p less than 0.05). An inverse correlation was seen between the transfer factor for carbon monoxide and hyaluronan concentrations in lavage fluid in the patients (p less than 0.05). Deterioration in lung function and radiographic progression were seen over six months in 12 of the patients. These patients had higher lavage fluid concentrations of hyaluronan and type III procollagen peptide than the patients whose disease was stable (p less than 0.01). Increased synthesis of hyaluronan and type III procollagen peptide in lung parenchyma may reflect activation or proliferation (or both) of pulmonary fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and seems to be linked to the severity and activity of the lung disease.
PMCID: PMC461712  PMID: 2928996
18.  Effect of intrajejunal elemental diet perfusion on jejunal secretion of immunoglobulins, albumin, and hyaluronan in man. 
Gut  1992;33(1):44-47.
The aim of this work was to study the jejunal secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig), albumin, and hyaluronan in response to jejunal perfusion of an elemental diet. A four lumen tube with a proximal occluding balloon at the angle of Treitz was used for jejunal perfusion in seven healthy volunteers (mean age 23 years). The length of the test segment was 40 cm. The jejunum was successively perfused with a control electrolyte solution for 80 minutes and with an elemental diet (containing 20.5 milligrams of free amino acids and 104.2 milligrams of oligosaccharides) for 100 minutes. The jejunal fluid concentrations of albumin, IgG, monomeric IgA (m-IgA), polymeric IgA (p-IgA), IgM, secretory component, and hyaluronan were measured and their jejunal outputs calculated. Within 20 minutes of starting perfusion with the elemental diet there was a significant increase in the secretion rates of albumin (x3.3), IgG (x5), M-IgA (x3.7), p-IgA (x2), IgM (x2), and secretory component (x1.6), but the hyaluronan secretion rate was not changed. The increase in m-IgA, p-IgA, IgM, and secretory component output suggests that intestinal perfusion of an elemental diet results in stimulation of secretory immunity. The increase in albumin and IgG output probably reflects a nutrient induced leakage from the plasma compartment.
PMCID: PMC1373863  PMID: 1740276
19.  Accumulation of hyaluronan and tissue edema in experimental myocardial infarction. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;88(5):1622-1628.
Experimental myocardial infarction was induced in rats. The myocardial accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) and water during the development of infarction was measured. The extractable HA content of the infarcted area increased progressively from day 1 and on day 3 reached a threefold increase compared with the HA amounts in myocardium of sham operated controls. The relative water content of infarcted areas also increased progressively reaching a maximum value by day 3 and was strongly correlated with the HA accumulation. Affinity histochemistry visualized a thin rim of HA in the endoperimysium in healthy myocardium. By day 2 an interstitial edema with inflammatory cells was apparent. The widened endoperimysium stained extensively for HA. By its water-binding ability, interstitial accumulation of HA will contribute to the interstitial edema in infarcted myocardial tissue. An interstitial edema is likely to influence the electromechanical characteristics of the myocardium and facilitate reentry phenomena due to a loss of contact between muscle cells. The edema also induces an increased extracellular pressure and an altered myocardial wall compliance that might impair myocardial microcirculation. The findings are relevant to an understanding of the beneficial effect of hyaluronidase treatment in limiting cellular damage during myocardial ischemia.
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PMCID: PMC295686  PMID: 1939649
20.  Localisation of hyaluronan in the human intestinal wall. 
Gut  1991;32(7):760-762.
By using biotin labelled proteoglycan core protein and an avidin enzyme system, hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) was visualised in specimens of human jejunum. Intense staining for hyaluronan was seen in the loose connective tissue of the villi and of lamina propria while the epithelial layer was unstained. The muscularis mucosae showed only faint staining. The accumulation of hyaluronan in the subepithelial layer of the jejunal mucosa indicates that the previously reported high jejunal secretion of hyaluronan is due to passive diffusion from the subepithelial interstitium. The physicochemical characteristics conferred by hyaluronan may be important for the villi function.
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PMCID: PMC1378991  PMID: 1713183
21.  Predictive value of bronchoalveolar lavage cell analysis in sarcoidosis. 
Thorax  1988;43(4):284-288.
Patients with histopathologically proved sarcoidosis were studied serially by means of bronchoalveolar lavage, initially at the time of diagnosis and then six and 12 months later. Two years later they were evaluated by chest radiography and lung function tests and classified in terms of recovery or progression over the previous two years. The recovery of lymphocytes and granulocytes in lavage fluid was of limited prognostic value for persistent lung disease. In contrast, patients with increased numbers of mast cells recovered by lavage were more likely to deteriorate. Significantly increased mast cell counts (greater than or equal to 0.5% of total cells recovered) were seen in at least one lavage investigation in 15 of the 16 patients with more active and progressive disease, but in only eight of 23 patients with inactive disease (p less than 0.001). A persistent increase of mast cells on serial measurement occurred in nine of the 16 patients with active disease and in four of the 23 patients in whom the disease was inactive (p less than 0.02). The finding in the two subsequent lavages of lymphocytosis (lymphocytes greater than 30% of recovered cells) or neutrophilia (neutrophils greater than 15%) combined with mastocytosis (mast cells greater than or equal to 0.5%) occurred in nine of the 16 patients with active disease but in no patients with inactive disease.
PMCID: PMC461214  PMID: 3406915
22.  Cell recovery during segmental intestinal perfusion in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn's disease. 
Gut  1991;32(2):170-173.
The recovery of cells arising from small intestinal mucosa alone was studied during continuous perfusion of a closed segment of jejunum. The perfusion technique minimised the contamination of the perfused segment with, for example, proteolytic enzymes from pancreas, allowing recovery of viable cells. The use of hyaluronidase in the perfusion fluid increased the recovery of cells fivefold, the median recovery being 8 x 10(6) cells. The cells were analysed with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Nearly all cells (98-99%) recovered during perfusion of healthy control subjects and patients with Crohn's disease were epithelial cells. The jejunal cells expressed HLA-DR in similar proportions--around 30%--in patients and control subjects. The ratio between CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was similar (0.2) in control subjects and patients with inactive Crohn's disease but decreased (0.03) in patients with active Crohn's disease in the ileum.
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PMCID: PMC1378802  PMID: 1677908
23.  Circulating inhibitor bound elastase in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis and the influence of sulphasalazine treatment. 
The plasma concentration of granulocyte elastase in complex with alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor was determined in 42 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significantly raised levels of plasma elastase were found in patients with RA, whereas patients with AS had normal values. No correlation was seen between the elastase values and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum haptoglobin, immunoglobulins, or polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) count in either of the patient groups. A correlation was found between the Ritchie index and plasma elastase in patients with RA. After three months' treatment with sulphasalazine a clinical improvement was seen and this paralleled a reduction of the acute phase reaction in both patient groups. A reduction of the circulating elastase values was seen in the patients with RA, whereas no change was seen in patients with AS.
PMCID: PMC1003435  PMID: 2894204
24.  Raised circulating levels of the eosinophil cationic protein in ankylosing spondylitis: relation with the inflammatory activity and the influence of sulphasalazine treatment. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1987;46(5):403-407.
The possibility of eosinophil involvement in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was investigated by measuring serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a specific granule constituent of eosinophils. In a group of 48 patients with AS we found a threefold increase of the mean serum levels of ECP compared with a reference group (p less than 0.001). The blood eosinophil counts were similar in patients and controls. A correlation was found between ECP and inflammatory activity defined by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum haptoglobin. Fifteen patients were studied before and after three months' treatment with sulphasalazine (2-3 g/day). The ECP levels decreased in 13/15 and this paralleled reduction of the acute phase reaction and improvement of clinical parameters. The results point to eosinophil activation as part of the inflammatory process in AS. The signs of reduced eosinophil activation during sulphasalazine treatment suggest either a drug mediated, direct effect on eosinophils or an effect on the inflammatory mechanism stimulating eosinophils.
PMCID: PMC1002150  PMID: 2884933
25.  Accumulation of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in myocardial interstitial tissue parallels development of transplantation edema in heart allografts in rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1990;85(3):668-673.
By using biotin-labeled proteoglycan core protein, hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) was visualized in rat heart grafts at different times (2, 4, and 6 d) after transplantation. In normal, nontransplanted hearts HA was present in the adventitia of arteries and veins and in the myocardial interstitial tissue. An increased accumulation of HA was evident in the edematous interstitial tissue, infiltrated with lymphocytes, on day 4 after allogeneic transplantation, and was even more pronounced by day 6. No apparent increase in HA was seen in syngeneic grafts. Biochemical assay of HA in heart tissue demonstrated that the myocardial content of HA had increased 60% by day 2 after transplantation in allogeneic as well as syngeneic grafts, indicating that surgical trauma may induce some HA accumulation in heart grafts. The extractable amount of HA declined during the following days in the syngeneic grafts, but increased progressively during the development of rejection in the allogeneic grafts, and increased on average three times by day 6. The relative water content also increased progressively during rejection of allogeneic grafts and correlated with the HA accumulation. The interstitial accumulation of HA, a glycosaminoglycan with unique water-binding qualities, is presumably implicated in the development of interstitial edema during rejection of heart grafts.
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PMCID: PMC296481  PMID: 2312720

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